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Job Analysis

In: Business and Management

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Introduction
In human resources, job analysis plays an important role of it. It provides information regarding positions in the organisation. It is an important topic as well as a vital employment tool which can assist with HR activities and potential and current employees, ‘Job analysis is the systematic study of positions to identify their observable duties and responsibilities, as well as the knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform a particular task or group of tasks’ ( Kovac,2006, p.1).

Methods of conducting job analysis
There are many different methods/ways to conduct a job analysis. It is dependent on organizational needs and what resources are available. Questionnaires, observations and interviews are very common methods. Although individual methods are used exclusively, several can be used in combination. In fact, it is recommended that utilizing more than one method is more sensible (How, 1998), (Dessler, 2005).

Reasons for job analysis
Job analysis can be used in determining training needs by identifying training content, the assessment tests which need to be used to measure the effectiveness of training, the equipment to be used in the training process, and the methods of training. Job Analysis can also be used in compensation to identify the skill levels, the compensable job factors, the work environment, the responsibilities, and the required level of education and salary level. In selection procedures, job analysis can be used to identify job duties that need to be included in ads of vacant position, the appropriate salary levels for a position, the minimum requirements, the interview questions, the selection tests, the evaluation forms, etc. For performance reviews, job analysis can be used to figure out goals and objectives, performance standards, the evaluation criteria, the length probationary

CHAPTER 6 JOB ANALYSIS AND DESIGN CHAPTER Overview
Job analysis and design is often referred to as the cornerstone of HRM, and it has become increasingly important for legal questions related to promotion and discrimination.
This chapter clarifies the contributions made by job analysis to an organization’s HRM program and specific activities. Furthermore, the careful planning needed and the various techniques of a job analysis program are highlighted. Finally, the importance of job analysis in the design is discussed.
CHAPTER LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, students should be able to…
Define the terms job analysis, job description, and job specification.
Illustrate the uses that job analysis information can have in an organization’s HRM.
Describe four methods used to collect job analysis information.
Interpret job codes and information found in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles.
List the five core job dimensions used in job enrichment programs.
Compare the strengths and weaknesses of the mechanistic and motivational approaches to job design.
Describe the ways that job descriptions are changing as the nature of jobs changes.

KEY TERMS Autonomy | The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. | common metric questionnaire (CMQ) | A job analysis instrument that includes behaviorally anchored items that can be used by both nonexempt and exempt employees. | Feedback | The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual’s obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. | functional job analysis (FJA) | A job analysis method that attempts to identify what a worker does in performing a job in terms of data, people, and things. | Job | A group of positions that are similar in their duties, such as computer programmer or compensation specialist. | job analysis | The process of gathering, analyzing, and synthesizing information about jobs. | Job Analysis Information Format (JAIF) | A questionnaire that provides core information about a job, job duties, and job requirements. | job characteristics model | A mode of job design based on the view that three psychological states toward a job affect a person’s motivation and satisfaction. These states are experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility, and knowledge of results. A job’s skill variety, identity, and task significance contribute to meaningfulness; autonomy is related to responsibility; feedback is related to knowledge of results. |

Lecture OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION

Organizations have evolved because the overall mission and objectives of most institutions are too large for any one person to accomplish. Organizations must have a systematic way to determine which employees are expected to perform which tasks. The cornerstone of an organization is the set of jobs performed by its employees
Job analysis is vital to any HRM program and provides answers to questions such as:
How much time does it take to complete important tasks?
Which tasks are grouped together and considered a job?
How can a job be designed or structured so that employee performance can be enhanced?
What kinds of behaviors are needed to perform the job?
What kind of person, in terms of traits and experience, is best suited for the job?
How can the information acquired by a job analysis be used in the development of HRM programs?
The Vocabulary of Job Analysis
In HR it is important to be familiar with the “lingo” used by professionals and practitioners in the field. Many of the terms of job analysis are used interchangeably by people who are unfamiliar with job analysis. The expert uses them precisely, in order to avoid confusion and misinterpretation. Precision in term usage is required by federal and state legislation.
Job analysis: a purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job
Job description: the principal product of a job analysis. It represents a written summary of the job as an identifiable organizational unit. Think of it as a list of duties
Job specification: a written explanation of the knowledge, skills, abilities, traits, and other characteristics (KSAOs) necessary for effective performance on a given job
Tasks: Coordinated and aggregated series of work elements used to produce an output (e.g., a unit of production or service to a client)
Position: consists of the responsibilities and duties performed by an individual. There are as many positions in an organization as there are employees
Job: group of positions that are similar in their duties, such as computer programmer or compensation specialist
Job family: group of two or more jobs that have similar duties

An example at the university (using all these definitions) could take the form of: FACULTY (as job family)
ECONOMICS PROFESSORS (as jobs),
LABOR ECONOMIST (as position)
Teaching ECON 425: Labor Economics (task)
PhD in LABOR ECONOMICS (part of the job specification)
Teaching, research, service (tri-partite duties as job description)
The whole process in developing the documentation and arriving at the final product that describes the duties, responsibilities, skills, knowledge, reporting relationships, fit in the organization along with required hours of work, pay status (exempt/non-exempt) will constitute job analysis.
The Steps in Job Analysis
The job analysis process:
Step 1: provides a broad view of how each job fits into the total fabric of the organization. Organization and process charts are used
Step 2: encourages those involved to determine how the job analysis and job design information will be used
Step 3: jobs to be analyzed are selected
Step 4: job analysis techniques are used to collect data on the characteristics of the job, the required behaviors, and the characteristics an employee needs to perform the job
Step 5: develop a job description
Step 6: prepare a job specification
The reason why job analysis is considered the cornerstone of the HR structure or as I refer to as the backbone of the HR body, lies in the fact that data collected is used as the foundation for virtually every other HRM activity:
Recruitment – you need a job description to advertise the duties of the position.
Selection – you need the qualification from a job specification to determine minimum qualifications.
Training
Performance evaluation
Compensation
Job design and redesign - job analysis provides the information necessary for organizing work in ways that allow employees to be both productive and satisfied
The Uses of Job Analysis
Some believe that there is no longer even a choice about whether job analysis should be conducted
Guidelines and judicial recommendations regarding civil rights and EEO laws are clear
The question has become how to conduct a legally defensible job analysis rather than whether such an analysis should be conducted
Job analysis plays an important role in the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978)
A set of policies designed to minimize or prevent workplace discrimination practices
The UGESP emphasizes that job analysis should be used when validating or assessing the accuracy of organizational selection procedures
Job analysis is:
Critical to assessments of discrimination under most employment-related laws
Linked to these laws through Supreme Court rulings
If a job analysis is to be viewed favorable by the courts, it must:
Yield a thorough, clear job description
Assess the frequency and importance of job behaviors
Allow for an accurate assessment of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) required by the job
Clearly determine which KSAOs are important for each job duty
Job analysis is used extensively in each of these areas:
Recruitment and selection
Training and career development
Compensation
Strategic planning
To avoid resistance, HR managers must communicate to everyone involved:
Why job analyses are important
How the information will be used

Who Should Conduct the Job Analysis?
Part of the planning process involves choosing the people who will conduct the analysis
Hire a temporary analyst from outside
Employ a full-time job analyst
Use supervisors, job incumbents, or some combination of these
Each choice has strengths and weaknesses:, such as:
Job incumbents know what work is actually being done, rather than what is supposed to be done
Involving incumbents might increase their acceptance of any work changes resulting from the analysis
Incumbents tend to exaggerate the responsibilities and importance of their work
The choice of an analyst depends on many factors, including:
The location and complexity of the jobs
How receptive incumbents are to an external analyst
The ultimate intended purpose of the analysis
Regardless of who collects the information, the individuals should:
Thoroughly understand people, jobs, and the total organizational system
Have knowledge about how work should flow within the organization
The Use of Charts
Before selecting the methods and procedures to be used in the analysis, an overview of the organization and its jobs is required
This overview will provide a better understanding workflow through the organization
An organization chart presents the relationships among departments and units of the firm, as well as:
Line and staff functions
Number of vertical levels in the organization
Number of functional departments
Formal reporting relationships
A process chart shows how a specific set of jobs are related to each other
Rather than showing structural relationships among job titles, this chart shows the activities and work necessary to produce a desired product or service

