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Depleting Body Image:
The Effects of Female Magazine Models on the Self-esteem and Body Image of College-age Women
Influence of Magazines on College-Age Females’ Body Image
Millions of women every day are bombarded with the media’s idea of the “perfect” body. These unrealistic images are portrayed in women’s magazines all over the country. The message being sent to women is that they are not pretty or skinny enough. The average American woman is 5’4” and weighs 140 pounds, while the average American model is 5’11” and weighs 117 pounds. Annually, magazine companies spend billions of dollars on diet and exercise advertisements to put in their magazines. Magazines sell body dissatisfaction to their readers through unrealistic images of women, as well as dieting and exercise information. Thirty years ago, Marilyn Monroe, a size 14, had the “ideal” body shape and size, but today’s standard is much smaller. As the beauty ideal continues to get smaller in our society, body image within American women continues to plummet. Magazines portray and compare happiness with being thin; therefore some feel if they are not thin, then they are not happy. As with women of all ages, many college-age women are believed to hold unrealistic ideals of body shape and size, ideals that can be both physically and emotionally unhealthy.
Our study, focused on women who attend the University of Wisconsin-Madison that are between the ages of eighteen and twenty-four. We wanted to identify the specific effects that the magazine portrayal of the “perfect” body has on college-age women’s body image and self-esteem. We hypothesized that this portrayal contributes to women having negative body images and self-esteem due to the reinforcement of body shapes and sizes in magazines that are unrealistic for most women to attain. In our study we defined body image as the subjective concept of one’s physical appearance based on self-observation and the reaction of others. We defined self-esteem as the positive and negative evaluations people have of themselves. The purpose of this study was to test the influence of women’s health/fitness and beauty/fashion magazines on a woman’s perception of her body through several distinct methods.
The first method used to collect data was a survey administered to forty college-age women around the UW-Madison campus. The survey focused on body image, self-esteem and thoughts about magazines. The second method used was an observation, consisting of four groups of two college-age women who were asked to discuss their feelings and attitudes toward a fashion/beauty magazine and a health/fitness magazine. The third method conducted was in-depth interviews of four college-age women using extensive questions to gain additional information on whether college-age women are affected by the magazine industry’s culture of thinness. The fourth method was an experiment using twelve college-age women who were divided into three separate groups with each group being assigned one of three magazines: a health/fitness magazine, a beauty/fashion magazine or a news magazine. After reading the magazines, the women were given a survey very similar to the one used in method one. The four methods combined allowed us to address our hypothesis that college-age women have negative body images and self-esteem due to the culture of thinness which the magazine industry portrays to women. Several examples of prior research on this topic provided additional context for study.
Cusumano and Thompson (1997) examine the relative influences of media exposure, awareness of societal pressures regarding appearance and internalization of this socio-culture pressure on body image, eating disturbance and self-esteem in “Body Image and body shape ideals in magazines: Exposure, awareness and internalization.” The college-age women were surveyed through seven questionnaires for the type of magazines they read, along with the time spent reading each magazine. The overall body shapes and breast sizes that were promoted in these magazines were then identified and quantified. They found it was important to use the body and breast variables separately. Cusumano and Thompson also found a distinct lack of a relationship between exposure to body size ideals and measures of body satisfaction, eating disturbance, self-esteem and one’s own actual degree of obesity. Internalization of social norms of appearance accounted for significant and substantial variance, whereas exposure was not.
Thomsen’s (2002) study “Health and Beauty Magazine Reading and Body Shape concerns among a group of college women,” proposed testing a structural equation model which incorporates several mediating processes through which beauty/fashion, health/fitness magazines might influence the college-age female’s fear of being fat. He explores the potential direct and indirect effects of two additional mediating influences: “hope and the internalized belief that men expect women to be thin.” Three key findings emerge from this study. The first is women’s belief about men’s preferences or expectations for female thinness were the strongest predictor of body shape and size concerns. Although two types of magazines were studied, only health and fitness magazine readings were directly linked to body shape and size concerns. Finally, hope was not influenced by the reading, expected future weight gain and loss, and body shape and size concerns; this finding was not anticipated.
Turner, Hamilton, Jacobs, Angood and Dwyer’s (1997) study “The influence of fashion magazines on the body image satisfaction of college women: An exploratory analysis” is an experimental study with a sample of thirty-nine undergraduate women who were randomly assigned to two different treatments. One treatment was to view a fashion magazine and the other to view a news magazine. After viewing was completed, both treatments took a body image survey. The women assigned to the fashion magazine treatment indicated a lower self-image than the women assigned to the news magazine treatment. Although the two groups of women in the study did not differ significantly in height or weight, those who read fashion magazines prior to completing a body image satisfaction survey desired to weigh less and perceived themselves more negatively than did those who read news magazines. Exposure to fashion magazines was related to women’s greater preoccupation with being thin, dissatisfaction with their bodies, frustration about weight, and fear about deviating from the thin standard.
Rabak-Wagener, Eickhoff-Shemek, and Kelly-Vance (1998) studied the effects of unrealistic body shapes in magazines on college-age women in “The Effect of Media Analysis and Behaviors regarding Body Image Among College Students.” They also sought to discover whether or not a media analysis program helped young women change their attitudes and beliefs about body image. The fist method they used was a survey to measure respondents’ beliefs and behaviors regarding fashion-advertising images. After the survey, the large group was then split into a comparison and an intervention group. The intervention group participated in a 6.5-hour program analyzing, critiquing, and learning about the fashion industry and their methods of advertising. After the program both groups were surveyed again. On the pre-test there was no significant difference between the intervention and comparison groups. On the post-test, however, students in the intervention group reported significant changes in their perceptions of body image while the comparison group reported no significant changes. This study and its findings are important because they suggest that magazines do influence the way women feel about their bodies. The study is also somewhat encouraging because it suggests that media analysis can be a valuable tool in changing college-age women’s beliefs about the ideal body.
Marian Morry and Sandra Staska’s (2001) “Magazine exposure: internalization, self-objectification, eating attitudes and body satisfaction in male and female university students,” studies the relationship between magazines and people’s body image. The study emphasizes social and cultural pressure toward thinness in women through media portrayal of the ideal female body. The study used 150 university students, which were tested by giving them equal exposure to magazines, a questionnaire and interviews on their eating habits, recognition of socio-cultural attitudes, and body shape. The study’s main findings were that media exposure to the “ideal” form is being internalized. The exposure is related to problematic eating patterns, self-objectification and body shame.
Our hypothesis concerning the effects of magazines correlates with the results of the previous studies. Our goal was to prove that college-age women’s body image and self-esteem are negatively affected by the magazine industry’s portrayal of thinness. We began our data collection with a survey of forty college-age women around the UW-Madison campus.
Analyzing the Survey Data: The Significance of the Statistics Behind the Respondents Answers
Our first method was a survey using availability sampling designed to ask college-age women questions regarding their body image and self-esteem in relation to the magazines that they read. We collected forty surveys around the UW-Madison campus from women between the ages of eighteen and twenty-four. Approximately eighty five percent of the women surveyed were white and the majority of the women were twenty-one years of age. Most of the women perceived themselves as average weight. The survey included five questions regarding the respondents’ demographics and twenty-five questions concerning their body image and self-esteem related to magazine depictions. Our goal for this survey was to get an understanding of how the magazines’ influence shapes the women’s attitude pertaining to her body image and self-esteem. We hypothesized that the way in which a magazine depiction will affect a woman is dependent upon the way in which she feels about her body in general. Table One (see Appendix A) displays the questions that were asked in the survey, the mean response and the significant frequencies discovered by the answers from the respondents.
Frequency Analysis
The frequency analysis provides information on the percentages of answers to each question. Some interesting findings provided by the frequency analysis are: the majority of women were between 5’3” and 5’8” and 110-149lbs. The percentage of respondents who were sometimes or often happy with their body shape or size was seventy-five percent. Over half, sixty percent, of women rarely or never felt that their body was “normal” compared to magazine body depictions. A significant amount, ninety-three percent, of women rarely or never believe that magazines portray normal body images for women. Approximately forty-three percent of the respondents sometimes to always feel that female models in magazines have the ideal body shape and size. Of our respondents, seventy-three percent sometimes or always feel that they would be more attractive if they look like a magazine model. Even though seventy-three percent rarely or never feel that it would be good for their health if their body size and shape were similar to those of fashion models, fifty-five percent would feel more satisfied if their body looked more like a magazine model. Out of the forty women surveyed, sixty-eight percent of women often or always think about their body. An overwhelming, seventy percent of the respondents sometimes or always have negative thoughts about their body. (See Table 1 for significant frequency values). This data shows that although our respondents do not see models as normal size they do believe that the models have ideal shape and size.
Average Responses
The means are presented in Table Two. One group of our respondents reported that they always feel that models have the ideal body shape and size. This same group reported that they are only sometimes happy with their own body shape and size. The respondents also said that they often to always make decisions about dieting and exercise based on looks, not health. They also reported that they always think about their bodies, and often to always have negative thoughts about their bodies.
Another notable group are those respondents who reported that they always feel that they would be more attractive if their bodies looked more like those of magazine models. This group reported that they perceive themselves as overweight, are rarely happy with their bodies, and always make decisions about dieting and exercise based on looks. As with the previously noted group, they also said that they often think about their bodies, and often have negative thoughts about their bodies.
A final group worth noting is the respondents who said that female magazine models always affect their body image. This group reported that they are rarely to sometimes happy with their body shape and size, always thinking about their bodies, and often to always have negative thoughts about their bodies.
The mean responses suggest that those respondents who reported that magazines always affect them are more likely to be negatively affected by the magazines. The respondents, who reported that they always felt that magazines portrayed ideal images, or always felt that they would be more attractive if they looked more like magazine models, were more likely to report in having low body image and self-esteem. This finding suggests that while magazine models do not affect all women; those who are affected indicate that it is detrimental to their body image and self-esteem. Overall, these findings coincide with the hypothesis that magazines negatively affect the body image of college-age women, but also suggest that there is only a select group of people who are affected by them. (See Table Two, Appendix A)
Descriptive Analysis
The descriptive analysis shows the means and standard deviations of each question in our study. It is not obvious from this specific analysis whether the information is significant in relation to the affects of magazines. The means portion suggests that the small population which we sampled seems to be very confident about their body image and self esteem. (Refer back to Table One for full information).
Cross tabs
How do you perceive yourself versus how magazines affect you:
Table 3: Cross tab 1 How respondent perceives herself | How magazines affect respondent | | Never | Rarely | Sometimes | Often | Always | Total | Underweight | 2 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2 | Average weight | 9 | 8 | 7 | 7 | 0 | 31 | Overweight | 0 | 0 | 3 | 2 | 2 | 7 | Total | 11 | 8 | 10 | 9 | 2 | 40 |
Our study found that the majority of women perceived themselves as average weight. The women that fell into that group reported that they sometimes or often felt they would be more attractive if their bodies looked more like the bodies of female models in magazines. However, the majority from that same group reported that they never or rarely exercise in order to look more like models in magazines. While there was a large of spread in the number of women who perceived themselves as average in relation to how often magazines caused the respondents to have negative feelings about themselves, there was a definite correlation for women who perceived themselves as either underweight or overweight.
Of the women who reported themselves as underweight, all reported that women in magazines never negatively affect them. Of the women who reported themselves as overweight, all reported that they are sometimes, often, or always negatively affected by these images. These correlations show that women who perceive themselves as overweight, along with some women who perceive themselves as average weight, are generally less comfortable with the way they look in relation to the body depictions of models in magazines. (See Table Three for exact values).
How often you think that female models in magazines have the ideal body shape versus how magazines affect you:
Table 4: Cross tab 2 Think female models in magazines have the ideal body shape and size | How magazines affect respondent | | Never | Rarely | Sometimes | Often | Always | Total | Never | 5 | 1 | 1 | 3 | 1 | 11 | Rarely | 2 | 3 | 6 | 1 | 0 | 12 | Sometimes | 3 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 0 | 9 | Often | 1 | 1 | 1 | 2 | 0 | 5 | Always | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 3 | Total | 11 | 8 | 10 | 9 | 2 | 40 | There was a definite correlation between how often the respondent felt that female models in magazines have the ideal body shape and how often the respondent felt that they would be more attractive if they more closely resembled female models. The majority of women who never thought that magazine models portrayed the ideal body shape also never felt that they would be more attractive if they looked more like female models in magazines, and the reverse is also true.
However, there was more variation among the data in relation to how often the respondent exercises in order to look more like magazine models. Of the respondents who indicated that they never felt that women in magazines had the ideal shape, the frequency of exercising in order to look more women in magazines ranged from never to always.
Similarly, responses for how often the respondent felt that female models in magazines have the ideal body shape versus how often magazines caused negative feelings about one’s body were wide-ranging. There was no clear correlation between never thinking that models have the ideal shape and never feeling bad about one’s body. These correlations suggest that while some women thought that magazine models did not have the ideal body shape, they still took steps to look like them. (See Table Four).
Frequency of negative thoughts about your body versus how magazines affect you:
Table 5: Cross tab 3 Frequency of negative thoughts about body | How magazines affect respondent | | Never | Rarely | Sometimes | Often | Always | Total | Never | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | Rarely | 3 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 0 | 9 | Sometimes | 3 | 4 | 2 | 2 | 1 | 12 | Often | 4 | 1 | 6 | 5 | 0 | 16 | Always | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 2 | Total | 11 | 8 | 10 | 9 | 2 | 40 | Our study shows a clear correlation between the frequency of negative thoughts and how often the respondent felt that she would be more attractive if she looked more like a female model. The more often the respondent had negative thoughts about her body, the more often she felt like she would be more attractive if she looked more like a model. The same correlation was true for the frequency of negative thoughts and the frequency of exercising in order to look more like models. The same correlation was also true for the frequency of negative thoughts and the frequency of magazines causing negative feelings about one’s body. These correlations show that the effect of magazines on the respondents was dependent upon body image in general. (See Table Five)
Discussion
The majority of the population sampled in method one was of average weight and had medium to high self-esteem. The data that we found in this method showed that magazine models do not directly affect most college-age women who are confident about their body shape and size. Additionally, those women who were unhappy with their body shape and size often felt negatively about their bodies and wanted to look more like the models portrayed in magazines. Our study showed a clear correlation between the frequency of negative body image and self-esteem and wanting to have a body similar to that of a model. Due to the majority of women feeling confident in their body, the data we received did not correlate with our hypothesis. In order to get a more detailed analysis, our research group went on to perform an observational study consisting of eight college-age women.
Imprints Left Behind by Magazines: An Analysis between College-Age Women
The second research method used in our study on college-age women’s body image and self-esteem was an observational study. Four sets of two college-age women, between eighteen and twenty-four years old and from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, were asked to sit down and look at two different magazines, Self and Cosmopolitan. Self is a health and fitness magazine that includes articles concerning nutrition, exercising, and other related topics. Cosmopolitan is a fashion and beauty magazine that includes articles concerning sex, dieting and exercising, the latest fashion, and other related topics. The women were asked to comment as they paged through the magazine on anything that stood out to them. Each session was tape recorded and dictated upon completion of the session.
Session #1- Ariel1 and Christina
People have many different reactions when looking at magazines. When looking at the Self and Cosmopolitan magazines, Ariel, twenty-one and average weight, and Christina’s, twenty-one and slightly overweight, reactions did not fit with what we had hypothesized women would feel when looking at a magazine. Ariel and Christina did feel that they should look sexier and have a boyfriend, but they felt that the magazines have unrealistic ideals of how a woman should look. When looking at Cosmopolitan, they remarked on an article concerning a competition for a new model, that the women all had the same body shape and size. Ariel and Christina both believe that many of the models look like Barbie and it is unrealistic for there to be four women who look the identical. Self magazine shows many different ways to exercise and eat healthy but at the end of the magazine, Ariel points out, that there are about five pages of dieting pills advertising. Ariel also points out that the magazines talk about exercising and being thin but then describes the dangers in dieting. The women feel the magazines are very contradictory regarding how a woman should act when trying to change her body shape and size. The magazines have many advertisements for shaving and make-up to show how a woman should look in our society. After reading Cosmopolitan, Ariel felt like she wanted “to have sex more, get drunk more and be really skinny,” which is not how she felt after reading Self magazine. She felt that Self is not a good health magazine because it has the same amount of make-up ads that Cosmopolitan has and still focused on being really skinny. Christina felt that Self did not have very many health articles and was just a fashion/beauty magazine but nonetheless tried to characterize itself as a health/fitness magazine because it had “two more exercise tips.”
Session #2- Maria and Jackie
Maria and Jackie, both twenty-four and overweight, chose to first look through Cosmopolitan magazine. Maria and Jackie pointed out numerous ads in which the female model stood out to them. With comments such as this one by Maria: “This girl is way too thin, she looks unhealthy.” The two women were very offended by several of the models. Maria and Jackie questioned exactly what each ad was trying to sell or convey to the readers of the magazine, as several of the ads showed a nearly-naked model posed in a provocative way. Maria and Jackie took note that the models’ body shapes were, in their minds, not a natural shape, and in turn looked unhealthy because they look unnatural. While the major focus for Maria and Jackie was on the extreme thinness of the models, they also commented on other aspects of the female models: breast size, hairstyle, and makeup. Although Maria and Jackie seemed to reject the thinness of the models, they did seem to accept and even desire other aspects of the models, such as: breast size and hairstyle; perhaps suggesting that focus has been shifted away from strictly thinness and has poured over into other sectors of body image.
Maria and Jackie then switched to Self magazine. They seemed to be more accepting of the female models in this magazine. Jackie said: “These girls seem a lot more ‘normal-sized,’ probably because it is a fitness magazine, telling you how to be strong, rather than a beauty magazine telling you how to look pretty”. Their comments really focused in on this point, saying again and again that the models looked a lot “healthier, and more normal.” Most of the comments were generally positive. The women summed up by saying, Self is a better influence on women because of the number of ads and feature articles that depicted women as being strong and lean, rather than bony and skinny as in Cosmopolitan.
Session #3- Belle and Jasmine
Belle and Jasmine, twenty and twenty-four both of who are average weight, began their session by reading Cosmopolitan. They described some of the models as being a little too “chubby” or not skinny enough, even though, by all standards, the models were very thin. When the two women were looking at a picture in Cosmopolitan of a very thin actress (Sarah Jessica Parker), one of the girls remarked, “Every time I see a picture of her I never want to eat for the rest of the week.” When the girls moved on to Self magazine, they started comparing the models in this magazine to those in the previous magazine. Although most of their comments could not be applied to this study, the girls did say that they thought that the models portrayed in the second magazine seemed to be healthier and have more realistic body shapes and sizes.
Session #4- Haley and Robin
Haley, twenty-two and average weight, and Robin, twenty-three and overweight, first looked over Self. The women commented on the diet pill advertisements and how they were contradictory to the fitness, exercise and health food programs in the magazine. Many times during the session the girls commented on how unrealistic many of the advertisements in the magazine were. Haley commented on a woman riding a bicycle in her tennis shoes (which they were trying to sell) wearing her bikini, “how many girls do you know that ride a bicycle in just their tennis shoes and bikini?” The girls went on to discuss the exercise tips and how, realistically, a woman weighing 300 lbs could not lose weight by doing the exercises in the magazine. Although Robin admits she uses the exercise tips, both women felt the exercise programs were designed for women who were already skinny. The girls were very critical of the magazine; however, they did say some positive things about the exercise and the food tips.
Next, Haley and Robin looked at Cosmopolitan. The women discussed how throughout the magazine there were half-naked skinny models getting touched or ogled by men. The women stated that in real life, “some men like a woman that has a good body but that is not the only thing men look for.” Haley went on to state how even though they know men look for more than just a skinny body, they also wish they could be skinny.
Discussion
Our observational study suggests that college-age women feel that the body shape of female models in magazines is an unnatural, and even unhealthy shape; which coincides with the results from method one. Our survey used in method one found that most college-age women never feel as if magazine models have the ideal body shape, but we also found that despite this, many college-age women still strive to attain this unrealistic ideal. The women in our observations were split between the magazines, Ariel and Christina believed that Self was worse than Cosmopolitan for body image because the magazine is supposed to help women lose weight in a healthy way but they have many advertisements for diet pills. Maria, Jackie, Belle and Jasmine believed that Self shows more realistic and natural views of women. Our next method consisted of conducting interviews in order to ask participants if this previous finding is truly the case, given that our observation shows that a models’ body shape and size is not ideal.
Body Image on the Personal Level: Interviewing College-Age Women on Their Thoughts, Feelings, and Reactions to Magazines
For a third perspective on this project, in-depth interviews were conducted in order to gain further insight into whether or not college-age women are affected by magazine exposure. We interviewed four women, ages eighteen to twenty-three, for about thirty minutes each and asked them a series of questions (see Table Seven) about the way they perceive magazines and how they react to them. (See Table Eight for demographics of interviewees)
Table 7- Interview questions What are your feelings about your body? | Would you describe you self-esteem as being high, medium, or low? | Are there factors, either present or past, that affect the way you view your body? If so, what are they? | Do you wish that your body looked similar to someone else’s? If so, who is that someone else? | How often do you read magazines? | Which magazines do you read? | How do magazines affect the way you feel about yourself? | How do you react towards magazine models? | What would you describe as an ideal body? | Comment on whether or not magazines portray realistic body images. | How do magazines affect your eating habits and exercise habits? | How do female models make you feel about yourself? | Table 8- Demographics of interviewees | Cecilia | Jody | Lucy | Maggie | Age | 18 | 21 | 21 | 23 | Size | Average | Average | Underweight | Overweight | Frequency of magazine reading | Regularly | Often | Once in a while | Very infrequently | Maggie, twenty-three, says that she has mostly positive thoughts about her body. By exercising and eating well she maintains her healthy body image. She exercises mostly for herself, to become stronger and reach her goals but she says that she cannot deny that part of the reason that she exercises is to change the way she looks. Maggie describes her self-esteem concerning her body to be around medium or low but her overall self-esteem as medium or high. She admits that, throughout her life, images from the media have affected the way she views her body. She wishes that her body more closely resembled other women but could not pinpoint any one person. Maggie does not read fashion/beauty or health/fitness magazines very often; she most often read news magazines. When she does read fashion/beauty or health/fitness magazines she feels that she needs to change herself, “my body, my hair color, and the way I do my make-up.” Therefore, the magazines make her angry for causing her to feel this way so she avoids reading them. Maggie could not pinpoint an ideal body shape but thought that a healthy ideal is 100 pounds for a 5’0” woman and five pounds for every additional inch. Magazines do show real women, not airbrushed women, according to Maggie but they are not realistic ideals because they are too thin for the norm. She says that magazines change her thoughts about dieting and exercising but not her actions. Female models make Maggie feel like she is not good enough and that she is “too big to be beautiful.”
Lisa, twenty-one, feels comfortable with her body but there are always things that she would like to change about herself. She also feels that she has a high self-esteem. She feels that gaining weight and going on birth control has affected her body image. She knows that the media does play a role but she is conscious about this so she is not affected as much as she could be. She does wish that her body could look more like other women such as, some of her friends or models. The magazines she reads, Cosmopolitan and Glamour, do not really affect her since she mostly looks at the articles and not at the pictures. Lisa sees magazine models as a small percentage of the population who are also altered, by computer, to look the way they do. She exercises and tries to eat healthy in order to feel good about herself. She sees an ideal body as one that is “not too skinny but looks good.” Lisa feels that magazines encourage her not so much to look similar to a model but “to look her best.”
Cecilia, eighteen, responded that she felt that she was overweight and not particularly happy with her body shape and size. She stated that she had a medium self-esteem, neither high nor low. She believes that some of the things that influence the way she feels about her body are the media, the culture of thinness and the way her peers treat people her size. “I have never personally been made fun of for my weight but I have heard and seen other people make negative comments about people who are my size.” Overall, Cecilia seemed to be dissatisfied with her body; however, unsure of whom she would like to look like, only knowing that she would like to be thinner.
Cecilia reads different magazines about once a month including Seventeen, People, and “whatever is around” and stated that magazines do not affect the way she feels about herself. “The models are gross and too skinny.” She had a hard time pinpointing what she thought the perfect body looked like but it would definitely not look like that of a model’s. She said a thin layer of fat would be ideal not too skinny but not too fat. Cecilia repeatedly stated that she felt that magazine models had “gross” bodies, ones that were clearly unrealistic to the average women in society. The models, in general, do not really affect the way she feels about herself and actually make her happy that she is not that thin. However, she does use some of the exercises that some magazines provide because they are non expensive and easily accessible.
Lucy, twenty-one, states that she has a medium self-esteem, when pertaining to how she feels about her body. She knows she is a little underweight, yet she sometimes feels uncomfortable because she is not really in shape or toned. There is not one person exactly that she can come up with in regards to whom she wished her body looked like; however, she does find herself often comparing her body to other women her age. Lucy does not have any magazine subscriptions but once in a while she reads Cosmopolitan. In regards to how the models in magazines make her feel, Lucy replied, “I know that many of their bodies are not real, they are mostly airbrushed or something, but sometimes it is hard not to want to look like them.” However, Lucy feels that she would never change her eating habits nor take diet pills or do anything else unhealthy just to look more like a model. Although she does not feel as if she has an ideal body size and shape, she is pretty accepting of that.
Discussion
Our interviews suggest that female models in magazines often, but not always, negatively affect the body image of college-age women. However, these negative effects do not always lead to very dangerous behavior, such as changing eating habits or taking diet pills. Mostly, the negative effects consist of making some women feel as if they are not thin enough or not as beautiful as models because their bodies are not similar. However, we also found that many women avoid magazines or try to remind themselves of the unrealistic nature in order to preserve their body image. The women we interviewed that have a higher body image were currently on an exercise/healthy eating plan in order to maintain their body shape. This finding suggests that an active healthy lifestyle is pro-active to a positive image that may possibly counteract the negative effects of a magazine. Overall, the in-depth interviews provided our research group with rich data and we next used an experiment to differentiate between reading magazines in general and having read a magazine prior to taking the survey from method one to further our data.
Differentiating Between Magazine Affects- Experimenting with Different Types of Magazines
For a fourth perspective on this project, we conducted an experiment to study the effects of reading different types of magazines on college-age females. We recruited twelve women, without revealing the focus of the experiment. When they arrived, we informed the participants that there would be a short delay while we prepared and that they could read through a magazine during the wait. We gave each of them one of following magazines: Self, Cosmopolitan, or Newsweek, a news magazine that includes articles regarding current events and other important news-related stories. The magazines were distributed equally among participants and each being represented four times.
