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Leadership

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é a inteligência emocional essencial para se ser um bom líder?

Índice

1. Introdução………………………………………………………………………………………….……………….……pág. 1 | | 2. Liderança…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……pág. 1 | | 3. Liderança e Gestão………………………………………….…………………………...............................pág. 2 | | 4. Comportamentos de Liderança…………………………………………………………………………........pág. 2 | | 5. -------------------------------------------------
Inteligência Emocional - sine qua non of the leadership…………………………….….…...pág. 3 | | 6. -------------------------------------------------
Liderança “smart-heart“......................................................................................pág. 4 | | 7. -------------------------------------------------
A biologia da liderança.........................................................................................pág. 5 | | 8. ------------------------------------------------- Conclusão.............................................................................................................pág.6 | |

Resumo

O presente trabalho foi realizado no âmbito da disciplina de Gestão de Recursos Humanos, do 4º ano do Mestrado Integrado de Engenharia Industrial e Gestão.
Relativamente ao tema seleccionado, este surgiu da necessidade de compreender a eficácia de determinados tipos de liderança. Uma vez que o curso de Engenharia Industrial e Gestão pode conduzir a estes cargos de liderança, julgou-se interessante estudar um pouco aprofundadamente este tema, de modo a ter algumas bases para um eventual futuro.
Assim,e numa primeira fase, será introduzido o conceito de liderança, que tem sido evolutivo; bem como as competências de um líder e o que o distingue de um gestor. Numa segunda parte, será então explorada a influência da inteligência social num cargo de liderança, bem como a influência da biologia na liderança.
Particularmente, será dada maior relevância à questão da inteligência emocional ser ou não ser um ponto fulcral para a maximização da performance de um líder. É constantemente referido que um líder deve manter uma posição de distância face às pessoas que está a liderar, nunca estabelecendo laços; de modo a que a liderança seja firme e efectiva. Contudo, existe também a ideia de que um líder dotado de uma forte inteligência de componente social, e respeitado, consegue motivar e mover a sua equipa, e assim conseguir grandes resultados.

Heart sustains the warrior but may run amok if cut off from the mind’s direction and discipline.
Mind without heart is sterile, but heart without mind is reckless. An effective leader needs both mind and heart.

Sun Tzu, Art of War

1. Introdução
A natureza e o exercício da liderança têm sido objecto de estudo do homem ao longo da sua história, sendo uma das temáticas que mais atenção tem merecido por parte de investigadores e profissionais dos diversos sectores de actividade.
A liderança revela-se como um tópico fundamental das relações de trabalho, estando relacionada com a motivação colectiva, orientada de acordo com a gestão de expectativas, através de linguagens comuns de forma a alcançar-se determinadas soluções aceitáveis e atingir-se determinados fins. Para além disso, está muitas vezes associada à integração de diferentes estilos ao longo da cadeia hierárquica de uma organização, pelo que é rapidamente entendida a complexidade e subjectividade inerentes ao tema.

2. Liderança
A liderança é um fenómeno de influência pessoal através do processo de comunicação humana, com vista à transmissão de determinados objectivos.

É a capacidade de suscitar a participação voluntária das pessoas ou grupos na prossecução de objectivos definidos - Pelletier (1999)

É a capacidade de um indivíduo para influenciar, motivar e habilitar outros a contribuírem para a eficácia e sucesso das organizações de que são membros - GLOBE – Global Leadership and Organizacional Effectiveness