Methods of Data Collection
When collecting job analysis data, these basic methods can be use separately or in some combination:
Observation
Interview
Questionnaires
Job incumbent diaries or logs
In each method, information about the job is collected and then studied in terms of tasks completed by the job incumbent (job oriented analysis)
A job can also be analyzed in terms of behaviors or what the job incumbent does to perform the job (work-oriented analysis)
Both orientations are acceptable under the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures if they identify job duties and behaviors that are critical to performing the job
Because time and cost are considerations, managers must collect comparable, valid data
Core information is needed no matter which data collection method is used
A job analysis information format (JAIF) can provide the core information for any job analysis method
This questionnaire provides a thorough picture of the job, job duties, and requirements
After job incumbents complete the JAIF, the answers are used to structure the data collection technique that will eventually be implemented
Not all incumbents or their supervisors view a job in the same way
Collect information from a variety of incumbents: young and old, male and female, high- and low-performing
Do not assume that all incumbents and supervisors have the same amount of knowledge about a job
Observation
Direct observation is used for jobs that require manual, standardized, and short-job-cycle activities (assembly-line worker, insurance filing clerk,)
Direct observation is not usually appropriate when the job involves significant mental activity (scientist, lawyer, mathematician)
This technique requires that the job analyst be trained to observe relevant job behaviors and to be as unobtrusive as possible
Interviews
Interviewing job incumbents is often done in combination with observation
The most widely used technique
Allows the job analyst to talk with job incumbents face-to-face
The job incumbent can ask the analyst questions
Allows the analyst to explain how the information gained will be used
Interviews can be conducted with a single incumbent, a group of incumbents, or a supervisor who is familiar with the job
A structured set of questions is used so that answers from individuals or groups can be compared
Interviews are difficult to standardize
Different interviewers may ask different questions
The same interviewer might ask different questions of different respondents
Information may be unintentionally distorted by the interviewer
Interviewing costs can be high, especially if group interviews aren’t practical
Questionnaires
Questionnaires are the least costly method for collecting information
It is an effective way to collect a large amount of information in a short period of time
A structured questionnaire includes specific questions about the job, working conditions, and equipment
An open-ended format permits job incumbents to use their own words and ideas to describe the job
The format and structure of a questionnaire are debatable issues
There really is no best format
Hints for making a questionnaire easier to use:
Keep it as short as possible
Explain what the questionnaire is being used for
Keep it simple
Test the questionnaire before using it

Job Incumbent Diary or Log
The diary or log is a recording by incumbents of:
Job duties
Frequency of the duties
When the duties are accomplished
Most individuals are not disciplined enough to keep such a log
If the log is kept properly, it provides good information from which comparisons can be made
This permits an examination of the routine and exceptions to job duties
The diary or log is useful when attempting to analyze jobs that are difficult to observe
Which Method to Use?
There is no agreement about which methods of job analysis yield the best information
Many experts agree that interviews should not be the sole data collection method
Certain methods may be better suited to a given situation than others
Most organizations base their choice on:
The purpose of the analysis
Time and budget constraints
Many organizations are turning to a multimethods job analysis approach
The analyst interviews incumbents and supervisors in conjunction with on-site observation
A task survey based on expert judgments is constructed and administered
A statistical analysis of the responses is conducted in order to assess their consistency and to identify any systematic variation in them
Using a comprehensive process is relatively expensive and time-consuming
However, the quality of information derived from a more comprehensive approach is strongly endorsed by courts

Specific Quantitative Techniques
Three of the more popular quantitative techniques are the:
Functional job analysis
Position analysis questionnaire
Management position description questionnaire
Functional Job Analysis
Functional job analysis (FJA) is the cumulative result of almost 60 years of research on analyzing and describing jobs
Conceived in the late 1940s
Was developed as a mechanism for improving the classification of jobs in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)
Is used by the U.S. Employment Service for descriptive information about jobs
DOT descriptions helped a job analyst begin to learn what was involved in a particular job
FJA could then be used to elaborate and more thoroughly describe the content of a job
The main focus of FJA was to create a common language for accurately describing a large number of jobs in ways that can be reliably reproduced
FJA assumes that jobs can be described in terms of three basic relationships that the job incumbent has with the work:
Physically relating to things
Using mental resources to process data
Interacting with people
Using behavioral terms, each of these relationships can be organized along a continuum of complexity (lowest to highest)
One advantage of the FJA is that each job has a quantitative score
Jobs can be arranged for compensation or other HRM purposes because jobs with similar ratings can be assumed to be similar
In the 1990s, the U.S. Dept. of Labor Employment and Training Administration undertook a major job analysis initiative called O*NET (Occupational Information Network)
O*NET is replacing the DOT
It is an Internet accessible database that describes occupations, worker KSAOs, and workplace requirements

O*NET
Is more user-friendly than the DOT
Reduced the 12,000 different occupations of the DOT to just over 1,000
Categorizes data into six groups referred to as the O*NET Content Model (see Figure 6-5):
Experience requirements
Occupational requirements
Occupation specific requirements
Occupational characteristics
Worker characteristics
Worker requirements
Typical users of O*NET:
Human resource professionals
Career counselors
Recruiters
Trainers and educators
Position Analysis Questionnaire
The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ):
Was developed by researchers at Purdue University
Contains 195 items
Requires considerable experience and a high level of reading comprehension to complete properly
It is often filled out by a trained job analyst, who must decide whether each item applies to a particular job
The 195 items on the PAQ are divided into six major sections:
Information input
Mental processes
Work output
Job context
Other job characteristics

Computerized scoring of the PAQ is based on seven dimensions:
Decision making
Communication
Social responsibilities
Performing skilled activities
Being physically active
Operating vehicles or equipment
Processing information
The scores permit the development of job profiles and job comparison
PAQ advantages:
The biggest advantage is that is has been widely used and researched
It is an effective tool for a variety of purposes
It is reliable; there is little variance among job analysts’ ratings of the same jobs
It is an effective way to establish differences in the abilities required for jobs
It is valid; jobs rated higher with the PAQ prove to be those compensated at higher rates
PAQ disadvantages:
It requires time and patience to complete
No specific work activities are described, so behavioral activities performed in jobs may distort actual work task differences
Example: A similar profile may be shown for a typist, a belly dancer, and a ballet dancer because all require fine motor skills
Ratings on the PAQ might represent the job analyst’s stereotype about the work in question, rather than actual differences among jobs
Management Position Description Questionnaire
Conducting a job analysis for managerial jobs is challenging because of:
The disparity across positions
Levels in the hierarchy
The type of industry
An attempt to systematically analyze managerial jobs was conducted at Control Data Corporation
The result is the management position description questionnaire (MPDQ)

The MPDQ is:
A checklist of 208 items related to the concerns and responsibilities of managers
A comprehensive description of managerial work
Intended for use across most industrial settings
The latest version of the MPDQ has 15 sections:
General information
Decision making
Planning and organizing
Administering
Controlling
Supervising
Consulting and innovating
Contacts
Coordinating
Representing
Monitoring business indicators
Overall ratings
Knowledge, skills, and abilities
Organization chart
Comments and reactions
The common metric questionnaire (CMQ) is another method of quantitative job analysis
It is completed by a job incumbent
Questionnaire items require a lower reading level
It is more behaviorally concrete, making it easier for incumbents to rate their jobs
It is applicable to both exempt and nonexempt positions, which may increase the number of intrajob skill-based comparisons that can be made
Considerable research on job analysis is being conducted in Europe, focusing on alternative quantitative methods
In Germany, several techniques have the goal of analyzing and describing work at the task level, independent of the incumbent’s perceptions

Job Descriptions and Specifications
The job description is one of the primary outputs provided by a systematic job analysis (see Exhibit 6-1)
It is a written description of what the job entails
It is difficult to over-emphasize how important thorough, accurate, and current job descriptions are to an organization
Changes in recent years have increased the need for job descriptions:
The incredible number of organizational restructurings
The need to implement new and creative ways to motivate and reward employees
The accelerated rate at which technology is changing work environments
New, more stringent federal regulation of employment practices
There is no standard format for a job description, but almost all well-written, useful descriptions include:
Job title
Summary
Equipment
Environment
Activities
The job specification evolves from the job description
It addresses the question, “What personal traits and experience are needed to perform the job effectively?”
It is especially useful for recruitment and selection
R. J. Harvey offers the following guidelines for arriving at the characteristics that should be included on a job specification:
All job tasks must be identified and rated in terms of importance, using sound job analysis techniques
A panel of experts, incumbents, or supervisors should specify the necessary skills for performing each of the job tasks identified
The importance of each skills must be rated
Any other characteristics necessary for performing the job should be identified, such as physical requirements and professional certification
Each skill that has been identified must be specifically linked to each job task

Any trait or skill stated on the job specification should be required for performance of the job
The Americans with Disabilities Act makes the job analyst’s responsibilities even greater in this area
Job specifications must differentiate between essential and nonessential skills
Essential skills are those for which alternative ways of accomplishing the job are not possible
Nonessential skills can be accommodated by changing the structure or work methods of the job
Job Analysis and Strategic Human Resource Management
There are many signs that the fundamental nature of work may be changing
Functional areas are not as important as they once were for defining a job
After reengineering an organization’s processes, new job responsibilities may be poorly defined
Organizations must continually adapt to changing business environments
Thus, reengineering is likely in a majority of organizations
The job analyst has traditionally created descriptions of jobs as they currently exist
Now they must also describe jobs that will exist in the future
There is a growing need to match human resource activities to an organization’s strategic planning
This requires an ability to write job specifications that accurately detail the knowledge and skills that will complement future strategic initiatives
Job descriptions will no longer be snapshots of a static job
Strategic job analysis will have to capture both the present and the future
Compounding the potential problems of reengineering, many work environments will offer employees greater flexibility in when and how they work
Compressed work schedules
Telecommuting
Job sharing
Flexible hours