After about ten minutes of waiting time, the women were given a survey very similar to the one used in method one concerning their body image and its relation to magazines. We chose this experiment to compare the results of the surveys of the women reading different magazines to see whether the women reading the health/fitness and fashion/beauty magazines would have a lower body image immediately after reading these magazines than those reading the news magazines. Due to the participants not being aware that the study is about the effects of magazines on body image, we felt that we would obtain a more accurate view on how different magazines may alter one’s view of themselves.
Analysis of Survey Data
Table Nine (see Appendix A) lists the survey questions and average response to each question. As Table Nine describes, most of the women were satisfied with their body shape and size, as the survey yielded a mean of 3.5. Across the three groups, the women also agreed that magazines rarely, if ever, portray a realistic body image for women.
Means
The data was analyzed by looking at the means. The means from our data showed many findings so we chose to look closely at the ten questions from Table Eight. The most statistically significant finding shows that the women are often or always happy with their body shape and size. Those who read Self are more often than those who read Cosmopolitan and Newsweek to have moods that are negatively affected by magazines and the female models in them. This is interesting since the women who read Self believe more strongly that the models in magazines do not portray realistic images of women. All of the women agree that it would not be good for their health if they looked like a magazine model. The women also believe that they would be somewhat happier if they looked like a model.
For the remainder of the survey questions, differences emerged among the treatment groups. Therefore, our group focused on a few questions from the survey that the women from each group disagreed on in order to see what kind of analysis we could develop. Table Nine lists these questions and the average response by treatment group. The following paragraphs describe the patterns that emerged.
Frequency
When beginning our research we hypothesized that health/fitness and fashion/beauty magazines cause immediate and sustaining impressions on women. Due to having the women fill out the surveys immediately after looking at the magazines, we thought the women who read Newsweek would have a higher body image and not be as affected by the magazines. After analyzing a few key questions we found that this was not always true. Of the women reading Newsweek fifty percent believed that models have an ideal body size and shape while seventy-five percent of the respondents from the other treatment groups rarely believed this to be true. On a similar note, fifty percent of Newsweek readers often believed that women would be more attractive if they looked more like a model. The same percent of Self readers only sometimes found this to be true and the Cosmopolitan readers responded with rarely. Self and Cosmopolitan readers believed that they would rarely be healthy if they looked like a model, while seventy-five percent of Newsweek readers replied “sometimes.” However, the question regarding how models affect a women’s feelings gave the results that we had expected would develop from this method. Of the Self readers fifty percent are sometimes affected while Cosmopolitan and Newsweek readers are rarely affected. The moods of over half of the women reading Self are always negatively affected after reading a magazine while the moods of the same percent of women reading Cosmopolitan and Newsweek are rarely affected. These findings show that the women reading Newsweek may believe that women should look more like models yet they do not always let the models affect their feelings about themselves. Following the frequency analysis, further analysis was conducted using cross tabulations, which provided other interesting results.
Comparing Survey Data
The survey data was then analyzed through cross tabulations. Each cross tabulation compared the type of magazine the respondent read to her answer and then to a series of questions on body image (see Table One). The cross tabs showed very scattered data, providing evidence that the type of magazine read before the body image survey did not have a significant impact on the respondents’ answers to questions about body image.
Our research group had hypothesized that reading a beauty magazine prior to the survey would provide vastly different answers than would reading a news magazine. However, the data presented showed that each question gave scattered responses across all three types of magazines. By doing this experiment we did not find any significant data to prove that the type of magazine a person read affected their answer, but we did find data that goes along with our overall hypothesis for this study. The first significant finding was from question one and question ten. Question one read: “What are your feelings about your body?” and question ten read: “How do female models make you feel about yourself?” The data shows that if a person is happy with her body shape and size, then magazines do not negatively affect her. When looking at questions nine (“How do magazines affect your eating habits and exercise habits?”) and ten (see above) we found that the data was positively correlated so that the more often magazines make a person feel bad the more often it affects their mood. With questions eight (“Do magazines portray realistic body images?”) and ten (see above), if a person feels less attractive than a model and does not make attempts to look like one, then magazines negatively affect their moods.
Discussion
Overall, the data found in the experimental part of this research project was not significant. The data was similarly scattered throughout each type of magazine, suggesting that the type of magazine read prior to the body image survey did not have a significant impact on the survey answers. While it may be expected that a respondent reading a beauty magazine prior to the survey may have responses that are indicative of a lower body image at that point in time, we found that some questions show that respondents reading news magazines were actually more inclined to do so. This suggests that at this point in the life of our targeted response group (women ages eighteen to twenty-four), magazine depictions may already be internalized, so that those who are negatively affected by female models in magazines will continue to be negatively affected, regardless of the type of magazine they may currently be reading.
It seems that magazines do not affect women immediately but it is a slow process that causes the women to have a lower body image. A reason we may not have found significant data may be because we only had a group of twelve women. These women may be a group of very self-aware women and may have already come to terms with their bodies. It may also have been a discriminating factor that the subjects were all friends of the researchers.
Conclusion
Previous studies have shown that college-age women are affected by the magazine industry’s use of thin models in the advertisements; however, some studies have proven that our data is not statistically insignificant. For example, Cusumano and Thompson (1997) discovered that internalization of social norms of appearance accounted for significant and substantial variance, whereas exposure to magazines did not. In opposition to our data, the Thomsen (2002) study discovered that only health/fitness magazines were directly linked to body shape and size concerns. Our findings showed that one particular magazine, either health/fitness or fashion/beauty, did not influence the college-age women’s body shape and size concerns, one way or the other.
Coinciding with the data collected in the Thomsen (2002) study, Turner, Hamilton, Jacobs, Angood and Dwyer (1997) discovered that exposure to fashion magazines was related to women’s greater preoccupation with being thin, dissatisfaction with their bodies, frustration about weight, and fear about deviating from the thin standard. Once again, our data did not find these statements to be true, at least among the majority of our sample population. Many of the college-age women acknowledged that they would like to look like female magazine models, but they did not feel the models had a direct impression on their own body image and self-esteem.
Earlier the internalization process was discussed and our research team hypothesized that this process may be an underlying factor in many of the women in our study. Morry and Staska’s (2001) main findings were that media exposure to the “ideal” body is being internalized. Although our data seems to be leaning toward this finding, it is unable to be a conclusive finding to our study because internalization is unable to be proven through the methods that we used.
Overall, our study has concluded that magazine models do not influence women's body image or self-esteem. In method one, we concluded that whether magazine models affect women is dependent upon the women’s general self-esteem and body image. Our research group also uncovered that most college-age women never feel as if magazine models have the ideal body shape, but despite this, many college-age women still strive to attain this unrealistic ideal. The findings discovered in method two, which coincide with our results from method one, suggest that college-age women feel that the body shape of female models in magazines is an unnatural shape. Our method three data, using in-depth interviews, found that female models in magazines negatively affect the body image of college-age women. Unlike our survey results, women commented that they did not feel thin enough to meet social standards. However, as with the data in method one, we found that women who are have average to high self-esteem are not influenced by the models in magazines. Lastly, our data from method four was not significant to our study because the data was scattered, suggesting that the type of magazine read prior to the body image survey did not have significant impact on the respondents’ answers.
Our results from the overall study are inconsistent with our hypothesis, which is that female models in magazines influence college-age women’s body image and self-esteem. Everyday women read fashion/beauty or health/fitness magazines; however, our study infers that either college-age women are not influenced by the magazines due to their confidence with their bodies or the influence of the magazines industry’s portrayal of thinness has already been internalized by the age of eighteen to twenty four. Our hope is that with the future research techniques suggest below, a more conclusive study can be done to correlate our hypothesis with the data received from the respondents.
Further Research
This study sought to determine the potential harmful effects of female models as portrayed in magazines on the body image and self-esteem of college-age women. Due to the time restraints on this project, there were several areas in which further research is required. A bigger sample that is more representative (in terms of size and demographics) of college-age women for each method is the first step in finding more conclusive evidence. Another important factor is ensuring that the participants in any of the methods have no affiliation with the researcher since the four college-age women who conducted this study were often some way associated with the respondents, the data may have been skewed. The use of those respondents was due to time constraints and accessibility.
Discussions about body image and self-esteem would be more open and honest if the respondent did not feel that she might be judged by the researcher (in terms of interviews and observations). Therefore, it would be more effective to do an observation in a comfortable setting with trust between the researcher and participant. In addition to these suggestions, more in-depth face-to-face interviewing should be done to dig even deeper and get more detailed information. The researching team from this project feels that a focus group would be an important addition to the existing methods since it would allow the researcher to obtain more information from the respondents. Another method, which could be used in further research, is the pre-test/post-test technique. Our research team was unable to use this technique due to the possibility of skewing results because the respondents would have initially known what the survey or interview topic was pertaining to.
Further research should also be done using a younger age group. It was discovered that many women used in this study, ranging in age from eighteen to twenty-four, already tend to have medium to high self-esteem and are not as easily affected by the magazine’s portrayal of thinness. This research team hypothesizes that the younger generation is more impressionable; therefore, more apt to have lower body image and self-esteem due to looking at models in magazines.
One last idea, which could be used for future research comes from the previous study done by Cusumano and Thompson, is using the body and breast variables. Many women may feel comfortable with their body but not with their breasts and vice versa. Our research team thought that by using these two variables in the same study, some interesting information could be found. Overall, future research could be conducted using several different techniques, such as, size of sample, race, age, and the use of differently designed methods and variables.
1 All names throughout this research project have been changed to preserve participant confidentiality.
References
Cusumano, Dale L. and Kevin Thompson. 1997. “Body image and body shape ideals in magazines: Exposure, awareness, and internalization.” Sex Roles 37: 701-721.
Morry, M. M., and S.L. Staska. 2001. “Magazine Exposure: Internalization, Self-Objectification, Eating Attitudes, and Body Satisfaction in Male and Female University Students.” Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science 33: 269-279.
Rabak-Wagner, Judith and JoAnn Eickhoff-Shemek; Lisa Kelly-Vance. 1998. “Participation in a media analysis program helped young women change their beliefs about body image, but their behaviors stayed similar.” Journal of American College Health 47: 124-135.
Thomsen, Steven R. 2002. “Health and beauty magazine reading and body shape concerns among a group of college women.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 79: 4: 988-1007.
Turner, Sherry L. and Heather Hamilton; Meija Jacobs; Laurie M. Angood; Deanne Hovde Dwyer. 1997. “The influence of fashion magazines on the body image satisfaction of college women: An exploratory analysis.” Adolescence 32: 127: 603-614. Appendix A | | | Table 1- Survey questions, means, and significant frequencies | Survey Questions | | | Age | Mean (SD) | Significant Frequencies | Race | 20.8(1.26) | 65% 20-21 years | Weight | 4.03(.357) | 83% white | Height | 3.75(.899) | 80% weighed 110 to 149 lbs. | How do you perceive yourself? | 3.60(.841) | 73% were 5’3 to 5’8 | How often are you happy with body shape and size? | 2.13(.463) | 73% average weight | How often do you feel that you have a normal body according to magazine depictions? | 3.28(.847) | 75% sometimes or often | How often do you feel that women’s magazines portray realistic body images for women? | 2.13(.463) | 60% rarely or never | How often do you use diet plans in magazines? | 3.28(.847) | 93% rarely or never | How often do you think magazine models have an ideal body? | 2.45(1.20) | 83% rarely or never | How often do you think women would be more attractive if their bodies were similar to those of fashion models? | 1.50(.817) | 58% rarely or never | How often do you think it would be good for your health if your body was similar to those of fashion models? | 1.55(.986) | 70% sometimes or often | How often do you feel more satisfied with yourself if your body looked more like a fashion model? | 2.43(1.24) | 73% rarely or never | How often do you watch what you eat because you feel pressured to have a body size or shape similar to a models’? | 3.05(.986) | 55% often or always | How often do you exercise or workout in order to have a body size or shape similar to a models’? | 2.10(1.22) | 50% rarely or never | If you do not make attempts to look like female models in magazines, do you feel you will be as less attractive? | 3.45(1.54) | 53% rarely or never | How often do you diet or exercise based more on how you look than upon your health status? | 2.50(1.20) | 53% sometimes or often | How do you consider taking diet pills due to a magazine ad? | 2.55(1.36) | 51% sometimes or often | How often do you think about your body? | 3.13(1.22) | 83% rarely or never | Do you often have negative thoughts about your body? | 1.55(.960) | 73% sometimes or often | Do you often feel that you have a normal body? | 3.55(.904) | 70% sometimes or often | How often do magazine models affect your body image? | 3.23(.947) | 73% sometimes or often | How often do you consider taking diet pills? | 2.70(1.20) | 50% sometimes or often | How often do you compare your body to your peers? | 1.75(1.15) | 80% rarely or never | How often do you think about your body image? | 3.45(.846) | 83% sometimes or often | How often do female models in magazines affect your feelings about yourself? | 3.38(1.00) | 73% sometimes or often | Are you often happy with your body image? | 2.58(1.26) | About equally distributed | Do you often feel pressured to use diet plans/pills advertised in magazines in order to look like the female models? | 3.30(1.07) | 71% sometimes or often | How often is your mood negatively affected after reading a magazine? | 1.68(1.03) | 80% rarely or never | | 2.35(1.19) | 63% never or rarely |

