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Kejuruteraan Islam

In: Business and Management

Submitted By MohdAzrin
Words 2402
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DUA 2012
SAINS TEKNOLOGI DAN KEJURUTERAAN ISLAM

MOHD AZRIN SHAH BIN IBRAHIM 07DUB14F2003

PENSYARAH:
USTAZAH DORAH
SENARAI KANDUNGAN

NO | PERKARA | M/S | 1 | Senarai Kandungan | 1 | 2 | Penghargaan | 2 | 3 | Objektif penulisan | 3 | 4 | Pengenalan | 3 | 5 | Isi tajuk dan huraian | 4 | 6 | Huraian isi | 5-7 | 7 | Tokoh ilmuwan islam | 8-10 | 8 | Kesimpulan | 11 | 9 | Sumber rujukan | 12 | 10 | Lampiran | 13 |

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PENGHARGAAN

Bismillahi al-rahman al-rahim
Setiap masa bumi akan sentiasa bergerak dari arah timur ke barat. Lantasnya manusia terbina dari akhlak dan agamanya. Oleh itu, sinaran cahaya yang bersinar akan sentiasa menerangi seluruh kehidupan manusia ataupun disekelilingnya, akan tetapi manusia sering hidup dalam kemewahan, ketamakan dan sebagainya. Mengapa?
Ini adalah mungkin kerana kelalaian manusia itu sendiri malah berhasrat dengki, dendam dan sebaliknya. Selain itu, ada kalanya manusia berhati mulia disamping baik dari segi sifat akhlaknya dan sanggup berkorban demi mencapai akan cita-citanya walaupun banyak halangan dan rintangan kegagalan.
Disamping, seluruh kekuatan dan kesungguhan adalah lahirnya dalam erti sifat kesabaran dan keyakinan diri. Jadi apa yang paling penting manusia hanya dapat merancang akan tetapi tuhan sahaja yang mampu menentukan segala-galanya,
Assalamualaikum dan salam hormat. Dengan olahan kata-kata itu maka lahirlah sebuah usahasama yang kami lakukan.Terlebih dahulu kami mengucapkan setinggi-tinggi penghormatan dan ribuan terima kasih kepada pensyarah kami iaitu Ustazah Dorah, yang banyak menyumbang ilmu bakti dan melahirkan insan cemerlang, gemilang dan terbilang. Selain itu, juga mengajar kami dalam subjek DUA2012, Sains Teknologi Dan Kejuruteraan Dalam Islam.
Mampukah manusia mencapai tahap kecemerlangan dalam kehidupan tanpa sains dan teknologi?’. Tambahan pula, dapat kami siapkan tugasan ini pada masa dan waktu yang ditetapkan. Disamping itu, semangat, kesabaran, keikhlasan dan kesungguhan adalah lahirnya dari perjuangan kami. Seterusnya, dapat mengeratkan lagi silaturahim diantara kami. Harapan kami ialah berharap agar tugasan ini dapat membantu dalam meninggikan pointer. Akan kami katakan sesuatu kejayaan adalah bermula daripada kegagalan, malah peluang akan mencurah selagi manusia akan mencari. Dengan kata-kata itu kami akhiri dengan ucapan ribuan terima kasih, wassalam.

2
OBJEKTIF PENULISAN
3 perkara objektif dalam penulisan kami ialah menerangkan etika islam, kaedah fiqh dan tokoh ilmuwan islam dalam bidang tersebut..
PENGENALAN

Bismillahi al-rahman al-rahim

Segala puji bagi Allah s.w.t., Tuhan semesta alam beserta isinya. Hanya dengan taufiq dan hidayah-Nyalah, akhirnya kami dapat menyelesaikan tugasan ini yang bertajuk Teknologi Kejuruteraan (Automotif).