Job Analysis and Employee Competencies
Competencies are general attributes employees need to do well across multiple jobs or within the organization as a whole
Includes anything from “teamwork” to “leadership potential”
Many organizations identify, communicate, and reward competencies that they believe employees should have
Competency modeling in HR practices reflects an organization’s desire to:
Communicate job requirements in ways that extend beyond the job itself
Describe and measure the organization’s workforce in more general, competency terms
Design and implement staffing programs focused around competencies, rather than specific jobs, as a way to increase staffing flexibility
Job Design
Once job descriptions and specifications are available, the information can be used for designing or redesigning jobs
There is no one best way to design a job
Different situations call for different arrangements of job characteristics
Different emphasis may be placed on performance and satisfaction as desired outcomes
It is unlikely that any one approach will satisfy all the goals of a manager
The choice of job design involves trade-offs based on the critical needs of the organization
The design of work can be classified into four major approaches:
Perceptual-motor
Biological
Mechanistic
Motivational
The perceptual-motor and biological approaches are based on human factors engineering
They emphasize equipment design and matching machines to operators

Scientific Management and the Mechanistic Approach
Job design was a central issue in F. W. Taylor’s model of scientific management
The work of every workman is fully planned out by management at least one day in advance
Each man receives in most cases complete written instructions
The instructions specify what is to be done, how it is to be done, and the time allowed for doing it
The emphasis was on breaking jobs down into simple, repetitive tasks that could be done quickly and efficiently
Recommendations stemming from Taylor’s scientific management:
Work should be studied scientifically
Work should be arranged so that workers can be efficient
Employees should be matched to the demands of the job
Employees should be trained to perform the job
Monetary compensation should be tied directly to performance
Many managers find the scientific management approach to job design appealing because the goal is improving organizational performance
Repetitive, highly specialized work can lead to dissatisfaction among employees
Efficiency gains may be offset by losses in job satisfaction and higher levels of absenteeism and turnover
Job enlargement attempts to increase satisfaction by giving employees a greater variety of things to do
The expansion is considered horizontal because employees are only given a greater variety of tasks to do, no additional authority or responsibility
Job Enrichment: A Motivational Approach
Job enrichment tries to design jobs in ways that help incumbents satisfy their needs for growth, recognition, and responsibility
The job is expanded vertically; employees are given responsibility that might previously have been part of a supervisor’s job
The notion of satisfying employees’ needs comes from Frederick Herzberg’s two-factor theory of work motivation
Employees will be motivated by jobs that enhance their feelings of self-worth
According to the job characteristics model, a job must possess “core job dimensions” to lead to desired outcomes:
Skill variety
Task identity
Task significance
Autonomy
Feedback
Having these core dimensions in a job produces three critical psychological states in job incumbents:
Experienced meaningfulness
Experienced responsibility
Knowledge of results
The more these states are experienced, the more internal work motivation the job incumbent will feel
Skill variety, task identity, and task significance contribute to a sense of meaningfulness
Autonomy is related to feelings of responsibility
Feedback is related to knowledge of results
The job characteristics model describes the relationships that are predicted to exist among four sets of factors:
Core job dimensions
Psychological states
Personal and work-related outcomes
Strength of needs
Because people have different capabilities and needs, the linkages shown in Exhibit 6-9 may be modified
After 20 years of research, there are no clear answers about the effectiveness of enrichment
Studies support the expectation that jobs perceived to possess the core dimensions of the job characteristics model are more satisfying
However, the relationships between the critical psychological states and employees’ reactions to enrichment are not yet fully understood
And, increasing the scope of a job beyond certain levels can have detrimental effects on workers

Work-Family Balance and Job Design
Organizations are directing more attention and resources toward helping employees balance their work and family demands
This work-family tension is driven by the changing demographics of the workforce
The number of women and single parents entering the workforce
Dual-career couples
The aging population
Some organizations try to meet employees’ needs through flexible work arrangements:
Job sharing
Flextime
Telecommuting
Family-friendly work arrangements have benefits:
Higher recruitment and retention rates
Improved morale
Lower absenteeism and tardiness
Higher levels of employee productivity
Job sharing is a work arrangement in which two or more employees divide a job’s responsibilities, hours, and benefits
The success of job sharing depends on:
Identifying those jobs that can be shared
Understanding employees’ individual sharing style
Matching “partners” who have complementary scheduling needs and skills
With flextime, employees can choose when to be at the office
5 days/8 hours
4 days/10 hours
Arrive later on Monday, leave earlier on Friday
Flextime has a positive influence on employee performance, job satisfaction, and absenteeism
Flexible work schedules that are too unstructured lose some of their effectiveness over time

Telecommuting allows employees to work in their homes part- or full-time
Communication is maintained through the phone, fax, and computer
Often resisted by managers who fear loss of control and subordinate accessibility
Organizations should consider three issues when developing and implementing flexible work arrangement options:
The program should be open to all employees, if possible
Train managers and reward them for encouraging subordinates to use flextime without fear of having their careers derailed
Be mindful of laws that impact flexible work arrangement policies
Job Design: The Next Challenge
In the 1980s and 1990s, European and Asian firms revolutionized job design by embracing the quality management movement
More recently, self-directed teams have become important in the success of manufacturers worldwide
American firms are also implementing self-directed work teams and are reengineering their work process to regain a competitive advantage
Many organizations have learned that reengineering cannot succeed unless careful attention is also paid to the effects on how employees use their skills
The appropriate response to these changes is exemplified by Coopers & Lybrand’s competency alignment process (CAP)
CAP determines the skill levels of employees in order to identify skill gaps
When a gap is identified, it can be eliminated through a variety of programs, including training, redeployment, and outsourcing
Without these or similar efforts, reengineering will probably not succeed The vocabulary of job analysis * job analysis * job description * job specification * tasks * position * job * job family/occupation 2. The steps in job analysis * examine the total organization * determine how JA information will be used * select the jobs to be analyzed * collect the data by using acceptable JA techniques * prepare job description * prepare job specification * design jobs * evaluate and modify if necessary 3. The uses of job analysis a. required by and/or linked to several EEO laws i. Equal Pay Act (1963) ii. Fair Labor Standards Act (1938) iii. Civil Rights Act (1964) iv. court cases involving test validation: * Griggs vs. Duke Power b. a good job analysis will provide information for: * preparing job descriptions * human resource planning * recruitment * selection/test development & validation * performance evaluation * training and development * career planning and development * compensation * safety * job design * labor relations 4. Who should conduct the job analysis? * incumbent * supervisor * job analyst 5. The use of charts * the organization chart * process chart 6. Methods of data collection * Job Analysis Information Format (JAIF) * observation/ sampling * interview * questionnaire * job incumbent diary/log * multi-method job analysis approach (hybrid approach)

7. Specific quantitative techniques: * Functional Job Analysis (FJA) * Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) * Management Positions Description Questionnaire (MPDQ) * Many new quantitative job analysis processes (CMQ, O*NET) 8. Job descriptions and specifications a. job descriptions should include: * job title * summary * equipment * environment * activities b. job specifications should include: * job tasks identified & rated in terms of importance * panel of experts should decide skills of each job task * importance of each skill must be rated * any other necessary requirements should be included (ex. certification) * each identified skill must be linked to each job task c. job analysis and strategic HRM (ex. hiring of new faculty to be switch hitters) * compressed work schedules * telecommuting * job sharing * flextime d. job analysis and employee competencies * communicate job requirements in ways that extend beyond the job itself * * describe and measure the organization’s workforce in more general, competency terms (ex. teamwork, leadership potential) * * design and implement staffing programs focused around competencies, rather than specific jobs, to increase staffing flexibility 9. Job design a. results of the job analysis b. perspectives * perceptual-motor approach * biological approach * mechanistic approach * motivational approach c. scientific management and the mechanistic approach i. job design and Taylor's rational approach ii. scientific management approach * work to be studied scientifically * work should be arranged for efficiency * scientific recruitment & selection * proper training for job performance * compensation tied to performance iii. job enlargement (vs. repetitiveness & efficiency) d. job enrichment: a motivational approach i. job enrichment ii. job characteristics model * skills variety * task identity * task significance (experienced meaningfulness) * autonomy (experienced responsibility) * feedback (knowledge of results) e. work-family balance and job design * flextime * compressed work week * part-time f. job design: the next challenge * TQM & self-directed teams * reengineering & competency alignment process (CAP)

Review Questions 1. Job analysis is used to provide answer to several questions. Please identify five of those questions? 2. Job analysis is often serves as a “cornerstone” of HRM. Please describe three HRM functions or activities that use job analysis in some way?
3. How might job analysis be helpful to an organization that is being sued for sex discrimination in promotion? 4. As a current (or future) manager, how will you communicate the requirements of an entry-level customer service representative to a candidate who just arrived at your office for an interview? Will you describe the job in terms of competencies? Knowledge, skills, and abilities? Both? Explain your answer.
5. What core information should be included in most job descriptions and job specifications?

