Free Essay


In: Other Topics

Submitted By Nhana
Words 399
Pages 2
A laparotomy is a large incision made into the abdomen. Exploratory laparotomy is used to visualize and examine the structures inside of the abdominal cavity.

Exploratory laparotomy is a method of abdominal exploration, a diagnostic tool that allows physicians to examine the abdominal organs. The procedure may be recommended for a patient who has abdominal pain of unknown origin or who has sustained an injury to the abdomen. Injuries may occur as a result of blunt trauma (e.g., road traffic accident) or penetrating trauma (e.g., stab or gunshot wound). Because of the nature of the abdominal organs, there is a high risk of infection if organs rupture or are perforated. In addition, bleeding into the abdominal cavity is considered a medical emergency. Exploratory laparotomy is used to determine the source of pain or the extent of injury and perform repairs if needed.

Laparotomy may be performed to determine the cause of a patient's symptoms or to establish the extent of a disease. For example, endometriosis is a disorder in which cells from the inner lining of the uterus grow elsewhere in the body, most commonly on the pelvic and abdominal organs. Endometrial growths, however, are difficult to visualize using standard imaging techniques such as x ray, ultrasound technology, or computed tomography (CT) scanning. Exploratory laparotomy may be used to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs (such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, bladder, and rectum) for evidence of endometriosis. Any growths found may then be removed.

Exploratory laparotomy plays an important role in the staging of certain cancers. Cancer staging is used to describe how far a cancer has spread. A laparotomy enables a surgeon to directly examine the abdominal organs for evidence of cancer and remove samples of tissue for further examination. When laparotomy is used for this use, it is called staging laparotomy or pathological staging.

Some other conditions that may be discovered or investigated during exploratory laparotomy include:

cancer of the abdominal organs peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum, the lining of the abdominal cavity) appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) abscesses (a localized area of infection) adhesions (bands of scar tissue that form after trauma or surgery) diverticulitis (inflammation of sac-like structures in the walls of the intestines) intestinal perforation ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy occurring outside of the uterus) foreign bodies (e.g., a bullet in a gunshot victim) internal bleeding

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...DEFINITION OF PROCEDURE EXPLORATORY LAPAROTOMY A laparotomy is a large incision made into the abdomen. Exploratory laparotomy is used to visualize and examine the structures inside of the abdominal cavity. Exploratory laparotomy is a method of abdominal exploration, a diagnostic tool that allows physicians to examine the abdominal organs. The procedure may be recommended for a patient who has abdominal pain of unknown origin or who has sustained an injury to the abdomen. Laparotomy may be performed to determine the cause of a patient's symptoms or to establish the extent of a disease. Advameg, Inc. (2012). Laparotomy, exploratory. Encyclopedia of Surgery. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from A 'look-see' operation usually of the peritoneal cavity, in which the surgeon examines all surfaces for lesions– e.g., abscesses and tumor nodules; during exploratory laparotomy, the operator may biopsy the tissue or obtain peritoneal washings from which a specimen for cytology is processed. Indications: Surgical staging of regional malignancy–e.g., ovarian cancer, complications, adhesion formation. Farlex, Inc. (2012). Exploratory laparotomy. The Free Dictionary. By definition, an exploratory laparotomy is a laparotomy performed with the objective of obtaining information that is not......

Words: 661 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

35 Year Old Female with a Gunshot Wound

...follow commands and respond appropriately. Is neurological disability a central phenomenon from shock, or is there a direct spinal cord injury? The patient must always be adequately exposed to evaluate all injuries, don’t over look the axial, back, gluteal cleft, and perineum. Patients with penetrating abdominal injuries are best served by antibiotic therapy prior to operative intervention. Initial therapy should be broad, with coverage of both gram-positive and gram negative organisms. Current practice guidelines advise broad spectrum antibiotics prior to incision and throughout operation -tentanus toxoid upon admission The care of the trauma patient does not end with intraoperative repair of injuries. The hypothermic, coagulopathic laparotomy patient is prone to numerous postoperative complications: Expect to encounter significant post op hypovolemia, often requiring massive volume resuscitation Anticipate (life-threatening) abdominal compartment syndrome: look for a decrease in urinary output, increasing airway pressures, decreased venous return, and increasing abdominal pressures. HISTORY • Need to ascertain the mechanism of the injury: damage inflicted by a low-velocity handgun is far different from the cavitating blast effect exerted by high-velocity hunting projectile. • AMPLE(allergies, meds, past medical hx; last meal; events leading to presentation) • Past medical hx provided by the patient or family may provide insight to......