Selawat dan salam semoga dilimpahkan kepada Rasulullah s.a.w. beserta keluarga, sahabat dan umatnya.Firman Allah S.W.T bermaksud:Kitab (Al Quran) ini tidak ada keraguan padanya; petunjuk bagi mereka yang bertaqwa, (Surah Al Baqarah, 2)
Tuhan menamakan Al Quran dengan Al Kitab yang di sini berarti yang ditulis, sebagai isyarat bahwa Al Quran diperintahkan untuk ditulis. Takwa yaitu memelihara diri dari siksaan Allah dengan mengikuti segala perintah-perintahNya; dan menjauhi segala larangan-laranganNya; tidak cukup diartikan dengan takut saja.
Merujuk kepada persoalan, manusia tidak mampu untuk mencapai kecemerlangan tanpa sains dan teknologi. Kerana sains dan teknologi juga adalah dirujuk atau dikaji dalam sebuah kitab (Al-Quran) dan ini membuktikan bahawa dalam kandungan Al-Quran mengandungi segala petunjuk dan pengajaran kepada kita.
Pada pandangan islam tanpa adanya sains dan teknologi manusia tidak mampu mengorak langkah bagi mencapai tahap kecemerlangan dalam kehidupan. Automotif merangkumi apa-apa bidang yang berkaitan kenderaan bermotor, dan ia merupakan sektor ekonomi terpenting dalam hasil pendapatan.

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TEKNOLOGI KEJURUTERAAN AUTOMOTIF
Kejuruteraan automotif moden, bersama-sama dengan kejuruteraan aeroangkasa dan kejuruteraan marin, merupakan cabang kejuruteraan kenderaan yang menggabungkan elemen mekanikal, elektrik, elektronik, perisian dan kejuruteraan keselamatan sebagaimana yang terpakai bagi reka bentuk, pengilangan dan operasi motosikal, kereta, bas dan lori dan subsistem kejuruteraan masing-masing.

Automotif merupakan satu bidang yang semakin penting pada masa kini dalam menentukan sejauh mana tahap kemajuan sesebuah negara dalam bidang teknologi kejuruteraan.

Sebagai rakyat Malaysia, kita perlu berbangga kerana Malaysia telah mula dikenali sebagai sebuah negara pengeksport kereta di arena antarabangsa. Pelbagai model baru keluaran 2 syarikat automobil tempatan iaitu Proton dan Perodua silih berganti muncul di pasaran untuk pilihan orang ramai.

Gah terasa apabila melihat kereta-kereta nasional bertali arus menyusuri jalan raya di dalam atau luar negara seperti Thailand, Australia, Britain dan lain-lain lagi.

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AUTOMOTIF
Lebih kurang 250 juta kenderaan digunakan di Amerika Syarikat. Di seluruh dunia, terdapat lebih kurang 806 juta kereta dan lori ringan pada tahun 2007, menggunakan lebih 260 bilion gelen bahan api petrol dan diesel setiap tahun.
Individu atau komuniti yang beretika cemerlang akan mendapat faedah dari system etika yang diikutinya dan diamalkannya. Reputasi dirinya akan menjamin kejayaannya dalam menempuh arus kehidupan yang deras ini. Berhubung dengan tajuk kami, ciptaan kenderaan yang sudah bermula sejak dulu lagi telah banyak memberi manfaat kepada umat terdahulu sehingga hari ini dan masa mendatang. Contohnya pacuan empat roda yang ada pada masa kini. Ia dapat menjimatkan masa dan tenaga manusia untuk menuju ke sesuatu destinasi. Pergi ke tempat kerja, kuliah, tempat riadah, melawat sanak saudara, semua memerlukan satu benda milik Allah Swt iaitu Kenderaan. Bukan sahaja untuk perkara di atas, ia juga dapat membantu manusia jika berada dalam kesusahan seperti sakit. Tidak mustahil kenderaan yang kita miliki sekarang ini akan membantu saudara kita yang berada dalam kesusahan. Pahala datang melimpah ruah kepada kita, insyaallah.
Sesetengah pihak berpendapat bahawa sistem pengangkutan awam bandar terbukti tidak berdaya tahan, menggunakan tenaga berlebihan, memberi kesan terhadap kesihatan populasi, serta menawarkan tahap perkhidmatan yang semakin menurun walaupun dengan pelaburan yang semakin meningkat. Kebanyakan kesan negatif tersebut tertumpu kepada kumpulan sosial yang kurang cenderung memiliki serta memandu kereta. Pergerakan pengangkutan yang berdaya tahan tertumpu kepada penyelesaian terhadap masalah tersebut.
Cawangan Detroit bagi Kumpulan Konsultan Boston, menjelang tahun 2014, satu pertiga daripada permintaan dunia tertumpu kepada empat negara BRIC (Brazil, Rusia, India dan China). Pasaran automotif lain yang berpotensi untuk berkuasa ialah Iran dan Indonesia.
Kereta berenjin petrol pertama yang praktikal dibina oleh Karl Benz pada tahun 1885 di Mainhemm German. Benz memperoleh paten bagi keretanya pada 29 Januari 1886, serta memulakan pengeluaran kereta pada tahun 1888, selepas isterinya Bertha Benz melakukan perjalanan jauh pertama pada Ogos 1888 - dari Mainnhem ke Pforzheim dan pulang semula - sekaligus membuktikan bahawa pedati tanpa kuda tersebut sangat sesuai untuk kegunaan harian. Sejak tahun 2008, Laluan Mertha Benz diwartakan bagi mengenang peristiwa tersebut.