Application Case 6-1

Job Analysis: Assistant Store Managers at Today’s Fashion
1. Critically evaluate the job analysis that Mary conducted for the position of assistant store manager. Has she used appropriate methods? What are the strengths and weaknesses of her efforts?
2. What kinds of factors about Today’s Fashion and its operations should Mary have examined more seriously in order to improve her job analysis?
3. Carefully read the job description and job specification that Mary prepared. Do they appear to be thorough? Do you think that they as adequate to serve as a basis for a new selection system? How well do you think these documents will work if May is sued for discrimination in her hiring practices? Why?

Job analysis
Job analysis traditionally was done for purposes connected with recruitment, pay, administration, and supervision. But the increasing complexity of work has made job analysis an important instrument for developing people in organizations. Job analysis requires a systematic collection, evaluation, and organization of information about the job. This information is collected through interviews, mailed questionnaires, observation, study of records, and similar methods. The collected information becomes a basis for preparing job descriptions and specifications. The job description, or job profile, is a written statement which includes detailed specifications of duties to be performed, responsibilities, and working conditions and indicates what is expected of a job holder. A job specification is a profile of the human characteristics needed for the job, such as education, training, skills, experience, and physical and mental abilities (Werther & Davis, 1982).
Extension organizations in developing countries do not have clearly defined job descriptions or job specifications for extension personnel. The training and visit system of extension considerably improved the preparation of job charts, work plans, and time-bound work for different categories of extension personnel. However, the actual utility of job descriptions in extension organizations is complicated by factors such as work overload, seasonality of extension, the range of cropping systems, and distribution of extension service over a large area (Hayward, 1990). Studies analysing the role of extension agents reveal that they face work-related problems such as role ambiguity and lack of job authority, expertise, and accountability (Vijayaragavan & Singh, 1989). This shows that job analysis is needed to improve the performance and effectiveness of extension employees. Job analysis can more effectively contribute towards the development of extension personnel by adopting the following procedures which involve identifying key performance areas (KPAs) and critical attributes.
Key Performance Areas for Various Categories of Extension Personnel
A job description consists of many details, but does not specify key areas which need attention. Further, it gives the details of what is expected from the current jobholder. On the other hand, key performance areas are specific and show the critical functions relevant at present and for the future to achieve the objectives (Pareek & Rao, 1992). The identification of key performance areas helps in role clarity as well as in delegation of functions. This in turn aids in performance appraisal and training. Generally, four or five key areas for a job are identified. The core extension personnel of developing countries consists of village extension workers, subject-matter specialists, and supervisory staff or extension officers. Examples of key performance areas of core extension personnel are given below.
Village Extension Workers. People in this category (1) make regular and systematic visits to villages and farms to develop rapport with the clientele and to understand their problems; (2) undertake educational activities in the form of meetings, campaigns, demonstrations, field days, training sessions, and exhibitions; and (3) provide advisory services to the farmers and solve their production problems.
Subject-Matter Specialists. Their role is to (1) keep abreast of current recommendations and findings related to farm production by maintaining continuous contact with agricultural research stations; (2) provide feedback to the research system about farmers' problems which need solutions; and (3) train and backstop village extension workers on the latest farm technology and help them in solving field problems.
Supervisory Staff or Extension Officers. People holding these positions (1) plan, organize, coordinate, and implement extension programmes and activities; (2) supervise and monitor the work of field staff, providing guidance, motivation, and evaluation of performance; and (3) coordinate the programme with inter-and intradepartmental agencies.
Critical Attributes for Extension Personnel
The key performance areas indicate the important roles and contributions of different categories of extension personnel. Once the roles are delineated, they can be analysed to indicate the attributes which can discriminate an effective from an ineffective role occupant. These critical attributes consist of qualities such as educational qualifications, skills, experience, physical characteristics, mental abilities, values, and attitudes needed for extension. The critical attributes needed for field-level and supervisory extension staff are necessary formal training in agriculture, practical skills and experience in farming, and knowledge of modern farm practices. Abilities in group dynamics, human relations, and communication are also important. Basic skills related to management and leadership are needed by extension supervisors. Values and attitudes such as faith in rural people, commitment to agricultural development, and concern for the whole community are important for all extension personnel (Gupta, 1963; Bhasin, 1976).
The importance of assessing personal and professional attributes for selecting productive extension personnel has been reported by several researchers (Gupta, 1963; Perumal, 1975). Assessment is essential because an unsatisfactory educational level of extension staff is one of the most serious problems of extension in countries like Bangladesh, Botswana, Kenya, Malaysia, Sudan, and Zambia (Blanckenburg, 1984). A worldwide analysis of the status of agricultural extension reveals the low level of formal education and training of field extension agents in developing countries (Swanson, Farner, & Bahal, 1990).
Recruitment and training of extension personnel
Recruitment is important in selecting the right kind of extension personnel. Since the job of extension personnel calls for technical skills as well as commitment and willingness to educate rural people, an appropriate selection system is essential to ensure the right selection. The success of extension depends heavily upon selection of qualified and motivated personnel. Extension organizations in developing countries use two major sources of recruitment: from outside and from within. Entry-level positions such as village extension workers and agricultural extension officers are filled by outside recruitment, using the services of government placement agencies. Other channels of recruitment are advertisements, private placement agencies, professional search firms, and educational institutions. In some countries, farmers are recruited to help extension agents (Adams, 1982). In Israel, volunteers with practical experience in farming, usually a couple, were recruited as extension workers to help the immigrants. These agents were found to be enthusiastic; they lived with the farmers, set a personal example, and were effective instruments for making desired changes (Blum, 1987).
Most of the extension departments in developing countries have the policy of promoting or recruiting within for middle-level and top-level positions. For example, in India, positions like deputy director, joint director, and additional director of extension are filled through promotion (Vijayaragavan, 1994). The advantages of this policy are that it promotes loyalty and provides opportunities for existing extension staff to get high-level positions. However, its greatest disadvantage is that it prevents the lateral entry of talented extension personnel and promotes complacency because seniority ensures promotion.
Methods and Techniques for Selecting Extension Staff
The selection of extension staff starts with making the job opportunities known to all potential applicants through advertisement. The help of extension workers' training centres, agricultural colleges, rural institutions, and local government agencies may be sought to give wide publicity, as well as to inform candidates living in rural areas. This is followed by screening applicants to short-list suitable candidates and by evaluating potential candidates through various tests.
A typical selection process consists of the following steps: completed job application, initial screening, testing, indepth selection interview, physical examination, and job offer (French, 1982). In general, extension organizations in developing countries use a simple knowledge test and a brief interview to select extension personnel. By using the above method, it is impossible to discriminate an effective candidate from an ineffective candidate, because selecting extension personnel demands thorough, indepth testing of cognitive and noncognitive abilities.
Testing cognitive ability includes a knowledge test, a skill or ability test, and an aptitude test. A noncognitive test is a measure of behavioural dimensions which are important for field-level extension personnel, including concern for and commitment to rural people, empathy, problem-solving orientation, high motivation to influence and educate farmers, ability to work under unsupervised and difficult village conditions, patience and persistence, and team spirit. A good example of selecting village-level extension workers on the basis of behavioural characteristics is provided by the extension project of Allahabad Agricultural Institute (Bathgate, 1956). In response to an advertisement for 27 posts of village guides, 700 to 800 candidates had applied. The final selection procedure consisted of five days of testing skills and attitudes in actual village situations. The test included testing attitudes towards menial tasks like cleaning a cattle shed or digging a compost pit. The candidates' responses to emergency situations were also tested by dropping them into isolated villages.
The assessment centre approach, originally used during World War II, can be used to select extension staff. In this approach, an organization develops its internal resources for assessing new staff. The candidates to be recruited go through a number of simulation exercises, and an expert assesses their behaviour. The techniques used are a psychological test, role play, in-basket exercise, group discussion, projective test, knowledge test, and interviews.
Training and Development
The training of extension personnel contributes directly to the development of human resources within extension organizations. "Training programmes are directed towards maintaining and improving current job performance, while development programmes seek to develop skills for future jobs" (Stoner & Freeman, 1992, p. 388). Training has to start with the identification of training needs through job analysis, performance appraisal, and organizational analysis. Once the training needs of extension personnel have been identified, the next step is to organize training programmes. Methods such as games, role playing, simulation exercises, and case study can be used in extension organizations to create learning situations based on experience (Lynton & Pareek, 1990). Training based on actual field experience should be emphasized. Emerging new farm technologies such as integrated pest management and improved practices in horticulture call for actual field experience. Extension agents need training not only in the technological aspects but also in human relations, problem solving, sensitivity towards disadvantaged groups, and the basic concepts of management (Hayward, 1990).