Words: 1703 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Asthma in Adolescents and Adults

...A CASE STUDY ON EXPLORATORY LAPAROTOMY WITH ADHESOLIYSIS, RIGHT HEMICOLECTOMY WITH PRIMARY END-TO-END ANASTOMOSIS ________________________________ In Partial Fulfillment of the Course Requirement In Surgical Nursing ________________________________ Presented to: The Faculty of Cebu Doctors’ University College of Nursing _____________________________ Submitted by: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Phi 2nd generation Class 2009 30 September 2008 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Introduction ……………………………………………………………………. 3 II. Objectives ……………………………………………………………………... 5 III. Nursing Assessment……………………………………………………………. 8 A. Personal History Patient’s Profile Family and Individual Information Level of Growth and Development Normal Development at Particular Stage The Ill Person at Particular Stage of Patient B. Diagnostic Results…………………………………………………... 16 C. Present Profile of Functional Health Patterns ……………………. 17 Health Perception / Health Management Pattern Nutritional – Metabolic Pattern Elimination Pattern Activity / Exercise Pattern Cognitive / Perceptual Pattern Rest / Sleep Pattern Self – perception Pattern Role Relationship Pattern Sexuality – Reproductive Pattern Coping – Stress Tolerance Pattern Value –...

Words: 8358 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Ovarian Cancer

...evaluating the body to determine if the cancer has spread to the lungs, spine, brain, or colon. In addition, laparoscopies, colonoscopies, biopsies, and blood tests can also be performed to aid in the diagnosis and accuracy of treatment of ovarian cancer ( - How is ovarian cancer diagnosed?). Depending on the stage of the ovarian cancer, there are many different types of treatments that have been proven to be effective. The main treatments that are available are laparotomies, laparoscopies, frozen section tissue analysis, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. A laparotomy is a surgery that is used in a later stage of ovarian cancer. It takes out a substantial part of the reproductive system but also ensures that the majority of the tumor is being removed. This will also help deter the spread of the cancer to other parts of the body. A laparoscopy differs from a laparotomy because it is used in the earlier stages of ovarian cancer and is much less invasive. After the removal of the possibly cancerous tumor, frozen section tissue analysis can be used to conclude if it is cancerous or not. Chemotherapy is used after the tumor has been removed and diagnosed. This is a series of “cancer-killing drugs” that are given to the patient for about six months. The last treatment is radiation therapy, and even though this treatment has been declining for ovarian cancer, it is a great alternative for patients......

Words: 742 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Hall V Hilbun

...never ordered to call him if things changed with Mrs. Hall. An autopsy was done and it showed that a sponge had been left in her abdominal cavity but it did not cause her death. Mrs. Hall's husband filed a malpractice/wrongful death case against Dr. Hilbun stating that he failed to follow-up after the operation and give post-operation instructions to the nursing staff. At the trial, Hall's husband called Dr. Hoerr as a witness but was disqualified because he was not familiar with the local standard of care, only the national one. After reading about this case, I believe that Dr. Hilbun was at fault for the four D's of negligence. The first D is duty, which there was a patient and physician relationship. He did perform an exploratory laparotomy on her for a bowel obstruction after she came in for abdominal pain. The second would be derelict, which means the patient would have to prove the physician failed to comply with standards...

Words: 279 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...BSBMED301B: Assignment 1 What you have to do Using the learning resource provided answer the following questions: Question 1 Using your knowledge of word components, give the correct medical term for each of the definitions below. Definition Medical Term 1. rectal hernia Rectocele 2. excision of the stomach Gastrectomy 3. inflammation of the kidney Nephritis 4. enlargement of the liver Hepatomegaly 5. incision to remove a stone Lithotomy 6. fixation of the intestine Enteropexy 7. artificial opening in the colon Colostomy 8. incision into the abdomen Laparotomy 9. absence of one or both testes Anarchism 10. rupture of the uterus Hysterorrhexis 11. excision of the prostate gland Prostatectomy 12. visual examination of the vagina Colposcopy 13. surgical repair of a testicle Orchiopexy 14. discharge of milk Galactorrhea 15. difficult labour or delivery Dystocia 16. suture of the tongue Glossorrhaphy 17. surgical puncture of the abdomen Abdominocentesis 18. pus in the urine Pyuria 19. pertaining to above the kidney Suprarenal 20. narrowing of the urethra Urethral Stricture Question 2 Give the meaning of each of the abbreviations below. Abbreviation Medical Meaning 1. LUQ Left upper quadrant 2. GI Gastrointestinal 3. OGD Oesophago-gastro duedenoscopy 4. CVS Chorionic villus sampling 5. STD Sexually transmitted disease 6. IUD Intrauterine device 7. TURP Transurethral resection of the prostate 8. DRE Digital......

