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Lagos, Nigeria

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Main article: History of Lagos
Lagos was a war camp for members of the Benin Empire, who referred to it as Eko.[5][6] The Yoruba still use the name Eko to refer to Lagos. Lagos, which means "lakes", was a name given to the settlement by the Portuguese. The present day Lagos state has a high percentage of Awori, who migrated to the area from Isheri along the Ogun river. Throughout history, it was home to a number of warring ethnic groups who had settled in the area. During its early settlement, it also saw periods of rule by the Benin Kingdom.[9]
Portuguese explorer Rui de Sequeira visited the area in 1472, naming the area around the city Lago de Curamo; indeed the present name is Portuguese for "lakes". Another explanation is that Lagos was named for Lagos, Portugal - a maritime town which, at the time, was the main centre of Portuguese expeditions down the African coast, and whose own name is derived from the Latin word Lacobriga.
Lagos was formally annexed as the British Lagos Colony in 1861. This had the dual effect of crushing the slave trade and establishing British control over palm and other trades.[10] The remainder of modern-day Nigeria was seized in 1887, and when the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria was established in 1914, Lagos was declared its capital, continuing as such after the country's independence from Britain in 1960. Along with migrants from all over Nigeria and other West African nations were the returnee ex-slaves known as Creoles, who came from Freetown, Sierra Leone, Brazil and the West Indies to Lagos. The Creoles contributed to Lagos' modernisation and their knowledge of Portuguese architecture can still be seen from the architecture on Lagos Island.[6]
Lagos experienced rapid growth throughout the 1960s and 1970s as a result of Nigeria's economic boom prior to the Nigerian Civil War otherwise called the Biafran War.[11] Lagos was the capital of Nigeria from 1914 up to 1991.[12] The city was stripped of its status when the Federal Capital Territory was established at the purpose-built city of Abuja. On November 14, 1991, the Presidency and other federal government functions were finally relocated to the new capital city of Abuja.[12]

[edit]Lagos Mainland
Most of the population live on the mainland, and most industries are located there too. Lagos is known for its music and night life, which used to be located in areas around Yaba and Surulere In recent years more night clubs have sprung on the island, making the island, particularly Victoria Island, the main nightlife attraction. Lagos Mainland districts include Ebute-Meta, Surulere, Yaba (location of the University of Lagos) and Ikeja, site of Murtala Muhammed International Airport and capital of Lagos State.
Greater Lagos includes Mushin, Maryland, Somolu, Oshodi, Oworonsoki, Isolo, Ikotun, Agege,Iju Ishaga, Egbeda, Ketu, Bariga, Ipaja, Ajah and Ejigbo.
The city of Lagos is the main city of the southwestern part of Nigeria. Some rivers, like Badagry Creek, flow parallel to the coast for some distance before exiting through the sand bars to the sea. The two major urban islands of Lagos in Lagos Lagoon are Lagos Island and Victoria Island. These islands are separated from the mainland by the main channel draining the lagoon into the Atlantic Ocean, which forms Lagos Harbour. The islands are separated from each other by creeks of varying sizes and are connected to Lagos Island by bridges. The smaller sections of some creeks have been sand filled and built over, however.
[edit]Islands of Lagos
[edit]Lagos Island
Main article: Lagos Island

Lagos Island as seen from the harbour near Victoria Island
Lagos Island contains a central business district.[13] This district is characterized by high-rise buildings. The island also contains many of the city's largest wholesale marketplaces (such as the popular Idumota and Balogun markets).[14] It also has the National Museum of Nigeria, the Central Mosque, the Glover Memorial Hall, Christ's Cathedral (CMS), and the Oba Palace.[15] Though formerly in a derelict condition, Lagos Island's Tinubu Square is a site of historical importance; it was here that the Amalgamation Ceremony that unified the North and South protectorate to form Nigeria took place in 1914.
Main article: Ikoyi
Ikoyi is situated on the eastern half of Lagos Island and joined to it by a landfill.[16] Ikoyi is also connected to Victoria Island by a bridge carrying a main road over a Five Cowrie creek.[17] Ikoyi housed the headquarter of the federal government of Nigeria and other buildings owned by the government -including the old federal secretariat complex. The complex today is on reestablishment. In Ikoyi there are military and police barracks, a top-security prison and a federal high court of Nigeria. Ikoyi also has a number of hotels, night clubs, a recreational park and one of Africa's largest golf courses. Originally a middle class neighbourhood, in recent years, it has become a fashionable residential enclave for the upper middle class to the upper class. There are also commercial activities in Ikoyi which is spotted in increasing number of offices, banks and shopping complexes. The commercial sections is concentrated in the South-West,SW.
[edit]Victoria Island
Main article: Victoria Island (Nigeria)
Victoria Island with its annex is situated to the south of Lagos Island.[12] It has expensive real estate properties and for that reason, many new luxury condos and apartments are blooming up everywhere. Along with Ikoyi, Victoria Island occupies a major area in the suburbs of Lagos which boasts of several sizable shopping districts. On its sea shore along the Atlantic front, there is environmentally reconstructed Bar Beach.
Across the main channel of the lagoon from Lagos Island, there is a smaller settlement called Iddo. Iddo is also a railroad terminus and it is situated on the mainland. It is now connected to the mainland like a peninsula.[18]
Three major bridges join the island to the mainland. They are the Carter Bridge which start from Iddo, the Eko Bridge(formerly called the Second Mainland Bridge) and the Third Mainland Bridge -which passes through densely populated mainland suburbs through Lagos lagoon.
Lagos has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) that is similar to that of the rest of southern Nigeria. There are two rainy seasons, with the heaviest rains falling from April to July and a weaker rainy season in October and November. There is a brief relatively dry spell in August and September and a longer dry season from December to March. Monthly rainfall between May and July averages over 400 mm (15.7 in), while in August and September it is down to 200 mm (7.9 in) and in December as low as 25 mm (1.0 in). The main dry season is accompanied by harmattan winds from the Sahara Desert, which between December and early February can be quite strong

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