Effectively developed, employee job descriptions are communication tools that are significant in your organization's success. Poorly written employee job descriptions, on the other hand, add to workplace confusion, hurt communication, and make people feel as if they don't know what is expected from them.
Employee job descriptions are written statements that describe the duties, responsibilities, required qualifications, and reporting relationships of a particular job. Employee job descriptions are based on objective information obtained through job analysis, an understanding of the competencies and skills required to accomplish needed tasks, and the needs of the organization to produce work.
Employee job descriptions clearly identify and spell out the responsibilities of a specific job. Employee job descriptions also include information about working conditions, tools, equipment used, knowledge and skills needed, and relationships with other positions.
Still uncertain about the value of employee job descriptions? Consider these tips about employee job descriptions.
Positives About Employee Job Descriptions
Employee job descriptions provide an opportunity to clearly communicate your company direction and they tell the employee where he or she fits inside of the big picture.
Whether you're a small business or a large, multi-site organization, well-written employee job descriptions will help you align employee direction. Alignment of the people you employ with your goals, vision, and mission spells success for your organization. As a leader, you assure the interfunctioning of all the different positions and roles needed to get the job done for the customer.
Employee job descriptions set clear expectations for what you expect from people.
According to Ferdinand Fournies in Why Don't Employees Do What They're Supposed to Do and What To Do About It, this is the first place to look if people aren't doing what you want them to do. He says you need to make certain that they clearly understand your expectations. This understanding starts with the employee job description.
Employee job descriptions help you cover all your legal bases.
As an example, for compliance with the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA), you'll want to make certain the description of the physical requirements of the job is accurate.
Whether you're recruiting new employees or posting jobs for internal applicants, employee job descriptions tell the candidate exactly what you want in your selected person.
Clear employee job descriptions can help you select your preferred candidates and address the issues and questions of those people who were not selected. Well-written employee job descriptions help organization employees, who must work with the person hired, understand the boundaries of the person's responsibilities.
People who have been involved in the hiring process are more likely to support the success of the new employee or promoted coworker. Developing employee job descriptions is an easy way to involve people in your organization's success. Affirmative Action, Equal Employment Opportunity and Diversity are not to be considered separate actions or initiatives in the recruitment and selection process. Instead, they are key variables which are woven into each step of the process to support UCR’s achievement of excellence.
Step 1: Identify Vacancy and Evaluate Need
Recruitments provide opportunities to departments such as aligning staff skill sets to initiatives and goals and planning for departmental and individual growth. Although there is work involved in the hiring process, proper planning and evaluation of the need will lead to hiring the right person for the role and team.
Newly Created Position
When it is determined a new position is needed, it is important to: * Understand and take into consideration strategic goals for the University and/or department. Are there any upcoming changes that may impact this role? * Conduct a quick analysis of UCR Core Competencies. Are there any gaps? What core skills are missing from the department? Evaluate the core skills required now and those which may be needed in the future. * Conduct a Job Analysis if this position will be new to your department. This will also help to identify gaps.
Replacement
When attrition occurs, replacing the role is typically the logical step to take. Before obtaining approval to advertise the position, consider the following: * As with a newly created position, it may be helpful to conduct a Job Analysis in order to tailor the position to what is currently required and to ensure proper classification. Your HR Classification Analyst can assist in reviewing and completing. * Review the role and decide if there are any changes required as certain tasks and responsibilities performed by the previous person may not or should not be performed by the new person
Carefully evaluate any changes needed for the following: * Level required performing these tasks; considering the appropriate classification level. Be aware that changes in the classification of positions from represented to nonrepresented will require union notice and agreement * Tasks carried out by the previous employee * Tasks to be removed or added if any of the work will be transferred within department * Supervisory or lead responsibility * Budget responsibility (if any) * Work hours * Is there still a requirement for this role at all? top Step 2: Develop Position Description
A position description also referred to as a job description is the core of a successful recruitment process. From the job description, interview questions, interview evaluations and reference checks questions are developed.
A well-written job description: * Provides a first and sometimes, lasting impression of the campus to the candidate * Clearly articulates responsibilities and qualifications to attract the best suited candidates * Improves retention as turnover is highest with newly hired employees. Employees tend to be dissatisfied when they are performing duties they were not originally hired to perform. * Provides an opportunity to clearly articulate the value proposition for the role and the department and helps attract candidates to apply * Optimizes search engine results by ensuring job postings rank highly in candidate search results when searching on-line * Serves as documentation to help prevent, or defend against, discrimination complaints by providing written evidence that employment decisions were based on rational business needs * Determine FLSA classification and to map to the appropriate Payroll Title * Identifies tasks, work flow and accountability, enabling the department to plan how it will operate and grow * Assists in establishing performance objectives * Is used for career planning and training by providing clear distinctions between levels of responsibilities and competencies required * Is used as a benchmark to assist in ensuring internal and external equity
Identify Duties and Responsibilities
Prior to developing the job description the hiring manager should identify the following: 1. General Information 2. Position Purpose 3. Essential Functions 4. Minimum Requirements 5. Preferred Qualifications
1. General Information
Basic position and pay information will need to be determined to assist with the development of the job description and job classification and for entering into the ATS. This information will be different for each position being recruited: * Title Code — The Title Code determines the Payroll Title, FLSA status, Personnel Program Code and Description, and the Bargaining Unit Code and Description fields in the ATS. * Pay Grade/Step * Working Title — Market titles should be recognizable and common to various industries as most job seekers search for commonly referred to market titles when conducting on-line job searches * Department Name * Department Head * Supervisor Name * Title Codes and Full-Time Equivalent numbers of employees supervised * Special Requirements and Conditions: * Specific requirements job seekers must possess or complete in order to be hired (e.g. background check, valid driver’s license, etc.) * BFOQs which are in compliance with UCR’s applicable policies (e.g. physical or mental requirements) * Contact Staff Employment and Development for assistance with special requirements and conditions
2. Position Purpose
Describes the department’s functions, the unit’s functions, and/or the organizational unit’s functions. The statement should summarize the position’s essential functions and its role in relation to supporting, administering, or managing the activities of the department, unit, or organizational unit.
Posted Position Purpose — The posted Position Purpose will be searchable and viewable by job seekers on UCR’s job board and other posting sites. Therefore it is important to ensure it: * Includes a description of the role and its relation to the department, organization and University * Includes the estimated duration (i.e. Limited 6-9 months or Contract 2.5 years) for non-Career positions * Lists the number of openings when there is more than one position being recruited * Is written with a marketing angle to attract a talented diverse pool of applicants * Is optimized for search engines * Candidates conduct job searches by entering key words or phrases into search engines. * Most candidates utilize “job aggregators” such as Google and Indeed versus searching individual company job posts. * To ensure your position reaches the top of candidate search results, include key words such as “career”, “job”, skills and title of the position in the beginning of the posted position description (first 150 words).
Attracting a Talented Diverse Applicant Pool: * Once you have identified the position purpose, essential functions and qualifications, you will want to go back and review the description. Is it written to attract an individual who is a top performer? Does it describe the inclusive culture of your organization? Does it state the value proposition for the role and the university * Marketing the job to a diverse audience is just as important as accurately describing the role. For more information and tips visit the Best Practices for Attracting a Diverse Workforce webpage.
3. Essential Job Functions
Essential job functions describe the duties and responsibilities of a position. A job function is considered essential when the performance of the function is the purpose for the position. Typically, an essential function occupies a significant amount of time of the employee’s time and requires specialized skills to perform. By accurately describing the essential functions of the job, job seekers will have a clear understanding of the role and your expectations for performing them.
When developing essential functions for the position the following should be noted: * Functions of the job which are critical for the position are arranged by importance and percentage of time spent * Complexity level and authority for the role should be described to help attract the appropriate level of qualified candidates * Essential tasks listed should be inter-related to the accomplishment of the essential function.

