In: Historical Events

Submitted By GurleenDulay
Words 764
Pages 4
Where Does Kashmir Belong?
Avneel M, Gurleen D, Harshdeep P, Tajbir D
WHAT IS KASHMIR? * Kashmir is a Himalayan region that borders India, Pakistan and China * India's side of Kashmir includes Jammu, Kashmir Valley, and Ladakh * Pakistan side of Kashmir includes the areas known as Azad (Free) Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan * The territory under dispute lies in India's Kashmir Valley, separated from Pakistan by the 450-mile Line of Control (border line) * Indian Kashmir is mostly Muslim; Jammu is Hindu * 65% of Kashmir is located in India while the other 35% is in Pakistan

WHAT IS KASHMIR? * Kashmir is a Himalayan region that borders India, Pakistan and China * India's side of Kashmir includes Jammu, Kashmir Valley, and Ladakh * Pakistan side of Kashmir includes the areas known as Azad (Free) Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan * The territory under dispute lies in India's Kashmir Valley, separated from Pakistan by the 450-mile Line of Control (border line) * Indian Kashmir is mostly Muslim; Jammu is Hindu * 65% of Kashmir is located in India while the other 35% is in Pakistan

HOW IT STARTED * India's Muslim leaders demanded a Muslim homeland as a condition for independence in 1947 * The British surrendered their hold on the Indian subcontinent, giving way to a predominantly Hindu India and a Muslim Pakistan * Kashmir was free to accede to either nation * Maharaja Hari Singh, the ruler of the kingdom, initially chose to remain independent but eventually opted to join India after citizens from Pakistan invaded Jammu and Kashmir with the help of Pakistan's government * In exchange, India guaranteed him military protection and vowed to hold a vote on the issue
HOW IT STARTED * India's Muslim leaders demanded a Muslim homeland as a condition for independence in 1947 * The British surrendered…...

Similar Documents

Kashmir Issue at Un

...United Nations General Assembly Topic: Kashmir- Is it a symbol of failure of United Nations Machinery Country: Germany Delegate: Ruchi Gupta Since the partition of British India into India and Pakistan in 1947, the Kashmir conflict between them has become intractable. India first referred the case of Pakistani aggression in Kashmir to the United Nations Security Council under Article 35 of the UN Charter on January 1, 1948. This move was directed towards protecting India’s territorial integrity. United Nations was involved in mediating the Kashmir conflict from 1948 through 1965. Later, at the end of the Third Pakistan- India war of 1971, Pakistan and India signed the Simla Agreement in 1972 which emphasized the adoption of a bilateral framework to solve the crisis. UNSC resolution 47 of 1948 recommended Pakistan to withdraw all its tribesmen and Pakistani nationals. It also recommended Indian forces to be reduced to minimum strengths to maintain law and order so as to later hold a UN supervised plebiscite in the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir to determine the aspirations of her people. But Pakistan never vacated and later India also backed out. As a result the referendum never went through and UN declaration could not be implemented. Germany agrees that the Kashmir issue should be undertaken bilaterally as “one spark” could be disastrous for the entire region. Germany has always supported negotiated settlement of the Kashmir issue between Pakistan and India. We......

Words: 651 - Pages: 3


...years of Independence, India and Pakistan tackle numerous obstinate predicaments that the British marooned for these novel countries to settle. Kashmir lives to be the solitary of the many legacies of their distrust and uncertainty. The origins of the calamity extend to the tragic partition of the two countries in 1947, when the British government departed India after a rule of 250-years characterized by mistreatment and divide and conquer approaches. The British Empire’s divisive strategies, which were intended to generate rifts between Hindus and Muslims in order to attenuate any potential cohesive opposing forces. This began in the early 1900s, when the British started to dread the perceived mounting potency of the Hindu nationalist movement. In order to repress the perils, the British government began to vigorously support the Muslim League, a political party led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah who aimed to signify the subcontinent’s Muslim interests. The British pinned these two groups adjacent to one another, and eventually the Muslim League was compelled to stipulate the creation of a separate state, to be called Pakistan, because they believed that their interests would not be portrayed in a Hindu majority India. The severance of both countries paved a way to their joint antagonism into three wars (of which two were directly over Kashmir), which have affected their alliance till today. On August 15, 1947 the British left the realms of India, leaving behind British controlled......