Table 2- Means | | | | | | | | | | | | | Means (Standard Deviation) | | | | | | How respondent perceives herself | Happy with body shape and size | Makes decisions about dieting and exercise based on how she looks | How often respondent thinks about her body | How often the respondent has negative thoughts about her body | Never feels that she has a normal body according to magazine depictions | 2.33a (.50) | 3.00b (.71) | 3.22b (1.39) | 3.33b (.71) | 3.66b (.71) | Always feels magazines portray realistic images of women | 2.00a (.00) | 3.00b (.00) | 2.00b (.00) | 3.00b (.00) | 4.00b (.00) | Always thinks female magazine models have the ideal body shape | 2.33a (.58) | 3.00b (1.00) | 4.67b (.58) | 5.00b (.00) | 4.33b (.58) | Always feels that she would be more attractive if she had a model's body | 3.00a (.00) | 2.00b (.00) | 5.00b (.00) | 4.00b (.00) | 4.00b (.00) | Always feels that if she must try to look like a model to be attractive. | 2.50a (.55) | 3.00b (1.10) | 3.83b (1.60) | 3.83b (.98) | 3.67b (1.03) | Female magazine models always affect her body image | 2.50a (.71) | 2.50b (.71) | 4.50b (.71) | 5.00b (.00) | 4.50b (.71) | Mood is always negatively affected by reading a magazine | 2.50a (.71) | 4.00b (.00) | 2.00b (1.41) | 4.00b (.00) | 3.00b (.00) | a: 1=Underweight, 2=Average, 3=Overweight | b: 1=Never, 2=Rarely, 3=Sometimes, 4=Often, 5=Always |

