Premium Essay

Labeling

In: Social Issues

Submitted By twallace2691
Words 2732
Pages 11
Encyclopedia.com -- Online dictionary and encyclopedia of facts, information, and biographies Research categories

Symbolic Interactionism
Home Social Sciences and the Law Sociology and Social Reform Sociology: General Terms and Concepts
International Encyclopedia...
A Dictionary of Sociology
International Encyclopedia...
Further reading
TOOLS
Symbolic Interactionism

International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family | 2003
COPYRIGHT 2003 The Gale Group Inc.
Symbolic Interactionism

Symbolic interactionism is a sociological perspective on self and society based on the ideas of George H. Mead (1934), Charles H. Cooley (1902), W. I. Thomas (1931), and other pragmatists associated, primarily, with the University of Chicago in the early twentieth century. The central theme of symbolic interactionism is that human life is lived in the symbolic domain. Symbols are culturally derived social objects having shared meanings that are created and maintained in social interaction. Through language and communication, symbols provide the means by which reality is constructed. Reality is primarily a social product, and all that is humanly consequential—self, mind, society, culture—emerges from and is dependent on symbolic interactions for its existence. Even the physical environment is relevant to human conduct mainly as it is interpreted through symbolic systems.

Importance of Meanings

The label symbolic interactionism was coined by Herbert Blumer (1969), one of Mead's students. Blumer, who did much to shape this perspective, specified its three basic premises: (1) Humans act toward things on the basis of the meanings that things have for them; (2) the meanings of things derive from social interaction; and (3) these meanings are dependent on, and modified by, an interpretive process of the people who interact with one another. The focus here is on...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Ethics in Food Labeling and Packaging

...Ethical Food Labeling and Packaging After seeing the ad on television or in the weekly grocer flyer, seeing the actual labeling on a product is what consumers have to make informed choices. What started out to be another form of advertising and last attempt to sell a product, food packaging and labeling has been regulated through the FDA and FD&C to require certain information. It was declared to be the policy of the Congress to assist consumers and manufacturers in reaching these goals in the marketing of consumer goods (Regulatory). Beyond giving the name of the food, net quantity of contents, name and address of manufacturer, statement of ingredients and nutrition information, a product can still be misleading beyond the principal display panels. Accurate and legally complete labels make sense from the standpoints of both ethics and good business (Scott par. 1). Consumers depend on product labels every day to make informed decisions when buying products and those misleading and deceptive labels make it much more difficult to make good purchasing decisions. Proper labeling to provide the consumer with useful, factual information was the rationale for the original FDCA misbranding provisions, and that motivation has not changed in more than half a century (Committee). Label information can be used to mislead the consumer by providing untrue information or to exaggerate their products’ features. As an example, nutrient information claiming “low fat”, “100%......

Words: 1512 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Labeling

...The Labeling Theory The Labeling Theory is a Criminological theory that states those who engage in criminal behavior are not necessarily criminal, or criminal minded. The theory is the view of deviance according to which being labeled as a deviant leads a person to engage in deviant behavior. In the 1960’s, Howard Becker, explained the labeling theory as behavior clashing with social norms. The labeling theory is a valid criminological theory and can indeed lead an individual to criminal activity, merely by labeling an individual as deviant or criminal. History The pioneer who many consider the grandfather of the labeling theory is Frank Tannenbaum. According to author William O’Grady, Tannenbaum was the first to come up with an idea known as tagging (2011). This idea stated additional involvement in delinquent behaviors was mostly due to a negative tag or label. He was convinced that a person was more likely to identify with the label placed on them if there was more attention placed on that specific label. Oftentimes the individual would adopt the initial tagging as part of their identity. In evaluating Tannenbaum’s writings, Walter Gove states, “The process of making the criminal is a process of tagging, defining, identifying, segregating… The person becomes the thing he is described as being; the way out is through a refusal to dramatize the evil. The less said about it the better” (1975). It is evident Tannenbaum believed that ending the labeling process would......

Words: 1724 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Labeling Theory

...Howard Becker is noted one of the pioneers of the ‘labeling theory’. His book, ‘Outsiders’, holds a quote which is now widely used across the academic spectrum when studying labeling and deviance, “social groups create deviance by making the rules whose infraction constitutes deviance and by applying those rules to particular people and labeling them as outsiders. From this point of view, deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an “offender.” The deviant is one to whom that label has successfully been applied. Deviant behavior is behavior that people so label.” (Becker 1963:8–9). This quote is used timelessly even in today’s modern world, as others try and prove if this is truly fact. If we so label a person, do they become that label? In this paper I will try to show if primary or secondary deviance play’s into the development of the deviant behavior. Edwin Lemert is probably best known for developing what is called the societal reaction approach. This approach distinguishes between primary and secondary deviance. Primary deviance is the individuals who get themselves involved in rule-breaking behavior and do not see themselves as deviant. Primary deviance arises for a wide variety of reasons, biological, psychological, and or sociological. Secondary deviance is the individuals who accept their deviant status. When a negative label gets applied to someone visibly, it......