O comportamento de liderar envolve, assim, múltiplas funções, tais como comandar, incentivar, motivar, planificar, informar, avaliar, controlar, recuperar, punir, etc.
Apesar das muitas definições que podem ser dadas para o conceito de liderança, é possível encontrar dois elementos comuns em todas elas:
Por um lado é um fenómeno de grupo - liderar é essencialmente conduzir o grupo, as pessoas de forma a atingirem determinados objectivos ou metas. Tratando-se de um processo de influência, é necessário que o líder tenha capacidade para modificar o comportamento de outras pessoas, o que é possível através do modo como usa o seu poder ou autoridade.
Por outro lado, envolve um conjunto de influências interpessoais e recíprocas, exercidas num determinado contexto através de um processo de comunicação humana com vista à obtenção de determinados objectivos específicos. As funções de liderança incluem, portanto, todas as actividades de influência de pessoas, ou seja, que geram a motivação necessária para pôr em prática o propósito definido pela estratégia e estruturado nas funções executivas.
De uma forma geral, liderar significa dirigir, incentivar e motivar os membros da organização por forma a criar as condições necessárias para que estes contribuam, voluntariamente e da melhor forma possível, para os interesses da organização, para que esta atinja os seus objectivos.

3. Liderança e Gestão
Recentemente, muitos teóricos e profissionais têm vindo a enfatizar a diferença entre gestores e líderes. Segundo Warren Bennis “para sobreviver no século XXI, vamos necessitar de uma nova geração de líderes – líderes, não gestores. A distinção é importante.” Líderes e gestores diferem quanto à sua visão, posição e forma como inovam e como trabalham dentro de um determinado contexto. O líder está voltado para o futuro, interessa-se pela constante melhoria orientada segundo interesses comuns. O gestor, por sua vez, foca-se no planeamento e num mundo estático dirigido pela lógica. Os líderes sabem o que devem fazer enquanto os gestores sabem como devem fazer- “Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things” (Peter Drucker)

Gestor | Líder | Administra | Inova | Copia | Cria | Mantem | Desenvolve | Focado no sistema e estrutura | Focado nas pessoas | Baseia-se no controlo | Inspira confiança | Visão de curta distância | Visão de longa distância | Pergunta como e quando | Pergunta o quê e porquê | Olha para a linha de fundo | Olha para o futuro | Conforma-se | Desafia-se | Faz bem as coisas | Faz as coisas certas |

4. Comportamentos de liderança
As capacidades que os líderes utilizam podem ser divididas em três grandes grupos: técnicas, humanas e conceptuais. Embora estas capacidades se interrelacionem na prática, podem ser consideradas separadamente:
- Técnicas: Referem-se ao conhecimento da pessoa relativo a um processo ou técnica. À medida que os empregados são promovidos com operações de liderança, as suas capacidades técnicas vão se tornando menos importantes. Enquanto gestores, dependem fortemente das habilidades técnicas dos seus subordinados e em muitos casos nunca praticaram algumas dessas habilidades que supervisionam.
- Humanas: São a habilidade de trabalhar efectivamente com pessoas e de trabalhar em equipa. Envolvem uma vasta gama de comportamentos: motivação dos indivíduos, proporcionar feedback, formação, demonstrar empatia e sensibilidade e mostrar compaixão e apoio às pessoas que precisam. Nenhum líder numa organização escapa à exigência de habilidades humanas. É uma parte importante do comportamento de liderança.
- Conceptuais: Relativas à habilidade de pensar em termos de modelos, estruturas e relacionamentos mais amplos. Este tipo de habilidade tem principal relevo quando falamos em trabalhos de alta gestão.
As habilidades conceptuais lidam com ideias, enquanto as habilidades humanas lidam com pessoas e as habilidades técnicas envolvem coisas.