Table 6- Bivariate Correlations | | Correlation Coefficient (Significance two-tailed) | | How often do female models in magazines affect your feelings about yourself? | How often do you have negative thoughts about your body? | How often are you happy with your body? | How often do you think female models in magazines have the ideal body? | How often do you think women would be more attractive if their bodies were more like models'? | How often do you think it would be good for your health if you looked like a model? | How often do female models in magazines affect your feelings about yourself? | 1(0) | .38*(.02) | -.35*(.03) | .19(.25) | .10(.54) | .35*(.03) | How often do you have negative thoughts about your body? | .38*(.02) | 1(0) | -.72**(0) | .31(.05) | .37*(.02) | .18(.27) | How often are you happy with your body? | -.35*(.03) | -.72(0) | 1(0) | -.22(.10 | -.39*(.01) | -28(.08) | How often do you think female models in magazines have the ideal body? | .19(.25) | .31(.05) | -.26(.10) | 1(0) | .26(.11) | .19(.23) | How often do you think women would be more attractive if their bodies were more like models'? | .10(.54) | .37*(.20) | -.39*(.01) | .26(.11) | 1(0) | .42**(.01) | How often do you think it would be good for your health if you looked like a model? | .35*(.03) | .18(.27) | 28(.08) | .19(.23) | .42**(.01) | 1(0) | ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). | * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). |