Words: 1633 - Pages: 7

Kashmir Issue

...Whenever I hear the word "Kashmir," all I can think is of conflicts, wars, blood and yes, India and Pakistan. We all know what all has happened over the years, and there seems to be no solution to the unending drama, fake promises and conspiracy. Even after decades we still stand on the borders of indo-pak fighting for so called peace and our right over Kashmir. It seems to me that the time has stopped, we haven't moved generations after generations have passed. we are still pondering over what is the root cause. Authorities come and go, positions change, mindsets change but the issue remains the same. From secret negotiations in hotel rooms of Dubai & Bangkok to International summits, something which has changed is only the places. Sometimes I wonder If I will be ever able to see the light at the end of the tunnel. Is it so difficult to come to a concordance. Our life's have become part of this high profile drama which takes a new twist every now and then leaving nothing but blood on the streets. Kashmir is the most sensitive issue of our country and has been touched upon by almost everyone in the world but hasn't reached the level of a resolution. For how long we will just sit in front of our TV screens and see the innocent people getting slaughter on the roads for nothing. It's time for some action! I am desperate for an answer, I want to know how my country can be free from this man made disasters ( Read Nuclear wars, terrorist attacks) I know the issue is too......

Words: 301 - Pages: 2

Indian-Pakistani Confrontation from the Partition of the British Indian Empire to These Days. over the Kashmir Issue

...Indian-Pakistani confrontation from the partition of the British Indian Empire to these days. Over the Kashmir issue DATE: 06/JAN/2013 Introduction to the Indian-Pakistan conflict: Since 1946 the British began dynamically to negotiate a shift of authority, but this did not prove to be an easy affair, for as independence was established in August 1947 it was not to a single unitary state, but to two- India and Pakistan. The detachment of India occurred as Congress and the Muslim League had principally incompatible thoughts about how to represent a single successor state to British rule. Put plainly, The Muslim League preferred a weak political centre and the devolution of power to groups of provinces, which would permit the Muslim-majority areas a superior deal of self-government, while Congress sought the construction of a sturdy centralized state in order to become conscious on its social and economic goal. With neither side enthusiastic to compromise at the country on the brink of chaos. The easiest resolution was partition. The outcome was that the Muslim-majority areas of Baluchistan, Sind, the North-West Frontier, the western half of the Punjab and Eastern half of Bengal were amalgamated into the state of Pakistan underneath the premiership of the leader of the Muslim League. Muhammad Ali Jinnah. In the meantime India gained its independence under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, the leader of the Congress party. In addition, it hastily added to its......

Words: 1243 - Pages: 5

Kashmir N Demography

...Kashmir is missing out on a ‘demographic dividend’ and unable to cash in on its youthful population for lack of initiatives from a state government bogged down by a two-decade-old separatist insurgency. Mercy Corps, a United States-based development agency, found 48 percent of youth in Kashmir unemployed, in a comprehensive survey, the results of which were published in August 2011. According to the survey, Kashmir is experiencing a ‘youth bulge’ with about 70 percent of its 10 million-strong population under the age of 31. The World Bank’s chief economist, Justin Yifu Lin, submits in his blog ‘Let’s Talk Development’ on Jan. 5 that the increase in the number of working age individuals can, if fully employed in productive activities, other things being equal, result in a youth bulge becoming a demographic dividend. 'However, if a large cohort of young people cannot find employment and earn satisfactory income, the youth bulge will become a demographic bomb, because a large mass of frustrated youth is likely to become a potential source of social and political instability,' Lin warns in the posting. Signs of youth unrest are already visible in the Kashmir valley in several stone-throwing sprees lasting days and occasioning the imposition of curfews since 2008. Several hundred youth, including juveniles, are currently lodged in jails on charges of rioting that are not entirely unrelated to separatist militancy. 'These stone-throwing episodes are largely the......