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KARL BENZ

Tidak lama kemudian, Gottlieb Damlier dan Willhelm Maybach di Stuttgart pada tahun 1889 mereka bentuk sebuah kenderaan dari mula sebagai sebuah kereta dan bukannya kereta kuda yang dilengkapi enjin. Mereka juga dinamakan sebagai pencipta motosikal pertama, Daimlier Reitwagen, pada tahun 1885, tetapi Enrico Bernadi dari Universiti Padua di Itali, pada tahun 1882, telah mempatenkan enjin petrol satu silinder 0.024 kuasa kuda (17.9 W) 122 cc (7.4 cu in) yang dipasang pada basikal roda tiga anak lelakinya, menjadikannya salah satu calon kereta pertama, serta motosikal pertama; Bernardi membesarkan basikal roda tiga itu pada tahun 1892 untuk membawa dua penumpang dewasa.

GOTTLIEB DAMLIER

6 Allah tidak wujudkan sesuatu dengan sia-sia seharusnya ada manfaatnya kepada kehidupan. Sebagai contoh, fakulti otak dan akal manusia memainkan peranan utama dalam kehidupan. FirmanNya dalam Al-Qur’an yang bermaksud, “Dan Aku tidak jadikan jin dan manusia melainkan supaya mereka menyembah Aku.” Sebagai umat islam, yang bernaung kepada tuhan yang satu yakni Allah Azza Wajalla, setiap perkara yang dilakukan hendaknya berpandukan hukum Allah Swt.
Hadis riwayat Saidina Umar “Sesungguhnya setiap amalan itu bergantung pada niat, dan sesungguhnya kedudukan bagi amalan tersebut adalah tertakluk kepada apa yang diniatkan” Berkaitan dengan tajuk kami, setiap ciptaan itu harus berdasarkan niat yang betul. Pada era globalisasi ini, kebanyakan Negara-negara yang berkuasa besar mencipta sesuatu kenderaan untuk melindungi Negara mereka dari ancaman musuh. Ada pula yang menciptanya demi kemudaratan Negara lain.
Hadis Rasulullah Saw diriwayatkan oleh Imam Sayuti, “Tidak dibenarkan melakukan kemudaratan dan membalas sesuatu dengan kemudaratan” Islam melarang segala tindakan yang boleh membawa kepada kemudaratan samada kepada diri, orang lain dan alam sekitar. Contohnya Negara-negara laknatullah seperti Rejim zionis. Mereka mencipta sesuatu alatan perang dapat memusnahkan Palestin. Sesuai dengan permintaan soalan, perkara seperti itu adalah amat salah dan harus dihindarkan.

