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Kohlberg

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Submitted By twiki
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The theory holds that moral reasoning, the basis for ethical behaviour has six identifiable developmental stages which are grouped into 3 levels namely pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional. Based on this theory, once a person has progressed into the higher stage, it is extremely rare for him/her to regress backward in stages to lose functionality of higher stage abilities. Furthermore, stages are cannot be skipped; each provides a new and necessary perspective, more comprehensive and differentiated than its predecessors but integrated with them. However, it says that no one functions at their highest stage at all the time.
Level 1 (pre-conventional
Moral value resides in a person’s own needs and wants which implies the lack of perspective of society. Morality of an action is judged by its direct consequences to that person.
Stage 1 (obedience and punishment driven)
Sticking to rules to avoid punishment. Individuals focus on direct consequences that their actions will have for themselves. An action is considered as immoral if the person who commits it gets punished. More punishment, more bad it is.
Stage 2(self interest driven)
Person's moral judgement is motivated by a need to satisfy own desires. Right behaviour being defined by what is in one’s own best interest. Follow rules on when it is in your immediate interest. Limited interest in needs of others, but only to a point where it might further one’s own interest. Concern for others is not based on loyalty aspect.
Level 2(conventional)
Decision made by an individual based upon what the individual perceives as the social norms of the society in which they live. Morality of action is judged by comparing these actions to societal views and expectation

Stage 3 (interpersonal accord and conformity driven) desire to maintain rules and authority which aims to further support the social...

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