Table 9 -Survey Questions and Average Responses | | | | | | Survey Question | Overall Mean (S.D.) | 1. How often are you happy with your body shape and size? | 3.5(.67) | 2. How often do you feel that you have a normal body according to magazine depictions? | 2.9(1.2) | 3. How often do you feel that women’s magazines portray realistic body images for women? | 1.5(.52) | 4. How often do you think that female models in magazines have an ideal body size and shape? | 2.3(1.3) | 5. How often do you think women would be more attractive if their body size or shape looked like most of the female models in magazines? | 2.8(.87) | 6. How often do you think it would be good for your health if your body size and shape were similar to those of fashion models? | 2.2(.83) | 7. How often do you feel more satisfied with yourself if you body looked more like a female magazine model’s body? | 3.1(.90) | 8. If you do not make attempts to look like female models in magazines, do you feel you will be perceived as less attractive than other women? | 2.9(1.7) | 9. How often do female models in magazines affect your feelings about yourself? | 2.8(1.0) | 10. How often is your mood negatively affected after reading a magazine? | 2.8(1.4) | | | Note: 1= never; 2=rarely; 3=sometimes; 4=often; 5=always |

Mary-Signe Chojnacki
Christina Grant
Kathryn Maguire
Katie Regan
Explanation of why our paper exceeded 30 pages