Words: 2667 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

General Surgery

...General Surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, gallbladder and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland (depending on the availability of head and neck surgery specialists). They also deal with diseases involving the skin, breast, soft tissue, and hernias. Services Offered : Trauma surgery – Often they are the first port of call to critically ill or gravely injured patients, and must perform a variety of procedures to stabilize such patients, such as intubation, burr hole, cricothyroidotomy, and emergency laparotomy or thoracotomy to stanch bleeding. Laparoscopic surgery – This is a relatively new specialty dealing with minimal access techniques using cameras and small instruments inserted through 0.3 to 1 cm incisions. Robotic General surgeons that are trained today are expected to be proficient in laparoscopic procedures. Colorectal surgery – General surgeons treat a wide variety of major and minor colon and rectal diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease), diverticulitis, colon and rectal cancer, gastrointestinal bleeding and hemorrhoids. Breast surgery – General surgeons perform a majority of all non-cosmetic breast surgery from lumpectomy to mastectomy, especially pertaining to the evaluation and diagnosis, of breast cancer. Vascular surgery – General surgeons can perform vascular surgery if they receive special training...

Words: 315 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Gordon’s Health Assessment Framework

...the symptoms with low salt healthy balance diet, regular non-strenuous exercise, and relaxation techniques. This year, she had a unplanned pregnancy and was miscarriage due to foetus no heart beat. IMMUNISATIONS LT was born in Singapore and has completed all the compulsory/ recommended/neccessary National Childhood and Adolescent Immunisation, ---- Family Health Service, Ministry of Health (MOH), Singapore. (provide website) She also completed other Optional Vaccinations as follow: Flu vaccines prior to her year-end overseas vacation trips, HPV vaccine Tetanus vaccine Chicken pox vaccine HOSPITALISATIONS (List date or age, reason for admission and any sequelae) At age of 9, 1984 Perforated appendicitis underwent laparotomy appendectomy. Post-operative complication of complete wound dehiscence down to subcutaneous layer, treated with intravenous antibiotic and wound care in hospital setting. At age of 27, 2002 Threatening abortion At age of 38, 2012 Endometrisis underwent Breast fibrotic cyst underwent removal of ACCIDENTS / INJURIES (List date or age and any sequelae) At age of 10, 1985 Fracture of left wrist while practising gymnastic. M& R and casting done at age of 10. At age of 18, 1993 Motorbike accident – no serious injury but sustained skin abrasion (about 20 x 10 cm, at lateral aspect of left lower limb) DRUG REACTIONS (List drug and type of reaction that occurs) Clarithromycin - Clarithromycin – skin rash,......

Words: 2641 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

From Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia

...Appendicitis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia | Appendicitis is a medical emergency characterized by inflammation of the appendix, many cases of which require removal of the inflamed appendix, either by laparotomy or laparoscopy. Untreated, mortality is high, mainly because of the risk of rupture leading to infection and inflammation of the intestinal lining (peritoneum) and eventual sepsis, clinically known as peritonitis which can lead to circulatory shock. Reginald Fitz first described acute and chronic appendicitis in 1886, and it has been recognized as one of the most common causes of severe acute abdominal pain worldwide. A correctly diagnosed non-acute form of appendicitis is known as "rumbling appendicitis". Appendicitis is most common between the ages of 5 and 40; the median age is 28. It tends to affect males, those in lower income groups, and, for unknown reasons, people living in rural areas. The term "pseudoappendicitis" is used to describe a condition mimicking appendicitis. It can be associated with Yersinia enterocolitica. acute appendicitis  appendicitis of acute onset, requiring prompt surgery, and usually marked by pain in the right lower abdominal quadrant, referred rebound tenderness, overlying muscle spasm, and cutaneous hyperesthesia. chronic appendicitis  1. that characterized by fibrotic thickening of the organ wall due to previous acute inflammation. 2. formerly, chronic or recurrent pain in the appendiceal area, without evidence of......