Words: 1327 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Labeling Theory

...Labelling Theory and Symbolic Interaction „No very sharp line can be drawn between social pshycology and individual pshycology” George Herman Mead Introduction In recent years, renewed and increased attention has been given to the need to organize a variety of theories into an interdisciplinary or integrated theory that captures tile contributions that can be made from the many explanatory approaches that have emerged over the last one hundred years. This move towards integrated or interdisciplinary theory represents a new stage of development in the field and requires a careful reassessment of the perspectives that have formed the core of criminological thought.[1] Each era of social and political turmoil has produced profound changes in people’s lives. Perhaps no such era was as significant for criminology as the 1960s. A society with conservative values was shaken out of its complacency when young people, blacks, women and other disadvantaged groups demanded a part in the shaping of national policy. They saw the gaps between philosophical political demands and reality: Blacks had little opportunity to advance women were kept in an inferior status; old politicians made wars in which the young had to die. Rebellion broke out, and some criminologists joined the revolution.[2] These criminologists turned away from theories that explained crime by characteristics of the offender or of the social structure. They set out to demonstrate that......

Words: 6793 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Food Labeling

...Trisha Almado PH 101 28 November 12 Food Labeling Exercise Paper Dairy Product – Blue Bonnet Butter Labels * Nutrition Facts label * Serving Size 1 tbsp (14g) * Calories 70 * Total Fat 8g * Saturated Fat 1.5g * Trans Fat 1.5g * Polyunsaturated Fat 2.5g * Monounsaturated Fat 2g * Cholesterol 0mg * Sodium 125mg * Total Carbohydrate 0g * Protein 0g * Vitamin A 6% * Ingredients – vegetable oil blend, water, salt, etc. * Net weight 16 oz (1 lb) 454 g * 53% Vegetable oil spread * Comparison of Blue Bonnet Butter vs. regular butter * Recipe for cookies using the Blue Bonnet Butter Health Rationale * Nutrition Facts – informs the consumer about what they are consuming and how much they are consuming. * Serving size – provides an amount of a typical serving that the food provides. * Calories – informs the consumer about the total amount of energy they will be consuming from the product. Anything over 400 calories is considered unhealthy. * Total Fat – informs consumers about the amount of fat the product contains. The higher the number, the more fat there is and the unhealthier it is. * Cholesterol – informs the consumer how much cholesterol is in the product. High cholesterol products are considered unhealthy. * Sodium – informs the consumer how much sodium is in the product. High sodium products are considered......

Words: 403 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Trouble with Labeling

...When I think of “labeling” I have a particular story that I remember as a child and young teenager that fits this paper well. Although the name I have chosen to use for this story is different, the rest of the story is how I remember it and also how I perceived that others spoke about it. My best friend growing up was named Mike. He was a black kid that I first met in the second grade. We quickly became good friends and enjoyed playing together at school, soccer practice, and eventually at our homes. I lived in a middle class neighborhood and Mike lived in a lower class neighborhood that was very close to mine. We became quickly inseparable and generally rode bikes together in either of our neighborhoods. At such a young age I didn’t realize what family troubles were so until later in life I wasn’t able to put these things completely into perspective. I knew that Mike’s mother held a good job as that is what Mike told me and I also gathered the same thing from my parents. On the other hand Mike’s dad I don’t believe had a steady job based on the same facts that I gathered about his mother. Mike’s mom when she was home generally engaged in conversation with us frequently as it was quite the opposite with Mike’s dad. At the time I really didn’t understand why Mike’s dad wasn’t around much and when he was I never really knew him to work although at the time it didn’t seem unusual to me. Most of the time when I was with Mike we generally played together as it was......

