Free Essay

John Searle's Chinese Argument

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By teddymuchangi
Words 626
Pages 3
Name
Professor
Course
Date
John Searle’s Chinese Room Argument When coming up with the ‘Chinese Room’ argument, John Searle was looking to establish whether or not machines can be termed as “intelligent” judging by the kind of accurate outputs they produce, given a specific kind of input. He specifically aimed at refuting the functionalism claim that, just like people, machines with the ability to run programs are presumed to have consciousness and a brain. In Searle’s argument, he creates a scenario where one is locked in a Chinese room without any knowledge of the Chinese dialect but is expected to answer questions in Chinese. As per his theory, an English-Chinese guide would allow one to answer the questions accurately but not understand the conversation. In relation to this, John Searle concludes that a computer has no ability to understand or achieve consciousness no matter how intelligent the underlying computer program might be. According to the argument, a human being with no knowledge of the Chinese language is locked in a room. He is issued a set of English guidelines that help him relate each set of Chinese symbols to another set. Basically, the rules are to guide the individual on how to use the Chinese characters to answer the questions brought forward. At the end of the process, the Chinese illiterate will be in a position to write down Chinese answers to the questions, which are also in Chinese. To those that posed the question, the individual will seem to have proper understanding of the Chinese dialect; both oral and written. However, the fact is that the individual has no comprehension of the entire dialogue. All he has done is correlate the symbols to a matching set of symbols based on the given English guidelines. Similarly, it cannot be said that a computer has a ‘brain’ of its own based on the fact that a program assists it in carrying out specific intellectual tasks. Just as the individual does not understand the Chinese symbols even after answering the questions, so does the computer, regardless of how intelligent it might seem. The English guidelines in the ‘Chinese room’ scenario represent the program that guides the computer in achieving the desired output. Were it not for the program, the computer could not process information. Basically, the computer is an instantiation of the underlying program. Consequently, John Searle’s prime objection was against the ‘strong Al’ philosophical ideology. “Al” in this case stood for “artificial intelligence”. As per this position, a computer or any computerized machine is more than just a tool of study for the mind. According to strong Al arguments, the computer is a brain in its own capacity given the fact that it is said to hold various cognitive states if it uses the appropriate programs. One of the key states in this regard is the ability to understand. However, based on Searle’s ‘Chinese room’ argument, there are no sufficient grounds to claim that the computer understands what it processes under the guide of a program. In both scenarios, Chinese room and computer programs, there is no understanding. The two simply follow standard formal principles so as to achieve the desired output. In conclusion, understanding refers majorly to the possession of specific intentional states of the mind. Seeing that computers only function based on guidelines availed by respective programs, no form of intentionality is exhibited. In order for one to have understanding, as well as other states of mind, the internalizing of certain validity levels has to come from within and directed towards specific state of affairs or objects. This brings about the whole aspect of intentionality in understanding, which computers lack in. Hence, computers do not have consciousness, understanding or any cognitive mental state.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

John Searle's Chinese Room Argument

...John Searle is an American philosopher born in 1932 and attended Oxford University. The Chinese room argument is Searle’s way of refuting the Strong A.I. thought that running an adequately complex program is sufficient for thinking by showing how running a computer program is not sufficient for the computer to be thinking. The argument goes that a person who has never seen the Chinese language in any form is sitting in a room sealed from the outside world. In the room, there is a basket full of Chinese symbols and a book that shows what symbols to put together when responding to a group of symbols on a piece of paper that has been slipped into the room by a Chinese speaker. The man in the room following the instructions can trick the Chinese...

Words: 711 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Chinese Room Argument

...\ The Chinese Room Argument The Chinese Room argument was developed by John Searle in the early 1980’s. The argument was designed to prove that strong artificial intelligence was not possible. While the argument itself is flawless, John Searle’s opinion that strong artificial intelligence is impossible is not. The Chinese room argument is really more of a thought provoking experiment. You are asked to imagine an English speaking man in a room, within this room there is nothing but tools to which he can translate Chinese symbols. The man in the room is passed these symbols through a slit on one side of the room, and using his tools he must translate them. Then, he passes the translations through the slit in the other side of the room, and to the people outside the room it looks like he understands Chinese. Searle’s argument is that just because it looks like the man understands the Chinese symbols, and has the tools to translate the Chinese Symbols, doesn’t mean he actually understands the symbols. Within this argument the man represents a computer. The symbols are given to the computer, the computers programming allows the computer to translate the symbols, and the computer gives an answer. At no point does this imply the computer understands the original information it was given. The computer was simply programmed to be able to function as such(Gams 231). Using words and substituting the word Computer for Strong Artificial Intelligence the argument would sound...