Words: 907 - Pages: 4

Kasmir Issue

...Kashmir Issue: Causes and Effects Sana Iqbal December 5, 2010 Outline 1. Introduction 2. History 3. Causes of the Conflict 4. Beginning of the Confrontation 5. Conclusion Introduction Ever since territorial changes have taken place in history, issues pertaining to affiliation and independence of some state have always been there. Although history is full of territorial conflicts, the two most recent ones include the Palestine issue and the Kashmir issue. While Palestine issue was the result of the First World War and did create a huge impact on the international politics and foreign relations of several countries, however, the Kashmir issue is relatively a more regional conflict with its nucleus being the Indian subcontinent, and can be resolved if flexibility is shown by the conflicting parties. History Kashmir was initially ruled by Muslims, and was an integral part of the Pashtun Durrani Empire, which was primarily a dynasty of Afghan origin. The foundation of the Durrani Empire was laid by an Afghan commander, Ahmed Shah Durrani. When the East India Company started to lay its political foundations in the Indian subcontinent, they started massive annexations of areas that were previously ruled by local princes, nawabs and maharajas. During 1840s Kashmir went under the British control after they signed the Treaty of Lahore with the Sikhs. A few years British rewarded Kashmir to Gulab Singh Dogra, a Hindu general who helped British to annex Punjab.......

Words: 1411 - Pages: 6

University Work

... War and Peace: An Analysis Of The Kashmir Issue And A Possible Path To Peace By: Iveshu R. Bhatia Dated: Friday, December 3rd 2004 Table of Contents Topic Pg. no. An introduction to Kashmir and a history of the region…………….1 Why is Kashmir so important? …………………………………………3 Analysis of terrorism in Kashmir and the India-Pakistan dispute…7 Other factors supporting the rise of terrorism in Kashmir……….10 Impact of terrorism and the proxy war……………………………..12 Potential steps towards a peaceful solution………………………..15 Latest developments………………………………………………….18 Appendix I: List of Works Cited/Bibliography……………….......20 Appendix II: Map of the region.……………………………………21 Appendix III: Copy of instrument of Accession of Kashmir to India…22 War and Peace: An Analysis Of The Kashmir Issue And A Possible Path To Peace Today, the word Kashmir has become synonymous with death, destruction and religious genocide in South Asia. Although the roots of the Kashmir issue lie in a territorial dispute between India and Pakistan, it has evolved into a multi-faceted issue over the years. This paper discusses this dispute, its history, its effects and potential steps towards a peaceful resolution. An introduction to Kashmir and a history of the region Kashmir is a landlocked region in South Asia,......

Words: 5745 - Pages: 23

Kashmir Issue

...Both these countries have strained relations and have fought two major wars resulting in the cession of East Pakistan. The real bone of contention between the two countries is Kashmir. The people of Kashmir have expressed their desire to accede to Pakistan but India creates hurdles in the fulfillment of their desire. The state of Jammu and Kashmir came into existence in 1848. Gulab Singh, Dogra Rajpot, bought it for RS. 7500000 from Lord Lawrence. The state has an area of 84,471 square miles. It has 902 miles long border with Pakistan and with India 317 miles only. The three main rivers of Pakistan, namely, the Indus, the Jhelum and the Chenab are their sources in Kashmir. The two roads that link Kashmir with the rest of the world also lie through Pakistan. More than 80% of the people of Jammu and Kashmir are Muslims. Thus geographically, culturally, economically and religiously Kashmir is an integral part of Pakistan. But India has never accepted this fact. The result is that Kashmir has become an apple of discord between Pakistan and India. The Kashmiris were leading a miaerable life. They were treated as slaves. They had no status in society. They were always at the mercy of the Dogras and the Hindus of the state. The result of this suppression and oppression was that the people of Jammu and Kashmir stood against the Maharaja’s rule in 1930. The Maharaja tried to suppress this movement. He succeeded in crushing the rebellions for the time being, but he could succeed is......

