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Abraham Janssen van Nuyssen, The Dead Christ in the Tomb with Two Angels (ca. 1610)
Oil on canvas, 45 3/8 in. x 58 in. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY
Europe experienced tremendous change in sentiment towards the Catholic Church during the 16th century. Many clergy seemed comfortable pushing the value of spirituality and humility on the masses, while they seemed to live the lives of nobility. This did not go unnoticed by the laity, who were growing weary of the corruption and hypocrisy. Disenchanted Catholics, jaded by the Church’s excesses and abuses of power began finding satisfaction in the Protestant movement which had spawned in 1517, and promised a return to the true values of spirituality.
As the Catholic Church realized their membership was hemorrhaging, the leadership convened the Council of Trent in 1545 to address the corruption and abuses staining their reputation and driving their followers away. The Council of Trent was a major step taken in the Catholic Church’s attempt to “clean house”, and improve their damaged reputation. As a result, there were numerous reforms and actions undertaken by the Church to put an end to the apparent secularism which had begun to creep into and spread through their organization. This shift from spirituality, and acceptance thereof, could merely be a reflection of the changing culture as humanism and individualism had begun to pervade society.
This growing secularist sentiment within the Church leadership, and the resultant departure from strict adherence to scripture, can be seen today in some of the art commissioned by Catholic Church leadership immediately preceding the Counter Reformation. A notable example is Michelangelo’s Last Judgment (1537-1541) in the Sistine Chapel. In the lower right corner, we can see Charon ferrying the damned across the River Styx to Hades, where Minos awaits. While the Church...

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