5. Inteligência Emocional - sine qua non of the leadership.
O facto de existirem pessoas com grandes capacidades, com o aparente perfil profissional adequado, mas que não conseguem ser bem sucedidos como líderes, e o facto de pessoas não tão extraordinárias, mas que desempenham o papel de líder de forma intocável, suscita a questão de que capacidades técnicas não são, de facto, tudo.
É certo que existem condicionantes de circunstâncias e de cenários económico-financeiros de diferentes naturezas, contudo, também é possível concluir que ser um líder é muito mais do que arte e ciência. Um líder é, assim, incomparável a outros também no seu estilo pessoal de liderança (uns mais discretos, outros mais expansivos), e perante as diferenças situações com que lida (uma abordagem mais agressiva, ou mais sensível).
De acordo com Daniel Goleman (1998), e no seguimento do anteriormente referido, as chamadas “ hard skills”, as qualidades tradicionalmente associadas ao termo liderança (como inteligência, inflexibilidade, determinação e visão), são necessárias, mas não suficientes. São as “soft skills”- ou “ unbusinesslike”, e um alto grau de inteligência emocional- autoconhecimento, motivação, competências sociais e empatia que, de facto, fazem a diferença. As ditas “ hard skills” acabam por ser mais fulcrais enquanto elemento de selecção para as posições executivas, no entanto é a inteligência emocional que sustenta a acção do verdadeiro líder: um líder pode ter as melhores ideias, ser o melhor analista e profissional, mas sem estas características emocionais desenvolvidas, nunca conseguirá maximizar a sua performance.
Goleman efectuou estudos em mais de 200 grandes companhias (como a Lucent Technologies, British Airways e a Credit Suisse) concluindo que existem estreitos laços entre a inteligência emocional e a performance dos lideres.
Em tom de resumo das principais componentes que devem estar presentes no trabalho, é apresentado o Quadro 1. É possível visualizar que as principais “soft skills” são então: consciência, auto-regulação, empatia, motivação e competências sociais. Esta última será objecto detalhado de estudo deste trabalho.

Quadro 1 : As Cinco Componentes da Inteligência Social no trabalho

6. Liderança “smart-heart “
Como exemplo do que foi anteriormente referido, são apresentados dois casos que demonstram que uma liderança com “heart” é “ smart”.

Yum!

Yum! é a maior companhia de restaurantes do mundo, agregando marcas tão conhecidas como o KFC, Pizza Hut ou o Taco Bell, tendo mais de 34000 restaurantes em todo o mundo.
Esta empresa é conhecida pelo seu estilo de liderança inovadora e divertida, uma vez que a sua forma de recompensar os funcionários envolve sempre uma grande criatividade. Existem prémios de mérito como a “ Golden Glove Award”, uma luva de real boxe, com um reconhecimento monetário no seu interior por ser um “lutador” diário, ou o “ Floppy Chichen Award”, uma galinha falsa, atribuida aos melhores empregados, também com um prémio monetário no seu interior, até porque “You can’t eat a rubber chicken!”.
Cada vez mais inspirados por esta filosofia de negócio, surgiu um novo prémio “ Smart with Heart”, uma luva em forma de coração, destacando as pessoas que agem, no seu ambiente de trabalho, de maneira mais humana.

Herb Kelleher, CEO da Southwest Airlines
O seu estilo de liderança levou-o a ganhar dois prémios, um pela sua surpreendente performance na indústria aérea, e outro pela melhor liderança num ambiente de negócios, em 2003. A Southwest Airlines, maior companhia aérea low-cost americana, com sede em Dallas, é antes mais conhecida pelo seu espírito divertido, cantando-se sempre durante as viagens, apesar da seriedade exigida pelo trabalho. A Southwest figura no top 5 das companhias mais admiráveis da América, muito em parte às medidas criadas por Herb, como o facto das hospedeiras estarem em bikini ou lingerie e oferecerem garrafas de alcool gratuitas com todos os bilhetes. Também no 11 de Setembro, em que todas as companhias foram obrigadas a cancelar os voos, os empregados foram convidados a tomar uma atitude diferente das outras companhias aéreas: levar os passageiros que ficaram em terra a ir ao bowling ou ao cinema. O próprio Herb mantem uma relação de proximidade com os clientes, mas ainda mais com os empregados, os quais trata pelos nomes e cumprimenta afavelmente.