Our paper totaled 37 pages, including one page for a title page and four for our graphs/tables. We had to exceed 30 pages in order to include all of the pertinent information and data we collected from our four methods. Our first method had a significant amount of data; which we sifted through and picked out the most important information for our paper. This section was especially long due to the graphs/tables that we needed to include in this method. Our second method used four sessions of two college-age women. Each session was explained, as concisely as possible, only taking the most important information gathered from the respondents. The third method was four in-depth interviews which provided our research team with more specific information/data than we received in the first two methods. For each interview, we explained the responses of each interviewee in a way such that was detailed but to-the-point. Our fourth method consisted of the experiment we conducted using 12 college-age women. Method 4 was similar to method one, in that, this experiment brought about a lot of data which needed to be narrowed down and the pertinent information described in the paper. Our group revised this paper several times and we were unable to get our paper under 30 pages for the reasons listed above. Had we taken out any more, our paper would have been incomplete and difficult to follow and understand. We needed the extra pages in order for our paper to be complete, detailed and concise.

Christina Grant
Mary-Signe Chojnacki
Kathryn Maguire
Katie Regan
Explanation for Lead Researcher for Each Method Our group has decided not to assign a lead researcher to any of the methods completed. We all worked together to complete each section/method. Each write-up, revision, etc. was done by our entire group getting together at the library and working together. We feel that it is unfair to choose one lead researcher for each section; because if one person gets marked down for a section that we all worked on, this would be unfair to that person. Each person in our group put in 110% effort in order to make this research paper what it is. We thought that if you added up all the scores of the subsections and then divided by four then that could give us our score that would have been double for the subsection which we would have been the lead researcher. We would like to each get the same grade for this paper and all of the work that has gone into it. We hope that you enjoy our paper as much as we did.