Words: 613 - Pages: 3

Tourism Marketing

...5829/idosi.wasj.2014.31.06.4 Impact of Conflict on Tourist Flow and Spatial Distribution of Tourists in Kashmir Valley Shamim Ahmad Shah and Muzafar AhmadWani Department of Geography and Regional Development, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190006, India Research Scholar, Department of Geography and Regional Development, University of Kashmir, Srinagar190006, India Abstract: Conflict and instability in Jammu and Kashmir have been a major hindrance to its development and progress levels. Tourism is identified as the engine of growth and Development of Jammu and Kashmir economy in general and Kashmir valley in particular. The development of tourist industry can have a significant impact on the overall growth of the state, because of its ability to create direct and indirect employment, as well as growth in allied industries. Tourism will likely contribute to the growth of secondary sectors such as handicrafts, which have historically benefitted from visitors to the state. As tourism is widely recognized as a major mechanism of employment generation, especially in the service sector, holds significant role forpoverty alleviationand unemploymentin thestate.Kashmir being animportant tourist destination in India has witnessed downfall because of theongoing unrest especially during the last two decades which has hindered the smooth growth oftourism industry. The valley of Kashmir has been engulfed in a violent situation since 1989, which has threatened the sustainability of......

Words: 4387 - Pages: 18

Indo-Pakistan Wars

...core reason between India and Pakistan’s unending conspiracies has been over the state of Jammu and Kashmir, a state which lies in the northern tip of India with Pakistan on the west side of the border. Before independence, India was a country scattered with little states ruled by a Hindu Maharaja or a Muslim Nizam. So during the partitioning process, it was decided that the country would be divided according to the geography, demography and the decision of the ruler of the respective states to accede to India or to Pakistan. While most of the states had been easy to categorize under the territory of India or Pakistan, the state of Hyderabad, Kashmir and Junagadh had more complexities than the others (Burki 290). Hyderabad and Junagadh had a majority population of Hindu community but were ruled by a Muslim Nizam. The ruler of Hyderabad wanted to join Pakistan but because of the people and the geographic location of the state which was surrounded by India, India quickly claimed Hyderabad as its part. The Nizam of Hyderabad had been holding off on his decision on whether to join India or Pakistan. India fearing that the Nizam would lean towards Pakistan sent some army to occupy Hyderabad and thus it was annexed by India. Similar was the case for Junagadh which was situated in the midst of Indian territory. However, Kashmir was a different case than Hyderabad and Junagadh. Kashmir had a seventy five percent Muslim population, was ruled by a Hindu Maharaja and was situated in......

Words: 5771 - Pages: 24

Two Voices

...Two voices Kashmir can join Hands with Pakistan or It can choose To be independent Kashmir is one of the most disputed issue of the world since the partition of the Subcontinent. At the time of partition, Kashmir was under the control of Hindu Dogra and for this reason this area was considered as a princely state. According to partition act of law that all princely states would be given full opportunity to join any country or be independent. So it makes sense that Kashmir can still join hands with Pakistan or choose to be independent. Kashmir can join Pakistan, the reason why Kashmir should is that this would be beneficial for both the countries. First the advantages Kashmir would get are industrial revolution, freedom to follow any religion, and defense system. Kashmir has no industries at all so it would be beneficial to the people of Kashmir to get jobs and alleviate their poverty. Pakistan is an Islamic state but it has freedom to follow any culture, religion, or any ideology so it would enable Kashmiri people to practice any religion. Kashmir has no defense system so joining hands with Pakistan (Seventh Atomic Nation) can provide it defense. The advantages Pakistan would get when Kashmir is in its premises are rivers, Siachen Glacier, tourism, and agriculture. Rivers are the most important of all, Pakistan needs water to fertile its lands to escalate its agriculture and this would surge the building of dams. Siachen Glacial is Pakistani military based area......

Words: 484 - Pages: 2

The Kashmir Issue: Some Options Towards Solution

...The Kashmir Issue: Some options towards solution By Dr. Misbah Islam As we all know the Kashmir issue has been has been a perennial problem ever since the birth of Pakistan. Kashmir is one of the two most intractable problems that have stymied the world for so long resulting in horrendous loss of life and negative impact on the development of the belligerants. Nature of the Problem: The origins of the Kashmir issue lie in the illegal instrument of accession to India signed on October 26, 1947 by Raja Hari Singh that violated the rights and hopes of 77% Muslim population of Kashmiris to join Pakistan. It has resulted in or associated with at least four major wars: 1948, 1965, 1971 and 1999. Besides loss of liberty for 10 million people it has entailed loss of lives (more than 102,000), in the form of executions, bombardment and disappearances, horrendous tortures, injuries, crimes against women, destruction of property, businesses and the list goes on [Ref 1]. No value can ever be assigned to the psychological losses. So far India has refused visits by Amnesty International to investigate and report impartially. We have also to take into account other costs. The purpose of this exercise is to highlight the seriousness of the issue and to prove Pakistan’s commitment to the cause. The Kashmir issue has involved direct expenditure in terms of resources: military, diplomatic, journalistic and so on. Resources, that could have been better spent for mitigating and......