Words: 4245 - Pages: 17

Free Essay


...3 – Operative Laparoscopy - suggested minimum 20 • Level 6 o Ovarian cystectomy (normal anatomy) o Laparoscopic Pelvic Floor Repair o Oophorectomy (normal anatomy) o Excisional of APS IV endometriosis o Salpingotomy/salpingectomy for treatment of ectopic pregnancy o Oophorectomy of Residual Ovary (distorted anatomy) o Laparoscopic lymph node dissection (pelvic and para-aortic) o Radical hysterectomy Teaching by trainee MRN/NHI Procedure Indication Outcome Complications Comments 13 Assist Supervised Unsupervised Open abdominal gynaecological surgery, includes: • Basic Laparotomy (eg, oophorectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy, ovarian (Training Supervisor should check/sign off each completed page) cystectomy)- suggested minimum 20 • Intermediate Laparotomy (e, hysterectomy, myomectomy, hysterotomy)- suggested minimum 20 • Advanced Laparotomy (eg, pelvic sidewall dissection) Teaching by trainee 14 GYNAECOLOGY Open abdominal gynaecological surgery Date MRN/NHI Procedure Indication Outcome Complications Comments Signature of Trg. Supervisor GYNAECOLOGY Vaginal surgery, uterovaginal prolapse & urinary incontinence Date Assist Supervised Unsupervised Vaginal surgery, uterovaginal prolapse & urinary incontinence, includes: • Simple Vaginal Surgery (eg, vaginal repair – anterior, posterior & perineum) - suggested (Training Supervisor should check/sign off each completed page) minimum 20 ...

Words: 3043 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Right Hemicolectomy

...disease (rare) Special considerations: In order to plan an operation for a patient with colon cancer, the surgeon must have a thorough understanding of the tumor's location in the bowel, the stage of the cancer, and the patient's physiologic status. ( answer those with pt. info) Pharmacology: Preop- 4 L of polyethylene glycol solution is given to the patient to be taken over 2-3 hours in the afternoon of the day before the procedure. A sodium phosphate enema is given on the night before the operation. Two doses of metronidazole and neomycin sulfate are given after the lavage preparation on the day before surgery. An intravenous (IV) second-generation cephalosporin is administered within 1 hour before incision. Instrumentation: standard laparotomy set Scalpel with No. 11 and No. 15 blades Curved and straight artery forceps A pair of toothed thumb forceps A pair of nontoothed forceps Allis forceps Noncrushing intestinal clamps Hemostatic clips or ligatures Handheld ultrasonic dissector (if available) Abdominal wall retractors/self-retaining retractors Atraumatic visceral retractors Suture material (absorbable and nonabsorbable) Anastomotic staplers Equipment: ESU, Suction, Supplies: After the patient is anesthetized a 16-French or 18-French Ryle tube is passed and kept on continuous drainage. The patient is then catheterized with a 14-F Foley catheter for monitoring of intraoperative and postoperative urine output. Anesthesia: Place endo tracheal tube. Keep......

Words: 571 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Mmk Procedure

...will be under general anesthesia and will not have any control over their need to void. Patients are also instructed to not eat or drink for eight hours prior to the surgery. (Blaivas) To prepare the patient for the Marshall-Marchetti-Krantz procedure, a complete evaluation has to determine why they are suffering from stress incontinence, the degree of severity, and the proper treatment. Equipment, Instruments & Supplies: The equipment needed for this surgery would be an electrosurgical unit and positioning aids to position the patient. The supplies that a surgical technologist needs to gather are: basic pack, double basin set, sterile gloves, two #10 blades, a laparotomy drape as well as an additional impervious ½ sheet, electrocautery pencil, irrigation fluid, suction tubing, gauze sponges, laparotomy sponges, and peanut sponges. The following should be gathered according to the surgeon’s preference using their preference card: sutures, dressings, and drugs. (Association of Surgical Technologists, Inc., 2008) Pre-Op: To prepare the patient for a Marshall-Marchetti-Krantz procedure takes a lot of work and preparation. After the patient is diagnosed and the surgeon informs the patient that this procedure would be their best alternative to correct their stress incontinence, the patient must first agree to this and sign the proper consent forms with a witness present. The patient must be of sound mind and not under any sort of influence to sign this because it......