Words: 1133 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

John Searle

...As human beings we are biologically wired to live with intention. Part 1 Strong Artificial Intelligence says that a functioning computer can accurately represent the cognition of a human mind. (133) Meaning that the essence of computer programs are considered to be identical to those of mental states in the brain. (explain more AI claims) In “Minds, Brains and Programs”, John Searle is arguing against the claims supporting Strong Artificial Intelligence. The Chinese Room Experiment is used to explain the difference between understanding and the simulation of understanding. It goes as follows: Searle is sitting in a room and is given a box of Chinese letters in which he will interpret, using a set of english rules, to respond in a way...

Words: 1581 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Chinese Room Argument

...On the “Minds, Brains, and Programs” by John Searle, he demonstrates that the idea of “synthetic machine” being able to think the same manner as the human does is erroneous. Searle uses his famous “Chinese Room” thought experiment as an example in his reasoning to establish his justification. Furthermore the experiment is proposed to disprove “philosophical position” that Searle called “strong AI (Artificial Intelligence).” Searle’s “thought experiment” starts with this theoretical proposition: assume that “artificial intelligence” has been successful in developing a computer that carries on as though it comprehends Chinese. It takes Chinese characters as data by following a guideline of a computer programs, generates other Chinese characters,...

Words: 988 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Intelligence Is Wrong

...Amanda Pollock 11-02-15 U57476929 When Artificial Intelligence Is Wrong When thinking about whether strong AI (artificial intelligence) as compatible source for understanding the way of thinking and let alone machines is practically irrelevant according to John R. Searle (Searle 372). In terms of thinking and the aspects of a machine is far more complex than that of an ordinary strong AI. Machines in general have a great deal more going on than just a symbol manipulation system such of that as a strong AI. Ultimately the strong AI would then be incapable of being able to help understand machines and the aspect of thinking. Furthermore, the definition of “machine” needs to be reiterated in a simpler term to help explain this issue....

Words: 1229 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

John Searle's Chinese Room Summary

...In this essay I will argue that John Searle’s Chinese Room does not refute the possibility of strong AI. The thought experiment goes something like this: Imagine you are a monolingual English speaker in a room with boxes full of Chinese symbols, and a guide book that maps sequences of symbols to other sequences of symbols. You receive a piece of paper with symbols on it from outside the room, the input, and, using the guidebook, the program, arrange and pass different sets of symbols out of the room. Unbeknownst to you, the symbols you pass out, the output, are carrying on a fluent Chinese conversation with a person outside of the room. Strong AI is the position that a computer running a sufficiently advanced program could generate mental states that are identical to those generated by humans, that is, the AI would be conscious in the same way we are. Contrast this with weak AI, which merely mimics human behaviour, without the corresponding mental states. Searle maintains that any system that operates in a purely syntactic manner will never be intelligent in the same manner a human is,...

Words: 835 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Nogotiation

...Artificial intelligence From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "AI" redirects here. For other uses, see Ai. For other uses, see Artificial intelligence (disambiguation). Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents"[1] where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success.[2] John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955,[3] defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines."[4] AI research is highly technical and specialized, deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other.[5] Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also divided by several technical issues. There are subfields which are focussed on the solution of specific problems, on one of several possible approaches, on the use of widely differing tools and towards the accomplishment of particular applications. The central problems of AI include such traits as reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.[6] General intelligence (or "strong AI") is still among the field's long term goals.[7] Currently popular approaches include......