e.g., The essential function of event planning is composed of several independent tasks including scheduling and securing the venue; interviewing vendors and executing contracts for service; arranging for food delivery; supervising event workers and ensuring clean up. Therefore, the various tasks required to successfully accomplish the essential function should be identified and described.
4. Minimum Requirements
The minimum requirements or “basic qualifications” are those qualifications or criteria which was established in advance and advertised to potential applicants: * Must be relevant and relate back to the duties and responsibilities of the job (e.g., should not list driving requirement if not part of responsibilities or duties of the job). * “Soft skills” can be required qualifications (e.g., communication/collaboration) and will: * Vary among applicants * Cannot be ascertained in resume * Able to evaluate in interview * Can be position/department specific (e.g. valid driver’s license) * Can be assessed by reviewing the resume * Must be objective, non-comparative and business-related: * Objective * Correct: Bachelor’s degree in Business Administration * Incorrect: A business degree from a “good school” * Non-comparative * Correct: 5 to 7 years of experience designing computer software programs * Incorrect: Must be one of the top five among the applicants in years of experience * Business-related * Correct: 5+ years of experience in accounting * Incorrect: Must have experience with volunteering for Habitat for Humanity * The minimum requirements should support the accomplishment of the essential function. For example, the essential function of event planning could require: * Organizational skills (to ensure all details are cared for) * Communication skills (to interact with vendors and guests) * Prior event planning experience
Listing too many skills as requirements significantly limits your applicant pool and selection. A good rule of thumb is no more than 3-5 required skills depending upon the level of the position.
5. Preferred Qualifications
Preferred qualifications are skills and experience preferred in addition to basic qualifications and can be used to narrow down the pool of applicants. These preferred skills, knowledge, abilities and competencies can describe a more proficient level at which the essential functions can be performed such as: * Prior experience with corporate/institutional event planning (prior experience in a related area can be preferred) and knowledge of applicable UC policies and procedures (prior experience within the UC system can be preferred). * UCR experience, certifications and/or advanced degree are additional
Applicants who meet some or all preferred qualifications (e.g. UC experience) tend to have shorter assimilation time, reach full job competence faster and are able to take on advanced responsibilities sooner.
Career Ladder Recruitments
When the scope of the position and the department needs allow for varying levels of skills and experience, a position may be advertised with multiple job titles at different levels within a single class series. Refer to UCR Local Procedure 20: Recruitment for more information. top Step 3: Develop Recruitment Plan
Each position requires a documented Recruitment Plan which is approved by the organizational unit. A carefully structured recruitment plan maps out the strategy for attracting and hiring the best qualified candidate and helps to ensure an applicant pool which includes women and underrepresented groups including veterans and individuals with disabilities.
In addition to the position’s placement goals the plan contains advertising channels to be used to achieve those goals. The recruitment plan is typically developed by the hiring manager in conjunction with the Departmental HR Coordinator. Placement goals identified are entered into the position requisition in the ATS.
To ensure the most current placement goals are identified for the department and unit, you may contact the office of Faculty and Staff Affirmative Action. Recruitment Plan Elements:
A. Posting Period
B. Placement Goals
C. Additional Advertising Resources
D. Diversity Agencies
E. Resume Banks
A. Posting Period * Minimum posting requirements are as follows: * Professional Support Staff (PSS) – 10 business days from date posted beginning the next business day * Management/Senior Professional (MSP) – 15 business days from date posted beginning the next business day * “Open until filled” is an option for both PSS and MSP positions which allows the posting to remain open and viewable on the career site until filled. This option is recommended for all recruitments. * Continuous Recruitment — To be used only for on-going recruitment such as lab assistants, custodial support, etc.
B. Placement Goals * Placement goals are required for each recruitment * Review your Placement Goals and develop a recruitment plan which will assist in reaching those goals * To ensure the most current placement goals are identified for the department and unit, you may contact the office of Faculty and Staff Affirmative Action. * Placement Goals should include outreach efforts to veterans and individuals with disabilities
C. Additional Advertising Resources * A variety of recruiting sources (both internally and externally) should be utilized to attract candidates who reflect the diversity UCR values in its workforce. Every effort should be made to conduct a thorough search by advertising widely before filling a position.
Note: Any advertising related to employment at UCR and/or recruitment (job) advertising should include this statement in the body of the advertisement:
“UCR is an Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action Employer with a strong institutional commitment to the achievement of excellence and diversity among its faculty and staff.”
Internet job boards
UCR sponsored — UCR Staff positions which are posted on the UCR Jobs website are automatically posted to the following UCR contracted job boards: * Southern California Higher Education * InsideHigherEd.com * CAL Jobs (State Required) * Diverse Issues in Higher Education (must be manually launched via JobTarget) * Additional job boards: * Available through JobTarget, over 3,000 job boards available which include diversity job boards — targeted to women and under-represented groups, and niche job boards — targeted to individuals by technical discipline or industry. * Job posting rates vary and are charged to the organizational unit. Contact your Service Center or Departmental HR Coordinator for more information.
Print Advertisement * Local media, national publications (not used as frequently, but may be suitable for certain positions) and other paper advertisements * JobTarget can provide assistance with most advertising media by coordinating your ad placement. Contact your Service Center or Departmental Human Resources Coordinator for assistance. * Associations and other member groups which are helpful in targeting candidates with specific niche skillsets
Social Media
LinkedIn, Twitter and Facebook are good alternative recruiting sources. Contact your Service Center or Departmental HR Coordinator to learn more about these tools and their proper use. Refer to University of California Recruitment Through the Use of Social Networks.
Job Fairs
Before the internet, job fairs were considered a popular method for meeting candidates face-to-face. They were used as a vehicle to promote organizations by promoting the organization’s image and brand. Job fairs such as those aimed at diverse candidates or industry specific, are still considered one of the best methods for meeting potential candidates in a single event
Professional Conference and Campus Recruiting
Conference and campus recruiting events are a great way to market UCR and your department and provide you with an opportunity to network with potential qualified candidates for current and future openings.
Conference and campus career centers may offer to assist you in your recruitment needs by providing job posting services and interviewing facilities.
When utilizing these events for current recruitments, the standard hiring process is followed to include: * Posting the Job: Ensure the position is posted on Jobs@ucr.edu and all applicants are directed to apply on-line * Conducting Interviews * All qualified applicants selected for interviews receive short-list approval prior to being interviewed * On-site Screening Interviews * Screening interviews conducted to gather preliminary information on prospective candidates * To be conducted by more than one committee member in attendance * Screened-in applicants invited to interview with all committee members * On-Site Selection Interviews * Interviews used to make final hiring decisions * Requires all committee members to be in attendance
In order to ensure fairness and equity in the hiring process for interviewees not in attendance, the guidelines set forth in Conducting Virtual Interviews are to be followed.
D. Diversity Agencies * Agencies which assist women and under-represented groups are another great source of talent * Developing relationships and a pipeline of potential candidates with these agencies allows candidates to have a better understanding of your staffing needs and the University’s mission and values * Contact Human Resources for more information on diversity agencies.
E. Resume Banks
Resume banks are another good source for identifying qualified candidates. Job seekers post their resume to these which are then searched by prospective employers. The following resume banks provide access to UCR HR Departmental and Organization HR Coordinators: * Southern California Higher Education * InsideHigherEd.com
To request log-in access, contact Staff Employment and Development.
OFCCP’s record keeping requirements for 3rd party resume searches are: * Title of the position for which each search of the database was made * The search criteria used * Date of the search * Names of resumes of any job seekers who met the minimum qualifications and whom you requested to apply
This required information is to be documented in the comments section of the requisition in the ATS. top Step 4: Select Search Committee
To ensure applicants selected for interview and final consideration are evaluated by more than one individual to minimize the potential for personal bias, a selection committee is formed. The hiring manager will identify members who will have direct and indirect interaction with the applicant in the course of their job. Each hiring manager should make an effort to appoint a search committee that represents a diverse cross section of the staff. A member of the committee will be appointed as the Affirmative Action and Compliance Liaison who will monitor the affirmative action aspects of the search committee. Under-represented groups and women are to have equal opportunity to serve on search committees and special efforts should be made to encourage participation. Departments that lack diversity in their own staff should consider appointing staff outside the department to search committees or develop other alternatives to broaden the perspective of the committee.
For positions that are frequently recruited and utilize a search committee, the mix of search committee members should change frequently as well to minimize the risk of “group think” or collective bias. * The Hiring Manager will determine the size (no more than 6) and composition of the committee based on the nature of the position. It is highly recommended the committee members include: * At least one individual who has a strong understanding of the role and its contribution to the department * A job specialist (technical or functional) * Staff representative if position has supervisory responsibilities * An individual who will interact closely with the position and/or serves as a main customer * Search committee members must ensure no conflict of interest in relation to the applicants under consideration and must never be individuals who may have interest in the position * Search committee members should ensure they are well equipped for their role in the recruitment process to ensure fairness and compliance. The following tools are available to assist committee members with the recruitment process: * Staff Search Committee FAQs * Search Committee Checklist * Each committee member is expected to be well versed in the recruitment and selection process and have an understanding of laws related to Affirmative Action and Equal Employment Opportunity. The following training opportunities are available (registration through UC Learning Center). At a minimum, the search committee member must have completed one of the learning activities listed below before serving on the committee: * Training workshop - Affirmative Action 101 * Training workshop - Recruitment & Selection Strategies for the Hiring Manager * Recruitment Advertising & Affirmative Action webinar * Diversify and Train the Search Committee tutorial * It is recommended the committee communicate prior to the application review to determine criteria for applicant evaluation * The Search Committee Chair should ensure that all members of the committee are thoroughly familiar with the job description top Step 5: Post Position and Implement Recruitment Plan
Once the position description has been completed, the position can then be posted to the UCR career site via the ATS. Every effort should be made to ensure the accuracy of the job description and posting text. It is not advisable and in some instances, not possible to change elements of a posted position. The reason for this has to do with the impact a given change may have on the applicant pool.
To post the position: * The requisition is created by the Service Center Human Resources Coordinator or Departmental Human Resources Coordinator and approved by the Service Center HR Organizational Coordinator or Organizational HR Coordinator * Once approved, the Departmental HR Coordinator or Service Center will review the requisition and route online to the HR Classification Analyst who will assign the classification * The requisition is then routed to the HR Recruitment Analyst who will post the position * Applications can be reviewed once the minimum number of posting days has been reached * Internal candidates will apply through the regular application process and will be included in the candidate pool along with external candidates (see 6.0 Special Considerations for details)
Talent Sourcing and Outreach
In order to identify the widest and talented applicant pool, sourcing and outreach activities should be engaged. Passive candidate sourcing is an activity which can be conducted during this phase in the recruitment process. This is typically done using social media and networking channels. OFCCP has specific guidance on this area of recruitment. Contact Lorena Velasquez for information.
Monitoring/Updating Recruitment Plan/Diversity Strategy
Continuous monitoring of recruitment activity and recruitment plan effectiveness is critical to a successful search.
Special attention should be given to the progress of the diversity strategy. Applicant pools for each recruitment can be monitored by search committee members throughout the recruitment cycle by reviewing the Affirmative Action Statistics located in the ATS. top Step 6: Review Applicants and Develop Short List
Once the position has been posted, candidates will apply via UCR’s job board. Candidates will complete an electronic applicant for each position (resume and cover letter are optional). Candidates will be considered “Applicants” or “Expressions of Interest”.