Words: 1024 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Food Labeling

...My Last Song - Emma McNeil “When my world is falling apart, when there’s no light to break up the dark, that’s when I look at you” I sat there. Tears streaming down my cheeks. I just sat there. Was I supposed to remain seated until the credits came up at the end? Or walk out? If I knew before entering the cinema that I would be put in this predicament, would I have continued to go inside? These were the questions that have played on my mind since April 14th 2010. But now, I’m glad I went inside as it allowed me to show emotion through physical tears after seeing my life story being played out on screen. Being a teenage girl, Miley Cyrus is one of the greatest people alive; hence, when she releases a new movie, box offices are bombarded and overwhelmed by teenagers, much like my friends and I. The Miley Cyrus film was titled “The Last Song”, directed by Julie Anne Robinson and based on the book written by Nicholas Sparks. I had previously read several books by Nicholas Sparks, but not this one; this story had obviously been kept for a time that I would be able to truly relate to; a time when I was ready to fully accept what had happened. “When the waves are flooding to shore and I can’t find my way home anymore, that’s when I look at you” Growing up, my best friend was my Dad. In my eyes, he was the greatest man alive; he was some form of superhero, powered to make everything in my life better again. Before I could even speak, my Dad and I spoke our own......

Words: 968 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Labeling Dogs

...Denise McLemore Dr. Chemishanova English 1060 13 June 2013 Labeling dogs as vicious, based solely on their breed, is an unfair label because the actions of one dog is unjustly generalized to an entire breed; the media uses isolated instances for sensationalism and ratings; and these both combine to provoke reactionary legislation that imposes regulations selectively on these dogs and their owners. May 2nd, 2012 Christine Spain, the mother of Boston police officer David Lanteigne, was unconscious on train tracks in Shirley, MA. The engineer saw a dog, a pit bull named Lilly, trying to pull a woman off the tracks. After the train finally stopped and authorities arrived to find Lilly standing over her owner Christine. Lilly was taken and rushed to Angell Animal Medical Center in Boston. Lilly suffered from some injuries and some trauma to her leg, which eventually had to be amputated. She was rescued 3 years ago prior by her son and given to her to help with her struggle in alcoholism. Her son said, “We saved her life, and she saved my mom’s life” (Phillips). When these dogs become stereotyped as viscous there are so many testaments to show that they are misunderstood and they love their family just like any other breed. There are so many people that are not sure which way is the best way to address this situation. The problem is not the dogs; it is the owners of the dogs. Breed discrimination is not going to fix the problem. Can anyone say that one...

Words: 3355 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Labeling and Minority

...Part I Define the following terms found in Week One and Week Two readings: Term Definition Diversity The inclusion of of different types of people, for instances the diversity of one's race, or culture. Ethnocentrism When someone judges other cultures by the standards of their own, in which they believe to be the superior. Melting pot Diverse racial or or ethnic groups or both, forming a new creation, a new cultural entity. Minority group A subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives than do the groups of a dominant or majority group. Emigration Leaving one country to settle into another country. Immigration Coming into a new country to become a permanent resident. Culture The integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior. Part II Answer each question in 250 to 350 words: 1. What are some of the ways groups of people are identified? There are four types of minority and subordinate groups. There is the racial group is a group that is socially set apart because of obvious differences, such as people having different skin colors, such as black or white. The second group is ethnic groups which are groups set apart from others because of its national origin or distinctive cultural differences, such as one man being from China, while another man is from Japan. Although these two men have similar ethnic groups, which may have similar cultural aspects, they are also......

Words: 494 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Promoting Health

...People living in unequal society especially from the minority social groups can become subject of prejudice. Prejudice is the negative preconceived opinion about an individual that is not based on reason or actual experience. Prejudice includes having negative attitude towards individual or some group of people especially people from minority ethnic group without actual reasons. People are sometimes unwilling to put their prejudice aside or change the attitudes they have and this increase the stereotyped belief towards the individual or the group. For example, some people might have a prejudice view that race, skin colour or culture makes certain people inferior or superior, some people might also think that people of working age and relying or depending on the government benefits are just because they don't any disability that can affect their ability to work, they already have their mind set that people living on benefits are not looking for jobs because they don’t want to work. Even though there are plenty of jobs been advertised on a daily basis. People who are really prejudiced find it difficult to change their mind even if they are clearly given reasons why people are remained unemployed for example their application for different jobs being declined because of lack of experience. Prejudice attitudes are negative and based on unrealistic ideals which increase the rate of inequalities in the society, this can be linked to stereotyping which defines a group as the......

Words: 538 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Effects of Increasing University Fees

...social life in order to keep high grades and be productive at work? Usually, part time jobs does not require deep knowledge or experience, so are students taking these jobs only for financial purposes, or they also have career perspectives in the field/company they are working in part-time? Lastly, have students ever considered leaving their jobs if studying results were decreasing, or maybe they had thoughts to drop- out of university as salary was satisfying enough not to seek further degree? To find out these answers 20 random university students will be surveyed. First, and most common error is stereotyping. Companies loose qualified and skilled workers only because of this kind of unintentional discrimination. Grouping and labeling people according to one of their characteristics can warn managers about incompetent candidate, but also can be a false judgment. In this case we can take very simplistic examples: person having facial piercing is not a suitable for a manager position, even if having all the qualities and experience needed, he will not be able to represent company in a solid way. On the other hand female can be not hired for a taxi...