Words: 7301 - Pages: 30

Free Essay

Los Límites de La Humanidad

...Ensayos EL CONFLICTO ENTRE LO NATURAL Y LO ARTIFICIAL Los Límites del Humano Marcel Casella 2013 Maracaibo Contenido Resumen ................................................................................................................................. 2 ¿Qué es la trascendencia? Una introducción .......................................................................... 3 Las nuevas amenazas tecnológicas ......................................................................................... 7 Lo natural y lo artificial ........................................................................................................ 12 El hombre y la máquina ........................................................................................................ 14 La prisión del alma ............................................................................................................... 18 Bibliografía ........................................................................................................................... 20 1 RESUMEN En la búsqueda del significado de la vida, el hombre ha encontrado muchos obstáculos, de entre los cuales ha sido él mismo el más grande de todos. El impulso casi irresistible de seguir adelante se ve muchas veces inhibido por el miedo al cambio o el arraigo a la costumbre. La humanidad ha pasado por numerosas transformaciones, y de cada una ha tomado lo mejor para ayudarse a seguir avanzando, aunque poco sabemos sobre......

Words: 6580 - Pages: 27

Free Essay

La Singularidad

...NOTE: This PDF document has a handy set of “bookmarks” for it, which are accessible by pressing the Bookmarks tab on the left side of this window. ***************************************************** We are the last. The last generation to be unaugmented. The last generation to be intellectually alone. The last generation to be limited by our bodies. We are the first. The first generation to be augmented. The first generation to be intellectually together. The first generation to be limited only by our imaginations. We stand both before and after, balancing on the razor edge of the Event Horizon of the Singularity. That this sublime juxtapositional tautology has gone unnoticed until now is itself remarkable. We're so exquisitely privileged to be living in this time, to be born right on the precipice of the greatest paradigm shift in human history, the only thing that approaches the importance of that reality is finding like minds that realize the same, and being able to make some connection with them. If these books have influenced you the same way that they have us, we invite your contact at the email addresses listed below. Enjoy, Michael Beight, piman_314@yahoo.com Steven Reddell, cronyx@gmail.com Here are some new links that we’ve found interesting: KurzweilAI.net News articles, essays, and discussion on the latest topics in technology and accelerating intelligence. SingInst.org The Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence: think tank devoted to......

Words: 237133 - Pages: 949

Premium Essay

Good Life

...mTELECOURSE STUDY GUIDE FOR The Examined Life FOURTH EDITION author J. P. White Chair, Department of Philosophy Santa Barbara City College contributing author Manuel Velasquez Professor of Philosophy Santa Clara University This Telecourse Study Guide for The Examined Life is part of a collegelevel introduction to philosophy telecourse developed in conjunction with the video series The Examined Life, and the text Philosophy: A Text with Readings, tenth edition, by Manuel Velasquez, The Charles Dirksen Professor, Santa Clara University. The television series The Examined Life was designed and produced by INTELECOM Intelligent Telecommunications, Netherlands Educational Broadcasting Corporation (TELEAC/NOT), and Swedish Educational Broadcasting Company (UR) Copyright © 2007, 2005, 2002, 1999 by INTELECOM Intelligent Telecommunications All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of INTELECOM Intelligent Telecommunications, 150 E. Colorado Blvd., Suite 300, Pasadena, California 91105-1937. ISBN: 0-495-10302-0 Contents Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Lesson One — What is Philosophy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

Words: 78103 - Pages: 313

Free Essay

Philosophy

...U N D E R S TA N D I N G U N D E R S TA N D I N G S U N Y s e r i e s i n P h i lo s o ph y George R. Lucas Jr., editor R I C H A R D M A S O N understanding understanding S TAT E U N I V E R S I T Y O F N E W Y O R K P R E S S Published by State University of New York Press, Albany © 2003 State University of New York All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission. No part of this book may be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means including electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission in writing of the publisher. For information, address State University of New York Press, 90 State Street, Suite 700, Albany, NY 12207 Production, Laurie Searl Marketing, Fran Keneston Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Mason, Richard, 1948– Understanding understanding / Richard Mason. p. cm. — (SUNY series in philosophy) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-7914-5871-7 (alk. paper) — ISBN 0-7914-5872-5 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Comprehension (Theory of knowledge) I. Title. II. Series. BD181.5.M27 2003 121—dc21 2003042557 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 for Margie Contents INTRODUCTION, 1 CHAPTER ONE WHAT WE UNDERSTAND, 7 CHAPTER TWO HOW WE UNDERSTAND, 21 CHAPTER THREE UNDERSTANDING AND......

