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Lead Poisoning

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Submitted By bella266
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Lead poisoning (also known as plumbism, colica Pictonum, saturnism, Devon colic[->0], or painter's colic) is a medical condition caused by increased levels of the heavy metal[->1] lead[->2] in the body. Lead interferes with a variety of body processes and is toxic to many organs and tissues including the heart[->3], bones[->4], intestines[->5], kidneys[->6], and nervous[->7] systems.Symptoms include abdominal pain, confusion[->8], headache, anemia[->9], irritability, and in severe cases seizures[->10], coma[->11], and death[->12].
Routes of exposure to lead include contaminated air, water, soil, food, and consumer Occupational exposure is a common cause of lead poisoning in adults
Classically, "lead poisoning" or "lead intoxication" has been defined as exposure to high levels of lead typically associated with severe health effectsLead is a common environmental pollutant.[11] Causes of environmental contamination include industrial use of lead, such as is found in facilities that process lead-acid batteries or produce lead wire or pipes, and metal recycling and foundries.[32] Children living near facilities that process lead, such as smelters, have been found to have unusually high blood lead levels.[33] In August 2009, parents rioted in China after lead poisoning was found in nearly 2000 children[->13] living near zinc and manganese smelters.[34] Lead exposure can occur from contact with lead in air, household dust, soil, water, and commercial products.[9]
People can be exposed when working in facilities that produce a variety of lead-containing products; these include radiation shields[->14], ammunition, certain surgical equipment, fetal monitors, plumbing, circuit boards, jet engines, and ceramic glazes.[21] In addition, lead miners and smelters, plumbers and fitters, auto mechanics, glass manufacturers, construction workers, battery manufacturers and recyclers, firing range instructors, and plastic manufacturers are at risk for lead exposure.[
Paint
Some lead compounds are colorful and are used widely in paints
Deteriorating lead paint can produce dangerous lead levels in household dust and soil.[40] Deteriorating lead paint and lead-containing household dust are the main causes of chronic lead poisoning.[19] The lead breaks down into the dust and since children are more prone to crawling on the floor, it is easily ingested.[39] Many young children display pica[->15], eating things that are not food. Even a small amount of a lead-containing product such as a paint chip or a sip of glaze can contain tens or hundreds of milligrams of lead.[41] Eating chips of lead paint presents a particular hazard to children, generally producing more severe poisoning than occurs from dust.[42] However, removing lead paint from dwellings, e.g. by sanding or torching, can create lead-containing dust and fumes.[43] Therefore, special precautions must be taken when removing lead paint.[43]
Residual lead in soil contributes to lead exposure in urban areas
Lead content in soil may be caused by broken-down lead paint, residues from lead-containing gasoline, used engine oil, or pesticides[->16] used in the past, contaminated landfills, or from nearby industries such as foundries[->17] or smelters. it remains prevalent, raising concerns about the safety of urban agriculture[->18];[46] eating food grown in contaminated soil can present a lead hazard.[47]
Water
Lead from the atmosphere or soil can end up in groundwater and surface water.[48] It is also potentially in drinking water, e.g. from plumbing and fixtures that are either made of lead or have lead solder
To further reduce a child’s exposure from non-residential paint sources: avoid using traditional home remedies[->19] and cosmetics that may contain lead; avoid using containers, cookware, or tableware to store or cook foods or liquids that are not shown to be lead free; remove recalled toys[->20] and toy jewelry[->21] immediately from children. Check Lead Recalls[->22] lists. use only cold water[->23] from the tap for drinking, cooking, and for making baby formula (Hot water is more likely to contain higher levels of lead. Most of the lead in household water usually comes from the plumbing in your house, not from the local water supply.); shower and change clothes after finishing a task that involves working with lead-based products such as stain glass work, bullet making, or using a firing range.

[->0] - /wiki/Devon_colic
[->1] - /wiki/Heavy_metal_(chemistry)
[->2] - /wiki/Lead
[->3] - /wiki/Cardiovascular
[->4] - /wiki/Bone
[->5] - /wiki/Intestine
[->6] - /wiki/Kidney
[->7] - /wiki/Nervous_system
[->8] - /wiki/Confusion
[->9] - /wiki/Anemia
[->10] - /wiki/Seizure
[->11] - /wiki/Coma
[->12] - /wiki/Death
[->13] - /wiki/2009_Chinese_lead_poisoning_scandal
[->14] - /wiki/Radiation_shield
[->15] - /wiki/Pica_(disorder)
[->16] - /wiki/Pesticide
[->17] - /wiki/Foundry
[->18] - /wiki/Urban_agriculture
[->19] - http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/tips/folkmedicine.htm
[->20] - http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/tips/toys.htm
[->21] - http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/tips/jewelry.htm
[->22] - http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/Recalls/default.htm
[->23] - http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/tips/water.htm

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