Words: 628 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Cultural Diversity

...University of Phoenix Material Appendix B Part I Define the following terms: |Term |Definition | |Stereotypes |Unreliable, exaggerated generalizations about all members of a group that do not take individual | | |differences into account | |Prejudice |A negative attitude toward an entire category of people, such as a racial or ethnic minority | |Labeling theory |The way in which negative labels get applied and on the consequences of the labeling process | Part II Select three of the identity categories below and name or describe at least 3 related stereotypes for each: • Race • Ethnicity • Religion • Gender • Sexual orientation • Age • Disability |Category |Stereotype 1 |Stereotype 2 |Stereotype 3 | |Race |Saying someone is a gangster |That black people are fast |All Asians look alike | | |just because they are black. |runners | | |Sexual orientation |All gay people are good dressers|Calling lesbians......

Words: 642 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Appendix B

...University of Phoenix Material Appendix B Part I Define the following terms: |Term |Definition | |Stereotypes |Stereotypes are qualities assigned to groups of people related to their race, nationality or sexual | | |orientation. | |Prejudice |An adverse judgment or opinion formed beforehand or without knowledge or examination of the facts | |Labeling theory |Deviance is not inherent to an act, but instead focuses on the tendency of majorities to negatively | | |label minorities or those seen as deviant from standard cultural norms. | Part II Select three of the identity categories below and name or describe at least 3 related stereotypes for each: • Race • Ethnicity • Religion • Gender • Sexual orientation • Age • Disability |Category |Stereotype 1 |Stereotype 2 |Stereotype 3 | |Race |Indians are terrorist |Mexicans are all illegal |Black people are ghetto | | | |immigrants. ...

Words: 647 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Appendix B Eth125

...Appendix B Part I Define the following terms: Term Definition Stereotypes Unreliable, exaggerated generalizations about all members of a group that do not take individual differences into account. Prejudice A negative attitude toward an entire category of people, such as a racial or ethnic minority. Labeling theory A sociological approach introduced by Howard Becker that attempts to explain why certain people are viewed as deviants and others engaging in the same behavior are not. Part II Select three of the identity categories below and name or describe at least 3 related stereotypes for each: Race Ethnicity Religion Gender Sexual orientation Age Disability Category Stereotype 1 Stereotype 2 Stereotype 3 Race Racial profiling Scapegoating Theory Minority Group Religion Ethnocentrism Genocide Absolute Deprivation Sexual Orientation Hate Crimes Discrimination Social Distance Part III Answer each question in 100 to 150 words related to those stereotypes: What are the positive aspects of the stereotypes, if any? The only positive if it would be considered one is when you discuss a topic the general belief about it is that the common knowledge of said topic is based on what everyone believes about it. Say how people who mistrust young men dressed in clothes known to be worn by gang members due to the color and styles. There would be the basis of someone stereotyping them into a group as gang bangers or street gangs and...

Words: 1265 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Eth/125 Appendix B

...Appendix B Part I Define the following terms: Term Definition Stereotypes Unreliable, exaggerated generalizations about all members of a group that do not take individual differences into account. Prejudice A negative attitude toward an entire category of people, such as a racial group or ethnic minority. Labeling theory The view of deviance in which someone being labeled as a “deviant” leads a person to engage in deviant behavior. This theory was originated by Howard Becker’s work in the 1960s. The labeling theory explains why people’s behavior clashes with societal norms. Part II Select three of the identity categories below and name or describe at least 3 related stereotypes for each: • Race • Ethnicity • Religion • Gender • Sexual orientation • Age • Disability Category Stereotype 1 Stereotype 2 Stereotype 3 Religion All Muslim are terrorists. All Jews are cheap. All Mormons believe in polygamy. Age Children- loud, spoiled, and unintelligent Teens- Selfish, lazy, and unemployed Adults- Work-oriented, bossy, look down on teenagers Disability Emotionally disturbed Crippled Dumb Part III Answer each question in 100 to 150 words related to those stereotypes: • What are the positive aspects of the stereotypes, if any? - Stereotyping in the positive aspect could be understood as the way in which people reduce the complexity of the world to a more manageable level. It helps protect our minds from information overload. For......

Words: 1013 - Pages: 5