7. A biologia da liderança
É possível afirmar-se que a biologia está para a liderança no século XXI, como a psicologia o estava, no século XX.
Nos últimos anos, uma área, chamada neurociência social - o estudo como o cérebro funciona aquando do relacionamento inter-pessoal, tem revelado algumas pistas acerca de como ser um bom líder. A existência de uma correlação entre o pensamento e os centros emocionais do cérebro sugerem que as emoções podem facilitar as aprendizagens. (Ahcroft & Kirk, 2001). As últimas descobertas demonstram, assim, que alguns comportamentos dos líderes (como agir empaticamente), provoca efeitos, quer no cérebro da outra pessoa, quer no próprio cérebro. (Daniel Goleman & Richard Boyatzis, 2008)
Começando por estudar a situação contrária do que deve ser um bom líder - pessoas com sérios problemas sociais ou mesmo casos de desordem, como o autismo - foi possível observar um subdesenvolvimento nas áreas do cérebro associadas à interacão social. Pelo contrário, investigadores concluiram que a dinâmica líder - seguidor não se trata apenas de uma reação isolada, consciente ou inconsciente, mas sim de um efeito - espelho, criado entre o líder e o seguidor, resultado da sinapse enviada pelos neurónios-espelho, que cria toda uma ideia de experiencia partilhada ( Daniel Goleman & Richard Boyatzis, 2008).É possìvel afirmar que os estados emocionais são, assim, “contagiosos” de cérebro para cérebro. O “cérebro social” diz respeito ao estado de uma pessoa que ajusta os seus sentimentos e acções de modo a conseguir sincronizar-se com a outra pessoa com quem contacta (Winkleman, & Harmon-Jone, 2006)
Desta maneira, é possível desenvolver o potencial de se tornar um bom líder: encontrar contextos que permitam desenvolver o comportamento social, reforçando os circuitos sociais cerebrais.
É também interessante referir que, segundo pesquisas, líderes de topo provocam o riso aos seus empregados mais três vezes do que, em média, líderes de média performance. A boa disposição ajuda as pessoas a trabalhar de uma maneira mais eficaz e a responder criativamente quando solicitadas- é caso para dizer: “Rir é um assunto sério”.

8. Conclusão
Com este trabalho, julga-se poder afirmar que, de facto, é necessária a inteligência emocional para se ser um bom líder. Com isto não se está a excluir a existência de líderes eficazes cujo seu estilo é simplesmente autoritário; apenas que os melhores líderes, aqueles que ficam para a história e fazem a diferença, são os líderes que o fazem de coração. Pessoalmente, e com base nas experiências académicas e do dia-a-dia, achamos que é efectivamente importante ter uma atenção aos detalhes, ao tratar as pessoas como seres humanos, e não como agentes-de-acção. Humanamente, é revitalizante ver uma equipa motivada, originando resultados surpreendentes.
De acordo com Shoshona Zuboff ( 1994), psicóloga de Harvard Business School, “ as empresas passaram ao longo deste século por uma revolução radical, e com ela veio uma correspondente transformação da paisagem emocional. Houve um longo período de domínio administrativo da hierarquia empresarial em que o chefe duro, manipulador, capaz de todos os truques foi recompensado. Mas essa hierarquia rígida começou a desmoronar-se nos anos 80, sob as pressões conjuntas da globalização e das tecnologias da informação. O homem da selva simboliza aquilo que a empresa foi; o virtuoso das relações interpessoais representa o futuro”
Fazendo uso das palavras de Jim Roth, escritor e orador americano: “O desafio de liderar é ser forte, mas não rude; ser generoso, mas não fraco; ser pensativo, mas não preguiçoso; ser humilde, mas não tímido; ser orgulhoso, mas não arrogante; ter humor, mas não parecer engraçadinho.” Julga-se que estas palavras sintetizam o que foi anteriormente estudado neste trabalho - agir como um bom líder requer diversos tipos de capacidades e atitudes, adequadas a contextos.