All applicants must be reviewed and considered. Applicants are those who apply during the initial application period as described in Step 5. Candidates who apply after the initial application period will be considered “expressions of interest” and not viewable by the search committee.
It is recommended that all search committee members review all Applicants to ensure more than one person assesses their qualifications and that individual opinion or biases are avoided. Each committee member may provide comments to each Applicant’s qualifications as they relate to the minimum requirements of the position.
Upon the search committee’s review of each Applicant, the Chair or Chair’s Associate will review all search committee comments and develop the short list. Once the short list has been determined, the AACO will request an Affirmative Action Applicant Pool Statistics analysis from the OFSAA. If the short list is deemed to represent a sufficiently diverse applicant pool, the short list will be approved. Once approved, the applicants can then be contacted for interviews.
If the shortlist is not sufficiently diverse in light of the department’s placement goals, the OFSSA will contact the Search Committee Chair or Chair’s Associate to discuss how the pool might be diversified. One option might be to review the existing applicant pool to evaluate any additional qualified applicants prior to reviewing applicants who are expressions of interest status. If it is determined the expressions of interests are to be reviewed, the Search Committee Chair or Chair’s Associate may move those in the expression of interest status to the applicant pool, in one or more batches on certain date(s) and time(s), as needed to achieve a sufficiently diverse and qualified pool. All expressions of interest candidates moved to the applicant pool are to be reviewed by the search committee.
Note: Several bargaining unit contracts contain language related to applicant screening. Refer to the appropriate contract for specific requirements. top Step 7: Conduct Interview
The interview is the single most important step in the selection process. It is the opportunity for the employer and prospective employee to learn more about each other and validate information provided by both. By following these interviewing guidelines, you will ensure you have conducted a thorough interview process and have all necessary data to properly evaluate skills and abilities.
Preparing for the Interview
Once the short list (typically 3-5 identified for interview) is approved by the Office of Faculty and Staff Affirmative Action, the interview process can begin. It is important to properly prepare for the interview as this is the opportunity to evaluate the skills and competencies and validate the information the applicant has provided in their application and resume. Choose one or two questions from each competency and minimally required skills to develop your interview questions. Review the applicant's application or resume and make note of any issues that you need to follow-up on.
For special accommodations requested by the interviewee, contact the Disability Management Office.
The Committee Chair should determine the following: * Format of the interview and order of questions * Questions to be asked of all applicants * Specific questions to be asked of individual applicants * Who is going to ask which questions * Determine if a work sample should be submitted * The optimum start date for the position * Any other details applicants may need about the role that were not noted in the position description
Prior to the interviews being conducted, the Search Committee Chair will notify members to download the application packets form iRecruit. The Search Committee Chair will provide the committee with interviewee comparison tools to assist in the evaluation process.
Phone Interviews
A phone interview may be conducted to initially screen the applicant for information such as availability, salary requirements, special position requirements (e.g. ability to perform shift work) and other preliminary information. Although a phone interview should not ordinarily take the place of the in-person interview, it is possible to screen out an applicant due to information obtained during this initial screening. Phone interviews should be properly documented and attended by all search committee members if possible.
Panel Interviews
Prior to the panel interview, committee members should ensure they know which interview questions each will ask. Committee members should limit the number of questions to 2-4 to allow sufficient time for all committee members to participate.
At the start of the interview, introductions of the Chair and panel members, including names and job titles/roles, are given. Next, the Chair should outline the format of the interview so that the candidate is aware of what is going to happen.
A typical format might be: * Introductions of each panel member * A brief description of the role they are being interviewed for * Describe how the interview panel will conduct the interview (e.g. each alternates questions and all will take notes) * The candidate gives an overview of their experience * Each panel member provides their questions * The interviewee is given time at the end to ask questions * The interviewee is informed of the next step (e.g. will be contacted either by phone or in writing of the outcome) * Thank the candidate for coming and ensure someone shows the candidate out
Virtual Interviews
To reduce travel costs and time associated with interviewing out of area applicants, virtual interviews can provide an alternative method to the in-person interview. Guidelines for conducting virtual interviews are as follows:
To ensure fairness and equity in the interview process, it is recommended out of area applicants are provided an opportunity to interview in the same manner as local applicants during each stage of the interview process. Departments should cover the travel costs associated with out of area applicant interviews.
When department budgetary constraints do not allow for a consistent interview process, on an exception basis, the following may be practiced when interviewing both local and out of area applicants: * First Round Interviews * Out of area applicants provided the opportunity to interview in person * Department may offer to cover travel costs, but are not required * Second/Final Interviews * All applicants provided the opportunity to interview in person * Department covers travel costs
Interview Questions
Typical interview questions used are those which are relevant to the position and seek information on specific skills and abilities to perform the job such as “describe your experience working with students in an academic environment and/or post-secondary degree-granting institutions”. Interview questions not pertaining to the current requirements of the position are not to be used (e.g. an interview question on supervisory experience if position will not be supervising employees).
The use of behavioral and/or competency based interview questions are strongly encouraged as, when properly crafted, they allow the interviewer to obtain more meaningful data to determine the applicant’s ability to carry out the duties and responsibilities of the job, as well assess their ability to adhere to the University’s core competencies. Behavioral/competency based interview questions do not simply ask “if” they performed a certain task, they ask “how”. They can be designed to probe specifically for past behaviors, competencies and characteristics which are believed to predict future behavior.
Examples of behavioral/competency interview questions include: * We often need to explore many details and aspects of a particular problem before coming up with an effective solution. If you can, give me an example of how you’ve done this in the recent past (Detail-oriented) * Tell me about a time when you found it necessary to speak to co-workers about the quality of their work because it posed a real or potential risk to the organization (Quality-focused) * Tell me about a time when you were able to maintain your poise and composure in a delicate situation (Emotional Intelligence) * Some tasks require you to fully think through the results. Tell me about a time when you avoided making a quick decision because you faced these circumstances (Problem Analysis)
Appropriate/(Prohibited) Inappropriate Interview Questions
Although many interview questions may appear to be harmless, it is illegal to ask applicants questions that are not job related and/or personal in nature or that would otherwise solicit protected information. All interviewers should review the list of Appropriate/Inappropriate Interview Questions prior to conducting the interview to ensure illegal questions are avoided.
After the Interview
Upon completing the interview, committee members will complete the Search Committee Interview Rating Sheet which is forwarded to the Committee Chair at the end of the interviews. Candidate evaluations should be sure to include only those comments which are relevant to the requirements of the position.
Testing and other Selection Methods
Tests and other selection methods such as requesting work samples are additional tools used to asses candidates.
Because tests must be validated using statistical methods and administered consistently across the hiring process, all tests, along with their administration procedure and scoring rubric, must be approved by Human Resources and the Office of Faculty and Staff Affirmative Action prior to use.
The EEOC has set for the following Employer guidelines when developing and administering tests: * Employers should administer tests and other selection procedures without regard to race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age (40 or older), or disability. * If a selection procedure screens out a protected group, the employer should determine whether there is an equally effective alternative selection procedure that has less adverse impact and, if so, adopt the alternative procedure. For example, if the selection procedure is a test, the employer should determine whether another test would predict job performance but not disproportionately exclude the protected group. * To ensure that a test or selection procedure remains predictive of success in a job, employers should keep abreast of changes in job requirements and should update the test specifications or selection procedures accordingly. * Employers should ensure that tests and selection procedures are not adopted casually by managers who know little about these processes. A test or selection procedure can be an effective management tool, but no test or selection procedure should be implemented without an understanding of its effectiveness and limitations for the organization, its appropriateness for a specific job, and whether it can be appropriately administered and scored. * Employers should ensure that employment tests and other selection procedures are properly validated for the positions and purposes for which they are used. The test or selection procedure must be job-related and its results appropriate for the employer's purpose. While a test vendor's documentation supporting the validity of a test may be helpful, the employer is still responsible for ensuring that its tests are valid.
Tests and sample work products should not be relied upon as the only screening tool and should only be required of short list candidates.
As an alternative to testing applicants, requesting applicants provide job related written certifications of completion for coursework or technical/industry certifications (as related to the position) help to provide a measure of skill aptitude to further evaluate qualifications.
Welcoming the Interviewee
Ensuring a good interview experience increases the likelihood that they will be able to communicate their attributes effectively. From providing the interviewee with proper directions to greeting with a firm handshake, it demonstrates your genuine interest in their time and effort and helps them to feel calm and confident. Interviewing can be a very stressful experience for some and the more at ease an interviewee is, the better you are able to identify true attributes. The following should be considered: * Panel interviews, if conducted, can be an even more intimidating environment for an interviewee, so remember to break the ice if possible * When organizing interviews, it is best to assign a person who ensures the interviewees have the proper directions, parking details and who is easily accessible on the date of the interview * Allow enough time for the interview so the interviewee does not feel rushed. Let the interviewee do most of the talking. Remember the 80/20 rule. The interviewee should be doing 80% of the talking. While it’s important to articulate the needs of your department and the role, this is the one time you will have to gather as much data to evaluate their experience and ensure a proper fit. * Be sure to review the interviewee’s resume in advance to demonstrate your interest in their skills and background as this helps in appearing prepared and organized. Take notes and ask for clarification on responses if needed. * Be sure to avoid any inappropriate or illegal interview questions (see Prohibited Interview Questions). * University literature (if available) and benefit information should be provided to the applicant at the conclusion of the interview top Step 8: Select Hire
Final Applicant
Once the interviews have been completed, the committee will meet to discuss the interviewees. Committee members will need to assess the extent to which each one met their selection criteria.
The search committee rating sheet will be helpful in justifying decisions and making them as objective as possible.
The most important thing to remember is that you will need to be able to justify your decision. Documentation is key and required to be in compliance with OFCCP requirements. As one of the most critical steps in the process, it is important to keep the following in mind: * The best candidate for the position was chosen based on qualifications * The candidate will help to carry out the University and Department’s missions
Reference Checks
Reference checks should be conducted on the final applicant prior to making an offer. While it is advisable to conduct a reference with the candidate’s current supervisor before a candidate starts employment, if the candidate is reluctant a conditional offer of employment can be made.
Before you begin the reference check process, be sure to:
1. Prepare carefully * Familiarize yourself thoroughly with the information the applicant has already provided, including the application, resume, work sample (if applicable) and interview responses * Identify areas that require elaboration or verification such as the work sample * Set up a telephone appointment with one or more references provided by the applicant * Many employers are prohibited from providing information without a release, so if requested, send the signed Applicant Release and Disclosure consent form and the job description (optional) in advance of your telephone call * Write down your questions before you call, highlighting the information you want verified or expanded upon. * Note: You may consider conducting reference checks on all finalists before the final selection is made.
2. Set up an environment that encourages the reference to respond willingly, cooperatively, and honestly. * Begin your conversation on common ground by referring to information that has already been provided by the applicant.

