Premium Essay

Kosovo 1999: the First Cyberwar

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By teknoreaper
Words 837
Pages 4
Kosovo 1999: The First Cyberwar

Kosovo 1999: The First Cyberwar Up until now, wars and conflicts have been fought on domestic and foreign battlefields. As computers become more essential to our daily lives, they also become the new battlegrounds of a new type of war-“cyberwar”. With the rapid progression of technology, wars are no longer only fought with rifles and bombs but with scripts and codes. Although the definition and guidelines of cyberwarfare are still relatively unclear, the 1999 Kosovo conflict introduced this new concept. The 1999 Kosovo conflict was a war between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FR of Yugoslavia) and Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA). The KLA was formed to fight the oppression caused by the Serbians. Their tactics and methods increasingly became more brutal when they began killing Serbian police officers throughout the country (Haney, 1999). This ignited outrage and retaliation from the FR of Yugoslavia. FR of Yugoslavia began to send troops to retake KLA controlled areas. Civilian casualties caused by Serbian troops have been estimated to be roughly around 10,000. NATO then entered the conflict on humanitarian grounds. As NATO began their aerial bombing campaign, hackers, or people who illegally access a computer system (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hacker) disabled and took control of the international web servers. Serbian hackers attacked NATO and US government websites using the denial of service, where computer resources were unavailable

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hacker). In light of this, the Pentagon general office released a 50-page booklet with the guidelines for waging a cyberwar. This was entitled, “Assessment of International Legal Issues in Information Operations.” It was unclear whether the information operations (IO) are considered weapons and that the Laws of War did indeed apply to...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Russian Patriotic Hacking

...professionals are greatly troubled by the real threat to the information technology infrastructure in the United States. While safeguarding information has been a major issue for the private and public sectors since the beginning of the computer era, the increased level of concern over the most recent attacks has resulted in devoting more resources to combat this threat. This paper analyzes numerous cyberattacks by Russian computer enthusiast group Chaos Hackers Crew and other hacktivists during Operation Allied Force in 1999, that included taking down and defacing various NATO and US Government websites, several successful virus propagation attempts on military servers and countless spamming storms. This particular case raises curious questions about the legal definition of term cyberconflict itself, magnitude of the damage from a potential cyberattack on U.S. Government by terrorists and the level of preparedness of key military and intelligence units for the cyberwar. The cyberterrorism threat is real, however it’s essential to recognize that preserving the state of continuous distress over computer vulnerabilities can be profitable. Based on this research, cultural differences play a huge role in the world of computer hackers who decide what entity to attack and how, also the scale of a cyberattack doesn’t matter as economic damage can be devastating regardless of its size. Global governments need to continue working on creating workable laws that accurately describe the......

Words: 8586 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

Cyberwarfare

..."War is no longer a lively adventure or expedition into romance,matching man to man in a test of the stout-hearted. Instead, it is aimed against the cities mankind has built. Its goal is their total destruction and devastation." - General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Edinburgh, Scotland, October 3, 1946 Discuss the key concepts and ideas of cyberwarfare INTRODUCTION Significant of Paper Methodology of Paper Cyberwar is warfare, hostile influence which is fought in cyberspace. Cyberwar is netwar by the military. It includes hackers, listeners of communications systems, van Elckradiation115 listeners and so on. Cyberwar consists of information terrorism, semantic attack, simulation warfare and Gibson warfare. Typically Cyberwar is warfare, or hostile influence between attack- and defence programs in computers, computer networks and communication systems. For many, the term cyber war conjures up images of deadly, malicious programmes causing computer systems to freeze, weapon systems to fail, thwarting vaunted technological prowess for a bloodless conquest. This picture, in which cyber war is isolated from broader conflict, operates in an altogether different realm from traditional warfare and offers a bloodless alternative to the dangers and costs of modern warfare, is attractive but unrealistic. Such a scenario is not beyond the realm of possibility, but it is unlikely. Cyber warfare will almost certainly have very real physical consequences. Computer technology differs from......

Words: 5055 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Csec 620 Individual Assignment 2

...Estonia Banks Targeted University of Maryland University College CSEC 620 Individual assignment # 2 Table of Contents Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 Estonia under attack……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4 Types of attacks ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 Threats actors and their motives ……………………………………………………………………………. 6 Who were responsible for the attacks ……………………………………………………………………. 7 Strategic Shifts in Response to attacks ……………………………………………………………………. 8 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10 Introduction The Baltic state of Estonia was attacked by hackers in April of 2007. Scores of government and private sector website were shut down. Estonian’s daily activities, such as pumping gas or making withdrawals from ATM machines were severely impacted. The architecture of the Internet allowed networks of bots, called botnets, to direct millions of packets to the servers of the Estonian targets, overloading and rendering them inaccessible to visitors. Digital traffic from servers ranging all the way to Peru, Vietnam and the United States overwhelmed Estonian websites, overloading their buffers with superfluous data. At the apex of this DDoS flooding, government websites that had been receiving 1,000 visits each day were suddenly inundated with 2,000 per second (Crouch, Pg 1). No overt financial motivations were discovered as the driver of these attacks, with the principal motivation being......

Words: 2634 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Thesis

...[pic] Frank G. Madsen Queens’ College University of Cambridge International Monetary Flows of Non-Declared Origin This dissertation is submitted to the University of Cambridge to Fulfil the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy April 2008 Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Effetti del Buon Governo Siena, Palazzo Pubblico Sala dei Nove 1337-1340 Declaration This dissertation is the result of my own work and includes nothing, which is the outcome of work done in collaboration. Chapter 3, “Complexity, TOC and Terrorism”, was presented in an embryonic form at the ISA conference in Chicago, USA, March 2007. Chapter 4, “Organised Crime”, is the further elaboration of a chapter of the same title published in 2007 in the Oxford Handbook on the United Nations Statement of Length The dissertation does not exceed the word limit of 80,000 words Fieldwork Thailand (money laundering); Indonesia and Burma (deforestation); New York (US money supply); Washington DC and Fort Worth, Texas (Organised Crime linked to terrorist funding); Australia (Sydney, (APG) and Canberra (money laundering, South Pacific); and Rome, Italy (Chinese organised crime). Contact Frank.Madsen@cantab.net Abstract Through an analysis of the presence and nature of international monetary flows of non-declared origin and their relation to deviant knowledge, the......

Words: 99119 - Pages: 397