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...pagkakaroon ng mga kabataan ng tinatawag nilang jejemon mentality. Ayon kay kalihim ng Department of Education (DepEd) na si Mona Valismo, mariin niyang tinututulan ang paggamit ng mga kabataang Pilipino ng pagbaybay at balarila nito lalo na sa paggamit ng mga kagamitang panteknolohiya katuad na lamang ng text messaging. Nasabi rin sa isang interview ng isang jeje buster o ang mga taong ayaw sa paggamit ng jejemon na si Nheigeio Balatbat, 19 taong gulang na mag-aarl na habang isinasama mo ito sa iyong pamumuhay, nagiging parte na ito ng iyong buhay ng hindi mo namamalayan. Nakakita siya ng isang valedictorian na gumagamit ng jejemon at siya ay nabigla at nabahala sa maling balarila na ginamit niya sa knaiyang Freindster account. Nangangahulugan lamang na malaki talaga ang naging bunga paggamit ng mga modernong wika katulad nito. Ngunit ayo kay Bishop Joel Baylon, puno ng CBCP-Episcopal Commission on Youth, ang paggamit ng mga kabataan ng jejemon ay isa lamang ekspresyon. “Hindi kailang alalahanin ito kasi yung mga bata, gumagawa lamang sila ng mga bagy na nakpagpapasaya sa kanila..parang expression lang ‘yan, lifestyle, katulad ng paraan ng kanilang pananamit, ‘yung ayos ng kanilang buhok. Hindi ako masyadong nag-aalala dito sa jejemon na ito. Ito lamang yung paraan nila upang mailabas ng mga kabataan ‘yung kanilang mga kagustuhan at kanilang mg nararamdam.” Samakatuwid, nakikita ng obispo na hindi hadlang ang paggamit ng jejemon sa halip ay isang paraan ng......

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The Effects in Language Proficiency of Being a Jejemon

...THE STATUS OF JEJEMON LANGUAGE: IT’S IMPACT TO ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE LEARNERS INTRODUCTION The jejemon phenomenon has stirred emotions and raging debates. And whether it is a menace to language or the wellspring of youthful creativity, it pays to take a moment or two of objective reflection before simply declaring it as just another nuisance that must be stamped out. The jejemon culture spreads rapidly bringing out both good and bad reactions in the educational setting.  As a new language that is made up of mostly symbols and phonetics, it alarmed the Department of Education in the Philippines. Mona Valisno, a representative of DepEd told parents to keep their kids from falling into the Jejemontrap before they forget how to spell the actual words in English or Filipino. As a conclusion to this remark on jejemon, the issue became the center of educational debate especially in the secondary education particularly the public schools in the Philippines. The term jejemon is derived from “jejeje” and Pokemon. “Jejeje” is the linguistic representation of laughter in Spanish. The “jejeje” variant is preferred among Jejemons as they use it in their text messges rather than the typical “hehehe” variant. The”mon” in Jejemon is borrowed from Pokemon. According to The Philippine Daily Inquirer and Urban Dictinoary, a Jejemon belongs to a new breed of hipster who have not only developed their own fashion and stereotype, but also subverted the English language to the point of......

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The Effects of Jejemon Phenomenon in Language Proficiency

...this research paper tackles about the introduction of the jejemon language that covers the definition of the different basic terms related to jejemon and historical background of the jejemon language, the significance of the study that states why and to whom this study is beneficial, the statement of purpose that identifies the objectives of this research study, the statement of the problem that consists of the problems that this study is covering to answer and the scope and limitation that enumerates the extent of this research study. A. Introduction Language is very important in our life. It is used to express our thoughts and ideas to communicate with others. In this modern era, language changes constantly. The language that we use today is getting wider and wider. Nowadays, we use technology like cellphones and computers to convey our messages and through these, people are learning on how to cope up and change the way they convey their thoughts and ideas in different forms. Indeed, English proficiency is one of the important things that we need to practice. The proper usage of both Filipino and English language is one of the important aspects of Philippine education. Correct grammar, syntax and pronunciation are the main concerns of improving our language proficiency to maintain an effective communication locally and internationally, but due to the continuous development of language, the emergence of Jejemon words became a phenomenon in the Philippines......

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The Effects in Language Proficiency of Being a Jejemon

...The Effects in Language Proficiency of Being A Jejemon Chapter I Introduction According to The Philippine Daily Inquirer and Urban Dictinoary, a Jejemon belongs to a new breed of hipster who have not only developed their own fashion and stereotype, but also subverted the English language to the point of incomprehensibility. This change in language often results in general confusion between Jejemons and other people who are used to normal English or Filipino. In a society where misunderstandings are commonplace, the effects of being a Jejemon on spelling and grammar have an important role in basic communication. Nevertheless, individual differences must be considered when determining whether Jejemons affect communication or not. Statement of the problem The researchers’ purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of being a Jejemon in their spelling and grammar with respect to: 1. Age 2. Hours spent in social media 3. Filipino & English language These so-called Jejemons might be reverted to normal by limiting their usage of the Internet or social medias, cellphones and other gadgets, and by letting them read proper textbooks or literature-related works either English or Filipino for them to be corrected and to take them away from their own style of writing. The researchers would like to know how many Jejemons are now present, who are they, what are their personal backgrounds, why they switched onto this from a normal person, and how are......

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Jejemon

...Kulturang Pilipino, Ibangon at Isulong! Naimbag nga bigat para sa mga Ilokano; mayap a abak para sa mga Kapampangan; maayong bontag para sa mga Tagalog. Kanina lamang po, habang ako’y kumakain ng aking agahan ay narinig ko ang awiting “Uso pa ba ang harana? Marahil ikaw ay nagtataka…” Marahil, marami sa ating lalo na sa mga kabataang tulad ko ang natawag ang pansin sa awiting ito ng “Parokya ni Edgar”. Oo nga naman, sa panahon kung saan lahat na ng bagay sa paligid ay moderno – telebisyon, radyo, kompyuter, “cellphone” … uso pa ba ang harana? Sino nga ba ang hindi magtataka at magugulat kung minsan isang gabi, ika’y makaririnig sa tapat ng inyong bintana ng mga “aawitan kita”. Sa isang banda, ito’y kakaiba, samantalang sa kabila naman, wika nila, ito’y luma na at kakornihan lamang. Mula noong ako’y bata pa, madalas ng maikwento sa akin ng lola kung paano siya sinuyo at napaibig ng aking lolo. Nakatutuwa ang kanyang mga kwento at aniya’y mahaba at matagal ding panahon bago makamit ni lolo ang “matamis na oo”. Ngayon, walang kapawis-pawis. Bahala na si daliring taba sa pagpindot. Papiso-pisong text lang ang katapat, “oo na kaagad”. Mga kaibigan, minsan tuwing ako’y titingin sa salamin, ay naitatanong ko sa aking sarili kung sino nga ba ako bilang isang Pilipino. Sa paglipas ng panahon marami ng pagbabago ang nangyayari sa ating lipunan. Oras-oras, minu-minuto … makabagong teknolohiya, ito na ang bida! Nakakahikayat ‘di ba? Kasabay......

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The Status of Jejemon Language: It’s Impact to Academic Performance of the Learners

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Jejemon Language

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