For example:” John Doe has asked us to speak with you regarding information he has already shared with us during the interview process.” Or “I'm calling to verify information provided by Mary Roe.”
3. Describe the position * Describe the responsibilities, duties, and working environment of the position for which the individual has applied. * After describing the position, ask, “Given our requirements, what is your assessment of the individual’s qualifications for the job?”
4. In addition to your prepared questions, ask follow-up questions * If you get a general response (“She's great!”), follow up with a specific question (“What did she do to merit that compliment? or “Why did she leave?” or “How have things changed since she left?”) * If the reference provider declines to answer a question, ask if someone else might be able to share information about the topic.
5. Ask questions that are specifically job-related * There are legal ramifications if you ask illegal/ inappropriate questions that may have to do with race, color, national origin, religion, sex, physical or mental disability, medical condition, ancestry, marital status, age, sexual orientation, citizenship, or status as a covered veteran.
Ask the same basic questions about all applicants for whom you obtain references to ensure consistency. Weigh information you receive in the same manner for all applicants.
Social network tools such as Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn are not be used to conduct reference or background checks. Refer to University of California Guidelines Recruitment Through the Use of Social Networks.
Additional information and guidelines can be found on the Reference Checks webpage.
Mandated Hiring Prerequisites
Depending upon the nature of the position, additional hiring prerequisites may be required. Any costs associated with these prerequisites are the responsibility of the hiring department. Additional information can be found on the Mandated Hiring Prerequisites webpage. top Step 9: Finalize Recruitment
Upon completion of the recruitment process the offer to the selected finalist is made. The salary to be offered is to be equitable and lead to the retention and motivation of employees.
Prior to initiating the offer, it is recommended that one more check of the selection process be completed as follows: * Review the duties and responsibilities of the position and ensure they were accurately described and reflected in the job description and interview process * Review selection criteria used to ensure they were based on the qualifications listed for the position * Confirm interview questions clearly matched the selection criteria * Confirm all applicants were treated uniformly in the recruitment, screening, interviewing and final selection process
Initiating the Offer * Once a final check of the selection process and the final applicant has been determined, the Committee Chair or designee will notify the Departmental HR Coordinator with the finalist’s name, salary and start date enter the selection information into the ATS * The Departmental HR Coordinator reviews the requisition in the ATS and ensures all applicants on the requisition have been assigned a decision code * The Departmental HR Coordinator forwards this information to the Organizational HR Coordinator for review and approval * Once approved, the Departmental HR Coordinator notifies the Committee Chair or designee of offer approval * The Committee Chair or designee makes the offer to the finalist
Note: A verbal offer of employment and the finalist’s verbal acceptance creates a contractual relationship – therefore, ensure the offer has been approved prior to verbally offering the position
Negotiating the Offer * Whenever possible, it’s recommended your best offer be made the first time as this displays proper market and internal equity practices and demonstrates good faith to the applicant. As salary requirements would have been identified earlier on in the recruitment process, there should be a good understanding of the applicant’s requirements and whether you are able to work with those requirements. * When offering the finalist the position, be sure to discuss the total compensation package (in addition to salary) such as paid time off and retirement benefits. Be excited and enthusiastic about the offer and let them know you are excited about them joining your team. * UCR benefits and retirement programs are great selling points. In many cases, they are a key factor when deciding on accept or decline the offer. Finalists with additional benefit related questions should be referred to the Benefits webpage or Central Human Resources Benefits office. * Lastly, if possible, discuss the great learning and development opportunities which may be available to them in achieving their professional goals. Most individuals value this just as much, in some cases more, than the base salary being offered.
Countering the Offer * Despite your best offer, there may be instances where the applicant declines * Discuss the reasons for the offer being declined with the applicant – and look beneath the surface. Applicants decline offers for various reasons and not always due to the salary being offered. * If an offer is declined due to salary, the department may make a counter offer provided the amount is within the appropriate guidelines for the role and department * Counter offers must be reviewed and approved by the Organizational HR Coordinator
Finalizing the Offer
It is important that each recruitment be properly closed, including the notification of those interviewed and not selected, as well as all documentation associated with the recruitment be uploaded to the ATS.
To ensure proper closure, the Staff Recruitment and Selection Checklist should be completed and the following actions conducted: * Once an offer has been accepted, the Committee Chair or designee notifies the Departmental HR Coordinator and requests the offer letter be sent * The Departmental HR Coordinator prepares and sends the offer letter * The Departmental HR Coordinator ensures written acceptance of offer * The Departmental HR Coordinator enters the finalist information into the ATS upon receipt of the signed offer (see iRecruit User Guide for instructions) * The Departmental HR Coordinator contacts those individuals interviewed and not selected (at a minimum) by phone or letter. If contact is made by phone, ensure the conversation is documented. * The Departmental HR Coordinator ensures all recruitment related documents are uploaded to the requisition in the ATS * Upon notification of the recruitment being closed, the Departmental HR Coordinator will close out the requisition in the ATS

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