------------------------------------------------- 8. Bibliografia

Artigos:
- Cramm, Susan (2010) Five Ways to Lead with more compassion, Bloomberg Businessweek
-Freeman, R. Edward & Stewart, Lisa, (2006), Developing Ethical, 1-12
-Jones, Marianne, (2007) What is a leader anyway?, Exchange, 74-76
-Goleman, Daniel, (2006), The Socially Intelligent, 76-81
-Goleman, Daniel,& Boyatzis, Richard, (2008). Social Intelligence and the Biology of Leadership, Harvard Business Review, 1-8
-Goleman, Daniel, (2004). What makes a leader, Harvard Business Review, 1-5
-Stone, Gregory & Patterson, Kathleen, (2005) The History of Leadership Focus, Association for supervision and curriculum development, 1-23

Livros:
-Goleman, Daniel (2006) Inteligência Emocional. Espanha: SÁBADO, pp.194-205.
-Goleman, Daniel ( 2006) Inteligência Social- A nova ciência do relacionamento humano. Barcelos: TEMAS E DEBATES, pp.9-46.

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. retirado da Harvard Business Review ( 2004) What Makes a Leader? de Daniel Goleman

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...Transformational Leadership Consider what you have learned this week about various leadership approaches. What is your preferred leadership style? Does it work in your current organization? If so, why? If not, how do you need to modify to improve the effectiveness of your leadership style? In the various positions I have held in the long-term care sector I have utilized a combination of leadership styles. However, the leadership style that I have had the most success with is the transformational leadership style. As a transformational leader I have served as a role model for my employees, clearly communicated my goals and vision of the organization, and set good examples for everyone in the organization. I hold high standards of myself and in return I expect that my employees produce high quality work performances. It is my job to empower and inspire employees to assist them in exploring their own professional interests and focus on the needs and vision of the team and the organization as a whole. Transformational leaders are very creative by providing work that stimulates the individual’s interests based on their own behaviors and personal characteristics. In the past I have assigned employees projects and tasks that are closely related to their interests aligned with the organization’s overall mission. This becomes tricky and a lot of work in the beginning but finding the right people to accomplish a wide variety of job duties that matches their skill sets and experiences......

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Leadership

...Who is a leader? Can everyone be or become a leader? These questions are on the agenda of most leadership academic institutions that are so preferred in our modern world. And what exactly is interesting there’s no common response. Many people will assure you there’s nothing difficult about becoming a leader, and somebody else will tell you it’s impossible. But who is right? You will discover plenty of leadership essay examples over the Internet that it does not appear hard to find the correct answer. One of the most popular definitions is that leadership is a quality some persons possess that allows them to rule, affect and lead other people. That quality consists of a person’s charisma, power of thought, intellectual potential, organizational talents, and sense of responsibility. Other leadership essays examples give a different definition: leadership is concrete knowledge of psychology and social interaction, with the assist of which anyone can certainly develop the ability to be a leader. No matter what leadership essay examples may say, let us try to find out the answer ourselves. Have you ever seen someone ordinary leading a company or an organization? Or maybe you have seen someone who is leading a country, but has no charisma, no special skills. There is little doubt you’ll answer “no”. Unfortunately, there are so many people in our world who are in the top positions, who have influence and power, although nobody really sees a real leader in them. Perhaps being a...

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Leadership

...The Concept of Leadership Leadership…that is a word that I didn’t fully understand early in my Marine Corps career. Maybe it was the lack of significant leaders coming thru the ranks. Most of the units or squadrons I was attached were so big that being in charge of a group of Marines was never really a possibility. It wasn’t until I pinned on my first rocker and given my first shop that I was entrusted with eight young devil dogs. Since then I have learned many things about leadership that have enhanced me both as a person as well as a leader of Marines. The word leadership means different things to various people. I’ve heard various definitions to include the one out of the dictionary which defines it as “the ability to guide, direct or influence people“ . Others would describe leadership as the ability to manipulate individuals to do what you want them to do. I think of leadership as the ability to understand what motivates and inspires an individual or group into driving them to a common goal. Since I’ve been in the Corps, I have met leaders at all different levels of the leadership “tree”. Some were so horrible that I left that command wondering how could they have had charge of Marines. At other commands I met some very interesting Marines that carried a certain charisma in their way of leading, which made them naturally liked and easy to follow. These Marines I did my best to emulate. I discovered that these Marines never had a “template”......

