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[1] SMART GRID: A Caminho da Rede Inteligente <> acessado em 23.7.2011 às 11h23

[2] Réflexe, a Smart Grid project led by Veolia Environnement, is selected for France's future investments program' <> acessado em 23.7.2011 às 11h31

[3] National Smart Grid Policy: Moving Toward a National Modernized Electrical Grid through Current Pilot and Demonstration
Programs <> acessado em 23.7.2011 às 11h46

"O que foi projetado para atender a uma realidade do século XX, seguramente não conseguirá acompanhar satisfatoriamente as tendências de demanda do século XXI, onde o consumo de energia elétrica insiste em crescer a taxas sempre mais elevadas que o próprio PIB dos países."[1]

"The Department of Energy (of USA) has identified three major problems of the electric grid: unreliability, inefficiency and enormous greenhouse gas emissions during electricity generation." [3]

"As Americans use more and more electricity via electric vehicles, computers or iPods, the demand is surely out weighing the supply. This causes strain and congestion on the electric grid." [3]

"the grid lacks efficiency. Most of the energy that is lost within the electrical grid is in the form of heat. However, if a five percent increase in the efficiency occurred, it would eliminate the fuel and green house gas emissions from approximately 53 million cars (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 2008)."[3]

"The effects to the economy are almost just as devastating: “It is estimated that power outages and power quality disturbances cost the economy from $75 to $180 billion annually (Amin & Stringer, 2008)."[3]

"The goal is to use advanced, information-based technologies to increase power grid efficiency, reliability, and flexibility, and reduce the rate at which additional electric utility infrastructure needs to be built."[4]

"As the August 14, 2003, Midwest and Northeast blackout demonstrated, a loss of electric power is very expensive and can entail considerable disruption to business, travel, government services, and daily life." [4]

Conceito de SG: * "O conceito Smart Grid ou Rede Inteligente busca incorporar tecnologias de sensoriamento, monitoramento, tecnologia da informação e telecomunicações para o melhor desempenho da rede, identificando antecipadamente suas falhas e capacitando-a a se auto-recompor diante de ocorrências que afetem sua performance." [1] * "The new electric grid will integrate many diverse and widespread sources of decentralized generation, storage and consumption. It will therefore have to manage considerable amounts of information in real time using a communication network in parallel."[2] * "A Smart Grid is a “self-healing electrical grid” by means of “an interconnected, automated, and interactive network akin to the Internet” (Parks, 2009). It is based around two- way communication and interoperable components and technologies. The smart grid will be connected from the generation, down to the customer’s appliances or “end-user” devices."[3] * "“a suite of technologies that gives the grid the characteristics of a computer network, in which information and control flows between and is shared by individual customers and utility control centers,” (Kaplan, 2009)"[3] * "The term Smart Grid refers to a distribution system that allows for flow of information from a customer’s meter in two directions: both inside the house to thermostats and appliances and other devices, and back to the utility. This could allow appliances to be turned off during periods of high electrical demand and cost, and give customers real-time information on constantly changing electric rates." [4]

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