Words: 1704 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Patient Safety

...physician in times of need. This was not the end of her ordeal in the hospital setting. She was then transported to a neighboring hospital where she had her colonoscopy.  I accompanied her to the procedure and witnessed the concern of the nurses regarding the patient not having finished her GoLytely.  Additionally, the physicians were concerned in light of the IM resident’s forewarning of her difficulties in past colonoscopy procedures, and special accommodations were made to retrieve a smaller pediatric scope.  As expected, the procedure was done with great difficulty.  After the procedure, there was suspicion that the patient may have suffered a perforated bowel, which was confirmed on X-ray, and surgery took her to the OR for exploratory laparotomy.  The patient spent several days intubated in the surgical ICU with an NG (nasogastric) tube draining her stomach contents and a colostomy bag diverting stools from her area of perforated bowel. I had the good fortune as a student to follow the patient from the beginning of a difficult hospital stay until her discharge.  She and I spent time discussing her difficulties, and the experience was enhanced by the invaluable skills I picked up during my psychiatry rotation.  After initial stages of rapport building and small talk, I began to identify her underlying core issue:  she perceived that her poor treatment in the hospital was secondary to being a handicapped person due to morbid obesity.  We discussed the diet and exercise......

Words: 713 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Case Study : Ectopic Pregnancy

...her specific instructions regarding to driving, activity level, medication, and any other restrictions. She was also given direction follow up with her OB/GYN after finishing her medication and require immediate medical attention if she have a fever or increasing abdominal pain. Part I 1. Vaginitis | Vaginal inflammation or infection (Word root) -itis (Suffix) 2. Urinalysis | Urine test to describe the characteristics of the urine and detect substances in it (Word root) –lysis (Suffix) 3. Vasculature | Network of blood vessel in a particular organ (Word root) 4. Ovarian | Of the ovaries, small, oval glands near the ends of the fallopian tubes. 5. Cornea | Transparent layer over the anterior part of the eye. 6. Laparoscopic | Laparotomy performed with a laparoscope that makes a small incision to examine the abdominal cavity (Word root) –ic (suffix) 7. Anesthesic | A substance that induces insensitivity to pain. (Word root) –ic (Suffix) 8. Pelvimetry | Medical procedure to determine the dimensions of the maternal bony pelvis. (Word root) –metry (Suffix) 9. Genital | Female or male internal and external genitalia. (Word root) –al (Suffix) 10. Uterine | The internal female genital organ of menstruation and pregnancy. (Word root) –ine (Suffix) Part II 1. Gonorrhea | A sexually transmitted disease caused by gonococcal bacteria that affects the mucous membrane chiefly of the genital and urinary tracts and is characterized by an acute purulent discharge and painful or...

Words: 848 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...may contain abdominal viscera. 2. Indirect Hernia: Caused by a congenital defect in the internal abdominal ring, causing the peritoneum to bulge along the spermatic cord. It may or may not contain abdominal viscera. * A hernia can occur within an old scar that is usually located in the abdominal (ventral)region, and is referred to as an incision hernia. * Hernias are either reducible or irreducible that is incarcerated. The contents of an incarcerated hernia may become strangulated, compromising the viability of trapped tissues and thus necessitating their resection in addition to the herniography. Position * Supine, with arms extended on arm boards Incision Site * Groin area, right or left oblique. Packs/Drapes * Laparotomy pack or minor pack * Four-folded towels Instrumentation * Basic tray or minor tray * Self retraining retractor Supplies/ Equipment * Basin set * Suction * Needle counter * Penrose drain * Dissector sponges * Sutures * Solutions – saline, water * Synthetic mesh * Skin closure strips Procedure 1. The surgeon begins the procedure by incising the groin. 2. The incision is deepened using the Metzenbaum scissors and cautery is used to control small bleeders. 3. Both blunt and sharp dissections are used to gain access to the hernia. 4. After incising the fascia that lies over the spermatic cord (male), several small hemostats are placed on the edge of the incised fascia. 5.......

Words: 733 - Pages: 3