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TOKOH ILMUAN ISLAM

Abū al-'Iz Ibn Ismā'īl ibn al-Razāz al-Jazarī (1136-1206) adalah seorang Ilmuwan dari Al Jazira, Mesopotamia, yang hidup pada abad pertengahan. Dia adalah penulis Kitáb fí ma'rifat al-hiyal al-handasiyya (Buku Pengetahuan Ilmu Mekanik) tahun 1206, dimana dia menjelaskan lima puluh peralatan mekanik berikut arahan tentang bagaimana cara merakitnya.
Hanya sedikit yang diketahui tentang Al-Jazari, dan kebanyakan berasal dari perkenalannya dari buku "Pengetahuan Ilmu Mekanik". Nama Al-Jazari berasal dari tempat kelahirannya, Al-Jazira, Mesopotamia — nama tradisional Arab untuk wilayah di bahagian utara Mesopotamia dan sekarang dikenal sebagai wilayah tenggara Turki, di antara Sungai Tigris dan Sungai Eufrat. Seperti ayahnya, dia mengabdi sebagai ketua di Istana Antuklu kediaman dari Dinasti Artuqid aliran Mardin yang memerintah wilayah timur Anatolia sebagai wilayah pengikut dari Dinasti Zangid dan seterusnya Istana Ayyubiyyah.
Kincir air atau noria di Fayyoum, Mesir, adalah sebahagian kecil pembaharuan yang berlaku pada zaman kegemilangan empayar Islam yang menjana pertumbuhan penduduk di kawasan pedalaman daripada tradisi nomad kepada penempatan tetap.
Di bawah empayar Islam, perkembangan sistem saliran diperbaiki sehingga tidak lagi bergantung kepada tenaga manusia atau haiwan. Mekanisme kejuruteraan inilah melahirkan istilah baru, ‘automata’ atau automatik yang bermakna berjalan dengan sendiri oleh tabii alam.
Menerusi mekanisma itu, penggunaan air dibentuk dalam dwifungsi, arus air menjadi penolak alat takungan ke kedudukan atas berulang kali dengan bantuan graviti, sambil saliran air disalurkan untuk keperluan diri dan tanaman.Ilmu pengetahuan dan ciptaan kincir air yang kemudiannya memberi inspirasi kepada bidang kejuruteraan moden ini adalah hasil kepakaran tokoh terkenal, Al-Jazari atau nama sebenarnya Badi Al-Zaman Abullezz Ibn Alrazz Al-Jazari.

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Beliau digelar Al-Jazari mengambil sempena nama tempat kelahirannya di Al-Jazira, sebuah wilayah yang terletak di antara Tigris dan Efrat, Iraq. Kegemilangan Al-Jazari adalah hasil manuskrip beliau berjudul ‘Kitab fi ma'rifat al-hiyal al-handasiyya’ yang bermaksud ‘buku mengenai ilmu alat mekanikal yang bijak’.
Manuskrip itu menjadi bukti catatan terawal penggunaan engkol, piston dan injap yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan produk yang menjadi kegunaan harian masyarakat pada waktu itu seperti mesin pengepam air. Sememangnya masyarakat dulu memang sudah lama memanfaatkan peralatan untuk mendapatkan air menggunakan shaduf, alat yang terdiri daripada blok panjang diletakkan antara dua tiang dengan blok kayu mendatar.
Peralatan lain ialah saqiya, di mana mekanisma tengahnya terdiri dari dua gigi dan mesin itu menggunakan tenaga haiwan seperti unta atau keldai. Ilmuwan Muslim melakukan penyelidikan mengenai peralatan berkenaan untuk mendapatkan hasil lebih memuaskan termasuk Al-Jazari yang merintis jalan menghasilkan mesin mengepam air.
Dua mesin pertama ciptaannya adalah hasil pengubahsuaian shaduf dan yang ketiga saqiya di mana tenaga air digunakan menggantikan tenaga binatang. Mesin yang sama seperti saqiya di letakkan di sungai Yazid di Damsyik bagi kegunaan rumah sakit yang terletak berdekatan sungai itu.
Hasil ciptaannya kelima ialah mesin yang menggunakan engkol, alat yang menghasilkan gerakan berterusan dan penemuan itu berjaya mencipta sejarah kerana engkol adalah peralatan mekanik paling penting bagi orang Eropah awal abad ke-15. Al-Jazari mengembangkan mesin engkol yang dihubungkan dengan sistem rod pada mesin pengepam air dan ini dilakukan beliau pada 1206.
Beliau juga menghasilkan mesin yang digerakkan oleh air bagi menggerakkan piston yang saling berhubungan dengan paip penyedut pada dan ia adalah contoh prinsip double acting yang pertama.`Al Jazari kemudian mengumpulkan semua hasil karyanya berkaitan bidang teknikal yang lengkap dengan maklumat dari segi teori dan praktikal dalam buku berjudul Al-Jami Baim Al-Ilm wal Amal Al-Nafi Fi Sinat'at Al Hiyal.
Karyanya berbeza dengan karya ilmuwan lain kerana beliau memberi penerangan terperinci mengenai ilmu mekanikal yang mengandungi 50 peralatan yang dibahagikan kepada enam kategori. Antaranya, jam air, alat mencuci tangan dan mesin pengepam air. Jam air adalah hasil kerja gemilang Al-Jazari yang dikagumi pada acara World of Islam Festival pada 1976.
Karya beliau juga dianggap sebagai sebuah manuskrip terkenal di dunia dan menjadi teks penting untuk mempelajari sejarah teknologi kerana dilengkapi ilustrasi menakjubkan.
Dengan karya gemilangnya, ilmuwan dan jurutera Islam yang mengabadikan diri di istana Artuqid di bawah naungan Sultan Nasir al-Din Mahmoud telah membawa masyarakat Islam pada abad ke-12 kepada kejayaan.