Words: 57755 - Pages: 232

Free Essay

The Thief of Time

...The Thief of Time The Thief of Time Philosophical Essays on Procrastination Edited by Chrisoula Andreou Mark D. White 2010 Oxford University Press, Inc., publishes works that further Oxford University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education. Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 www.oup.com Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The thief of time: philosophical essays on procrastination / edited by Chrisoula Andreou and Mark D. White. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-19-537668-5 (hardback: alk. paper) 1. Procrastination. I. Andreou, Chrisoula. II. White, Mark D., 1971– BF637.P76T45 2010 128'.4—dc22 2009021750 987654321 Printed in the United States......

Words: 125542 - Pages: 503

Free Essay

Frontline

...FRONTLINE JANUA RY 1 3, 2 012 WWW.FRONTLINE.IN INDIA’S NATIONAL MAGAZINE RS.25 WORLD AFFAIRS IRAQ FOOD SECURITY PDS CLIMATE CHANGE DURBAN Exit America 49 What people say 96 Uncertain stand 114 Remembering TAGORE On his 150th birth anniversary VOLUME 28 NUMBER 27 TH E STAT E S Fiery trap in Kolkata 41 SC IE NCE Higgs signal? 44 WOR L D A F F A I R S Iraq: Exit America War crimes in the trash Russia: December Revolution Pakistan: Volatile state India & China: Troubled equations DECEMBER 31, 2011 - JANUARY 13, 2012 C O V ER S T O RY 49 52 ISSN 0970-1710 Timeless Tagore As an activist, thinker, poet and rural reconstructionist, Rabindranath Tagore continues to be relevant. A tribute on the 150th anniversary of his birth. 4 WWW.FRONTLINE.IN Jayati Ghosh: Mess in eurozone R.K. Raghavan: A lost battle? 108 118 BOOKS LE TTE R S 73 127 54 57 61 TR AVE L Jungles of Borneo 64 AR T Achuthan Kudallur’s journey 85 H ISTOR Y Of Quit India, Nehru & Communist split 89 FOOD SEC UR I T Y Understanding the PDS Kerala: Power of literacy Bihar: Coupon fiasco Jharkhand: Strong revival Chhattisgarh: Loud no to cash E CONOM Y Losing momentum Interview: C. Rangarajan, Chairman, PMEAC CL IM A TE C H A N G E Uncertain stand in Durban CONTR OV E R S Y Mullaperiyar dispute: Deep distrust Fallout of fear OBITU A R Y Humble genius: Mario......

Words: 77117 - Pages: 309

Premium Essay

Translation Quality

...TRANSLATION QUALITY ASSESSMENT Translation quality assessment has become one of the key issues in translation studies. This comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of translation evaluation makes explicit the grounds of judging the worth of a translation and emphasizes that translation is, at its core, a linguistic operation. Written by the author of the world’s best known model of translation quality assessment, Juliane House, this book provides an overview of relevant contemporary interdisciplinary research on translation, intercultural communication and globalization, and corpus and psycho- and neuro-linguistic studies. House acknowledges the importance of the socio-cultural and situational contexts in which texts are embedded, and which need to be analysed when they are transferred through space and time in acts of translation, at the same time highlighting the linguistic nature of translation. The text includes a newly revised and presented model of translation quality assessment which, like its predecessors, relies on detailed textual and culturally informed contextual analysis and comparison. The test cases also show that there are two steps in translation evaluation: firstly, analysis, description and explanation; secondly, judgements of value, socio-cultural relevance and appropriateness. The second is futile without the first: to judge is easy, to understand less so. Translation Quality Assessment is an invaluable resource for students......

Words: 66245 - Pages: 265

Premium Essay

Business Plocy

...Strategic Management Strategic Management Philip Sadler First published in 1993, authors James C Craig and Robert M Grant Second edition published in Great Britain and the United States in 2003 by Kogan Page Limited, author Philip Sadler Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms and licences issued by the CLA. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned addresses: 120 Pentonville Road London N1 9JN UK www.kogan-page.co.uk 22883 Quicksilver Drive Sterling VA 20166–2012 USA © James C Craig and Robert M Grant, 1993 © Philip Sadler, 2003 The right of Philip Sadler to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. ISBN 0 7494 3938 6 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Sadler, Philip, 1930Strategic management / Philip Sadler. – 2nd ed. p. cm. – (MBA masterclass series) Rev. ed. of: Strategic management / James C. Craig. 1st ed. 1993. Includes bibliographical......

Words: 83267 - Pages: 334