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Leadership

...Leadership? What is leadership? According to Webster's Dictionary defines leadership as the position or guidance of a person or thing that leads, directing, commanding, or guiding head, as of a group or activity. However Leadership has not one single definition, but many. Leadership is often an intangible factor that makes one group more effective than another. It exists at different levels within organizations and should be woven throughout the entire organization. Different organizations use different ways in effectively teaching or molding their employees how to be an effective leader. One such company is the R.E. Brown Company and Associates, who have developed a yearlong program that is strictly used as a program to teach their employees how to become a more effective leader. This program doesn't directly start off with the introduction of the nine behaviors, but of little tasks given to the participants. They are broken into small groups where they interact with each other, summarize common threads, and then present their findings to the larger group. Then once this has taken place they develop specific action plans to take back to their groups and from there on they work coherently together as a team. This develops a bond, and creates a model of team leadership, sharing, and reflection. Once this has happened then the teams are introduced to the nine behaviors of leadership where they discuss each one and try to use the information that they have gathered to take back...

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Leadership

...Definition for Leadership: -The ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to archive organizational goals. Leadership is the partnership between leaders and group members. Its the responsibility of one person. They serve as a leader in a team. ”Leadership is not something you do to people , it’s something you do with them” words by Ken Blanchard about leadership. Leader built relationship in Modern era:- Leaders built relationships with interacting with people electronically.Cisco systems is the best example for this. They communicate with group members through blogging’s, uploading videos, and social networking tools – created by company. In the modern organization, leaders innovate there ideas rather than heroic leaders. There are some difference between leadership and managers such as leadership deals with change, inspiration, motivation, and influences. Whereas the management functions are planning, organizing directing and controlling. The efficient leader also manage with efficient managers. The leader’s activity had 66% possibility to archive positive results .strong leader usually makes a difference. Mintzberg and other researchers identified ten roles for the leadership function of management , that can be classified as ,Figure head, Spokesperson, negotiator, Coach & motivator, Team builder, Team player, Technical problem solver, Entrepreneur, Strategic planner, Executor. The effective followers can assign with......

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Leadership

...Leadership In the changing business environment, leaders of all organisations may face unprecedented uncertainty, especially the technology advancement and changes among the employees. To survive and succeed, leaders should have some necessary attributes. Meanwhile, some changes for leadership skills have to be made to confront the challenges. Two reports( Ladkin & Weber 2011; Cappelli et al. 2010) and a reflection (Useem 2010) discuss current business leadership issues in a global business environment . While in the article “Leadership Issues and Challenges in the Tourism Industry: A Hong Kong Perspective”, which focuses on Hong Kong business leaders, the author Ladkin & Weber have a different overall position compared to the other two articles: “Leadership lessons from India” by Cappelli et al. and “Four Lessons in Adaptive Leadership” by Useem. These two articles are more concerned with interactions between manager and employees. All three texts will be compared and contrasted in this review according to business leaders themselves, their attributes to employees and concepts of mission and vison. All the authors highlight the necessary attributes needed by leaders and adaptive leadership. Useem focuses on four attributes ‘Meet the troops, make decisions, focus on mission, convey strategic intent’ (P.75). He emphasizes the link between the leaders and the subordinates. Similarly, Cappelli et al. highlight ‘transformational’ (P.93) leadership style in India, in......

Words: 704 - Pages: 3