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Leadership in a Company

In: Business and Management

Submitted By melgiron
Words 1305
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LA FUNCION DE UN LÍDER
Desde los días bíblicos, se ha necesitado de una persona que guie a un grupo de personas hacia la victoria. Igual que en los viejos tiempos, las grandes organizaciones de la actualidad necesitan de individuos que guíen los esfuerzos de los grupos de colaboradores hacia el logro de metas y objetivos. Un buen líder debe desempeñar eficazmente su función para que la empresa sobreviva. El deber del líder es guiar las acciones de los demás para que realicen las tareas.
Responsabilidades del Líder
Siempre existirán varios enfoques sobre los tipos de liderazgo, cada uno con su propia perspectiva sobre cuáles son las responsabilidades. Sin embargo, hay ciertas responsabilidades básicas que todo líder debería tonar en cuenta. I. Proporcionar a los colaboradores la satisfacción directa de sus necesidades. II. Estructurar la ruta para el logro de la meta. III. Eliminar impedimentos para el logro de las metas. IV. Modificar las metas de los colaboradores de tal manera que sus metas personales sean útiles para la empresa. V. Contar con una determinación realista de objetivos de desempeño. VI. Proporcionar a los trabajadores los recursos necesarios para desempeñar sus tareas. VII. Comunicar a los trabajadores que es lo que se espera de ellos. VIII. Proporcionar una estructura adecuada de recompensa para estimular el desempeño. IX. Delegar autoridad cuando sea necesario e inculcar la participación. X. Elogiar el desempeño y comunicar los resultados de sus evaluaciones. XI. Mostrar consideración personal hacia el empleado.
Autoridad para el Liderazgo
Para que el líder pueda lograr eficazmente las metas que se esperan, es necesario que cuente con la autoridad para actuar de manera que estimule positivamente a los trabajadores hacia el logro de las metas. Esta autoridad consiste en tomar decisiones e inducir el comportamiento de los que guía. Existen dos teorías sobre las fuentes de autoridad de un líder.
La primera teoría, la tradicional, dice que el líder que se escoja debe ser en base a su capacidad y deseo de servir. Este líder recibe la autoridad de su superior inmediato quien a su vez ha recibido autoridad de una línea superior. Este tipo de autoridad es conocida como autoridad de arriba hacia abajo. La segunda teoría se conoce como la teoría de la aceptación, que dice que los lideres son seleccionados por los que llegaran a ser sus subordinados. Para ser seleccionado, el líder debe ser respetado y admirado por sus compañeros ya sea por su forma de ser o por sus valores. En esta ultima teoría, los colaboradores ven la necesidad de una guía, por lo cual empiezan a analizar a todos los candidatos posibles. Al líder se le es más fácil guiar cuando recibe el apoyo de los colaboradores. Es por esto que la última teoría es la más funcional, porque desde un inicio el líder tuvo el respeto de los demás.

Criterios para seleccionar al líder
Es el deber de los altos mandos escoger entre todos los candidatos de la organización quien es la persona más capaz para cumplir con la función de líder. Estos candidatos deben cumplir con ciertos criterios para tomar en cuenta quien es la mejor opción. Los criterios son los siguientes: I. Disposición para asumir responsabilidad: el líder debe tomar en cuenta que su rol también asume una cierta extensión de su líder superior. Al aceptar el puesto, tiene que tener en mente que es posible que fracase y ese fracaso es en gran parte culpa de el. El líder debe querer este rol, ya que la responsabilidad es mucha. II. La capacidad para ser perceptivo: el líder tiene que contar con mucha percepción para poder descubrir debilidades, ambiciones y aciertos de sus colaboradores y también de el mismo. También debe saber distinguir entre lo verdadero y lo falso y lo bueno y lo malo. III. La capacidad para ser objetivo: es muy importante que el líder tenga la capacidad de considerar los problemas de forma racional, impersonal e imparcial. Esta capacidad se refiera a poder separar las emociones y lo personal del trabajo. IV. Capacidad para establecer las prioridades adecuadas: debe contar con la habilidad de poder distinguir cuales son las cosas realmente importantes y cuáles no. V. Capacidad para comunicar: el líder debe saber transmitir y recibir información en forma útil. Con una buena comunicación, se le es más fácil todas las responsabilidades.
Tipos de Liderazgo
Los tipos de líderes que existen se pueden definir según sus deberes, responsabilidades y compromisos. En base a esto, se han escogido tres tipos básicos de lideres. I. El líder autócrata
Es el que asume al cien por ciento todas las responsabilidades de las tomas de decisiones. El inicia las acciones, dirige, motiva y controla. Este tipo de líder piensa que solo él es competente y capaz de tomar decisiones importantes y por eso toma una posición tan solida y fuerte. El pide de sus colaboradores que le obedezcan y que acepten sus decisiones. II. El líder participativo
Este tipo de líder funciona a través de la consulta con sus colaboradores para la toma de decisiones. El debe escuchar y analizar seriamente las opiniones de los demás antes de tomar una decisión concreta. El inculca mucho a sus colaboradoras a que tomen el control cuando lo sientan necesario y de tomas mas responsabilidades para guiar sus propios esfuerzos. El apoya mucho a todo el equipo y no asume la posición de dictador. De todas formas, la decisión final queda en sus manos, y la responsabilidad de algún fracaso recae en el. III. El líder que adopta el sistema de rienda suelta
En este sistema, el líder deja recaer la toma de decisión en los colaboradores. Su punto es que el trabajo se haga bien, sin importar como se hizo. Para que funcione bien este tipo de liderazgo, los colaboradores deben estar motivados, bien guiados y con mucho autocontrol. Aunque existen reglas que se deben cumplir, en este tipo de liderazgo no se cuenta con mucho apoyo ni contacto directo con el líder. El colaborador debe ser una persona muy capaz y centrada para que funcione este sistema.
La Elección de un Estilo de Liderazgo
Aunque pareciera obvio el estilo de liderazgo más funcional, se debe analizar profundamente cual es el más conveniente para la organización. Para tomar esta decisión hay tres fuerzas que se deben considerar. * La relación entre el líder y sus colaboradores * El grado de estructura de trabajo de la organización * El grado de poder que tiene el líder sobre los colaboradores
Se puede decir que el líder autócrata es el indicado cuando los colaboradores no conocen las metas y objetivos de la compañía, cuando la compañía recurre a crear temor y sanciones como técnicas aceptables, cuando los colaboradores no cuentan con mucha experiencia o capacitación, cuando el líder prefiere ser activo y dominante en la toma de decisiones y cuando hay pocas probabilidades de error. La decisión del líder participativo es mas adecuada cuando la compañía ha comunicado las metas y objetivos a todos los colaboradores y estos los han captado, cuando se premia con recompensas por el buen labor para motivar, cuando realmente se desea tomar en cuenta la opinión de los demás antes de tomar la decisión final, cuando los colaboradores son lo suficientemente capacitados y experimentados para poder tomar decisiones y tener autocontrol y cuando se cuenta con el suficiente tiempo para que todos participen. Cuando el caso que se da en el líder es de dar mucha confianza hacia sus colaboradores, cuando les quiere delegar por completo la toma de decisión, si los colaboradores están capacitados para hacerlo y si realmente existe el deseo de los colaboradores, entonces la mejor opción es la de un líder de rienda suelta.

Bibliografia
Harris, Jeff. "Capitulo 9: La Función Del Líder En La Organización." Administración De Recursos Humanos. México: Limusa Noriega Editors, 1980. 189-209.

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