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Jurutera Inggeris, Donald Hill yang tertarik dengan karya Al-Jazari menterjemahkan bukunya pada 1974.
Pendekatan Al-Jazari yang menjadi asas kepada perkembangan teknologi industri pada abad ke-18, diakui pakar tempatan, pensyarah dan juga penyelidik Fakulti Kejuruteraan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Prof Dr Wan Ramli Wan Daud.
Beliau bersama kumpulannya berjaya mencipta enjin menggunakan tenaga sel kimia berkuasa 200 watt bagi menggerakkan motosikal. Menurut Wan Ramli, apa yang diperlukan sekarang ialah menyuntik semula semangat yang dijelmakan oleh ilmuwan seperti Al-Jazari, dengan menghasilkan ciptaan untuk kesejahteraan sejagat.

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KESIMPULAN
Bidang automotif di Negara kita semakin hari semakin membangun. Negara kita berada dalam Negara dunia ketiga iaitu Negara yang mundur. Dari masa ke masa, kerajaan berusaha untuk mengalihkan mata dunia kearah Negara kita sekaligus melonjakkan nama Negara setanding dengan Negara-negara maju yang lain. Saya ambil contoh seorang hamba Allah Swt, Dr Mahathir bin Mohamad yang memberi idea untuk membangunkan jenama Proton untuk Malaysia mencipta kereta keluaran sendiri. Sejak dari itu, banyak pencapaian telah dicapai. Jenama Proton telah sampai ke beberapa Negara maju seperti Great Britain dan beberapa kali juga digunakan dalam filem eropah. Dengan idea ini, ia dapat memberi peluang kepada penduduk tempatan untuk terlibat dalam bidang automotif. Bidang ini juga disediakan di beberapa sekolah, IPTA, IPTS di seluruh Negara. Impak daripada bidang tersebut, Negara dapat melahirkan jurutera-jurutera muda yang mampu menyinar di masa depan. Pelajar-pelajar inilah yang menentukan hala tuju Negara nanti. Tanpa usaha, hasilnya tidak akan pernah ada. “Man jadda Wa jadda” yang bermaksud siapa yang berusaha, dia yang akan dapat. Oleh yang demikian, timbahlah ilmu kerana ilmu Allah tidak akan pernah habis. Siapa yang malas, maka rasalah peritnya kebodohan. Permulaan memang susah, tapi fikirkan hasilnya. Masyaallah, rezeki hanya dari Allah. Siapa tahu, kitalah jurutera pada masa hadapan yang membantu mengubah nasib Negara.

Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad

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SUMBER RUJUKAN
Laman Web http://greatermalaysia.com/2015/04/13/5-fast-facts-about-ismail-sabri-islam-and-the-prime-minister/ https://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industri_automotif https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Jazari https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9q9G0S8fADQ
Buku
Al Jazari
Dr. Mahathir Mohamad Bioghraphy
Buku Automotif Tingkatan 5
Sumber lain
Kawan-kawan media sosial
Kawan satu bilik
Kawan asrama lain
Kawan dari IPTA seluruh Malaysia
Akal sendiri

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LAMPIRAN

Kerja amali automotif d IPTA
Gambar ini diambil ketika perlantikan Tun menjadi pengerusi Proton.

13

Hasil dari ciptaan dan idea daripada Al Jazari, Ilmuwan Islam

Ciptaan pertama Karl Benz

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Ciptaan Motor pertama Gottlieb Damlier

15

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...That the person from another planet has an idea of what religion is in his or her understanding The person is able to distinguish religious person from a non religious person based on practices that he or she may display There is some reference to the person’s practice ie; text, documents, books etc. The person should be able to communicate or explain as to what his or religion is or is about Examples of behaviors or beliefs that one may observe based on the aforementioned criteria. Distinguishable behaviors from the status qou or norm. The person from another planet should be able to visibly see the differences in one externally almost immediately, since this is one of the characteristics of religions in the world. For example, in Islam one can identified by the facial hair, in Buddhism, specifically Buddhist monks, one can see by the shaved head and dress and in Indian religions, a woman can be identified by the Cum-Cum on her forehead Communication and or expression A person of a religious persuasion or belief should have the capacity to discuss his or her...

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...Among the five great religions to which nearly nine-tenths of present-day humanity belong, Buddhism and Christianity have been the most frequent subjects of comparison. And rightly so. Because, together with Islam, and unlike Hinduism and Chinese universism, they are “world religions,” that is to say, forms of belief that have found followers not merely in a single though vast country, but also in wide regions of the world. Buddhism and Christianity, however, differ from Islam in so far as, unlike the latter, they do not stress the natural aspects of world and man, but they wish to lead beyond them. A comparison between Buddhism and Christianity, however, proves so fruitful mainly because they represent, in the purest form, two great distinctive types of religion which arose East and West of the Indus valley. For two millennia, these religious systems have given the clearest expression of the metaphysical ideas prevalent in the Far East and in the Occident, respectively. The similarities between these two religions extend, if I see it rightly, essentially over three spheres: (1) the life history of the founder; (2) ethics; and (3) church history. 1. The biographies of Buddha and Christ show many similar features. Both were born in a miraculous way. Soon after their birth, their future greatness is proclaimed by a sage (Asita, Simeon). Both astonish their teachers through the knowledge they possess, though still in their early childhood. Both are...

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...Culture Definition A simple definition of culture is that it is the human response to the forces of Nature and History. According to the (World Conference on Culture Policies, Mexico 1982)Culture is “the whole complex of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features that characterize a society or social group. It includes not only arts and letters, but also modes of life, the fundamental rights of the human being, value systems, traditions and beliefs." PAKISTANI CULTURE Pakistan is the country full of natural and cultural wealth. Pakistan has its own unique and specific cultural identification. Culture and heritage of Pakistan reflects the extra ordinary skill and devotion of Pakistani people. Pakistani people are playing a vital role in the presentation, development and promotion of Pakistani culture. The Pakistani culture is dominated by Islamic tradition and heritage. Islamic heritage has great impact on Pakistani culture. In ancient times, Pakistan was a major cultural hub. Many cultural practices and great monuments have been inherited from the time of the ancient rulers of the region. One of the greatest cultural influences was that of the Persian Empire, of which Pakistan was a part. In fact, the Pakistani satraps were at one time the richest and most productive of the massive Persian Empire. Other key influences include the Afghan Empire, Mughal Empire and later, the short-lived but influential, the British Empire. Punjabi......

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