Words: 4182 - Pages: 17

Kashmir's Problem

...Kashmir conflict From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [pic] [pic] The disputed areas of the region of Kashmir. India claims the entire erstwhile princely state of Jammu and Kashmirbased on an instrument of accession signed in 1947. Pakistanclaims all areas of the erstwhile state except for those claimed by China. China claims the Shaksam Valley and Aksai Chin. |[show] | |v | |  | |d | |  | |e | |Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts | | | The Kashmir conflict (Hindi: कश्मीर विवाद, Urdu: مسئلہ کشمیر) is a territorial disputebetween India and Pakistan over the Kashmir region, the northwesternmost region ofSouth Asia. India claims the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir and as of 2010, administers approximately 43% of the region, including most of Jammu, the Kashmir Valley,Ladakh, and the Siachen Glacier. India's claims are contested by Pakistan, which controls approximately 37% of Kashmir, namely Azad Kashmir and the northern areas of Gilgit and Baltistan. India has......

Words: 9784 - Pages: 40


...According to folk etymology, the name "Kashmir" means "desiccated land" (from the Sanskrit: Ka = water and shimeera = desiccate). In the Rajatarangini, a history of Kashmir written by Kalhana in the mid-12th century, it is stated that the valley of Kashmir was formerly a lake. According to Hindu mythology, the lake was drained by the great rishi or sage, Kashyapa, son of Marichi, son of Brahma, by cutting the gap in the hills at Baramulla (Varaha-mula). When Kashmir had been drained, Kashyapa asked Brahmans to settle there. This is still the local tradition, and in the existing physical condition of the country, we may see some ground for the story which has taken this form. The name of Kashyapa is by history and tradition connected with the draining of the lake, and the chief town or collection of dwellings in the valley was called Kashyapa-pura, which has been identified with Kaspapyros of Hecataeus (apud Stephanus of Byzantium) and Kaspatyros of Herodotus (3.102, 4.44).[1] Kashmir is also believed to be the country meant by Ptolemy's Kaspeiria.[2] Cashmere is an archaic spelling of Kashmir, and in some countries it is still spelled this way. According to legend, Jammu was founded by Raja Jamboolochan in the 14th century BC. During one of his hunting campaigns he reached the Tawi River where he saw a goat and a lion drinking water at the same place. The king was impressed and decided to set up a town after his name, Jamboo. With the passage of time, the name was......

Words: 4010 - Pages: 17

Indo Pakistan Conflict

...Casting the Pakistani-supported insurgencies in Kashmir as a crisis of national security, military expenditure was increased with the resumption of nuclear weapon testing such as Pokhran-ll and Kirana-l. Provocative statements such as India adopting a “pro-active” policy in Kashmir to crush insurgencies were also directed at Pakistan as a warning to stop its military campaign against India. In retaliation to India’s moves, Pakistan was convinced that India would launch a preemptive strike to capture Pakistan-occupied-Kashmir and hence directed its resources to nuclear testing of Chagai-l and ll despite the threat of sanctions from the international community. The prospect of a nuclear exchange was then escalated onto a new level as seen in Kargil conflict of 1999 where Pakistan believed that the only way to claim back Kashmir was through force. Hence, nuclearisation of the conflict had escalated tensions and fear between both countries since nuclear weapons have potentially large-scale destructive effects, and the unwillingness of both parties to back down or compromise protracted and intensified the conflict through mutual aggressiveness in the nuclear arms race. The rise of Kashmiri’s Nationalism prolonged the conflict as it led to greater disagreements and dissent between India and Pakistan as Pakistan supported the Kashmiri secessionist movements. Over the years, the India government had tried to integrate Pan-Indianism into Kashmir despite the fact that Kashmiris......

Words: 1186 - Pages: 5