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Leadership

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é a inteligência emocional essencial para se ser um bom líder?

Índice

1. Introdução………………………………………………………………………………………….……………….……pág. 1 | | 2. Liderança…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……pág. 1 | | 3. Liderança e Gestão………………………………………….…………………………...............................pág. 2 | | 4. Comportamentos de Liderança…………………………………………………………………………........pág. 2 | | 5. -------------------------------------------------
Inteligência Emocional - sine qua non of the leadership…………………………….….…...pág. 3 | | 6. -------------------------------------------------
Liderança “smart-heart“......................................................................................pág. 4 | | 7. -------------------------------------------------
A biologia da liderança.........................................................................................pág. 5 | | 8. ------------------------------------------------- Conclusão.............................................................................................................pág.6 | |

Resumo

O presente trabalho foi realizado no âmbito da disciplina de Gestão de Recursos Humanos, do 4º ano do Mestrado Integrado de Engenharia Industrial e Gestão.
Relativamente ao tema seleccionado, este surgiu da necessidade de compreender a eficácia de determinados tipos de liderança. Uma vez que o curso de Engenharia Industrial e Gestão pode conduzir a estes cargos de liderança, julgou-se interessante estudar um pouco aprofundadamente este tema, de modo a ter algumas bases para um eventual futuro.
Assim,e numa primeira fase, será introduzido o conceito de liderança, que tem sido evolutivo; bem como as competências de um líder e o que o distingue de um gestor. Numa segunda parte, será então explorada a influência da inteligência social num cargo de liderança, bem como a influência da biologia na liderança.
Particularmente, será dada maior relevância à questão da inteligência emocional ser ou não ser um ponto fulcral para a maximização da performance de um líder. É constantemente referido que um líder deve manter uma posição de distância face às pessoas que está a liderar, nunca estabelecendo laços; de modo a que a liderança seja firme e efectiva. Contudo, existe também a ideia de que um líder dotado de uma forte inteligência de componente social, e respeitado, consegue motivar e mover a sua equipa, e assim conseguir grandes resultados.

Heart sustains the warrior but may run amok if cut off from the mind’s direction and discipline.
Mind without heart is sterile, but heart without mind is reckless. An effective leader needs both mind and heart.

Sun Tzu, Art of War

1. Introdução
A natureza e o exercício da liderança têm sido objecto de estudo do homem ao longo da sua história, sendo uma das temáticas que mais atenção tem merecido por parte de investigadores e profissionais dos diversos sectores de actividade.
A liderança revela-se como um tópico fundamental das relações de trabalho, estando relacionada com a motivação colectiva, orientada de acordo com a gestão de expectativas, através de linguagens comuns de forma a alcançar-se determinadas soluções aceitáveis e atingir-se determinados fins. Para além disso, está muitas vezes associada à integração de diferentes estilos ao longo da cadeia hierárquica de uma organização, pelo que é rapidamente entendida a complexidade e subjectividade inerentes ao tema.

2. Liderança
A liderança é um fenómeno de influência pessoal através do processo de comunicação humana, com vista à transmissão de determinados objectivos.

É a capacidade de suscitar a participação voluntária das pessoas ou grupos na prossecução de objectivos definidos - Pelletier (1999)

É a capacidade de um indivíduo para influenciar, motivar e habilitar outros a contribuírem para a eficácia e sucesso das organizações de que são membros - GLOBE – Global Leadership and Organizacional Effectiveness

O comportamento de liderar envolve, assim, múltiplas funções, tais como comandar, incentivar, motivar, planificar, informar, avaliar, controlar, recuperar, punir, etc.
Apesar das muitas definições que podem ser dadas para o conceito de liderança, é possível encontrar dois elementos comuns em todas elas:
Por um lado é um fenómeno de grupo - liderar é essencialmente conduzir o grupo, as pessoas de forma a atingirem determinados objectivos ou metas. Tratando-se de um processo de influência, é necessário que o líder tenha capacidade para modificar o comportamento de outras pessoas, o que é possível através do modo como usa o seu poder ou autoridade.
Por outro lado, envolve um conjunto de influências interpessoais e recíprocas, exercidas num determinado contexto através de um processo de comunicação humana com vista à obtenção de determinados objectivos específicos. As funções de liderança incluem, portanto, todas as actividades de influência de pessoas, ou seja, que geram a motivação necessária para pôr em prática o propósito definido pela estratégia e estruturado nas funções executivas.
De uma forma geral, liderar significa dirigir, incentivar e motivar os membros da organização por forma a criar as condições necessárias para que estes contribuam, voluntariamente e da melhor forma possível, para os interesses da organização, para que esta atinja os seus objectivos.

3. Liderança e Gestão
Recentemente, muitos teóricos e profissionais têm vindo a enfatizar a diferença entre gestores e líderes. Segundo Warren Bennis “para sobreviver no século XXI, vamos necessitar de uma nova geração de líderes – líderes, não gestores. A distinção é importante.” Líderes e gestores diferem quanto à sua visão, posição e forma como inovam e como trabalham dentro de um determinado contexto. O líder está voltado para o futuro, interessa-se pela constante melhoria orientada segundo interesses comuns. O gestor, por sua vez, foca-se no planeamento e num mundo estático dirigido pela lógica. Os líderes sabem o que devem fazer enquanto os gestores sabem como devem fazer- “Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things” (Peter Drucker)

Gestor | Líder | Administra | Inova | Copia | Cria | Mantem | Desenvolve | Focado no sistema e estrutura | Focado nas pessoas | Baseia-se no controlo | Inspira confiança | Visão de curta distância | Visão de longa distância | Pergunta como e quando | Pergunta o quê e porquê | Olha para a linha de fundo | Olha para o futuro | Conforma-se | Desafia-se | Faz bem as coisas | Faz as coisas certas |

4. Comportamentos de liderança
As capacidades que os líderes utilizam podem ser divididas em três grandes grupos: técnicas, humanas e conceptuais. Embora estas capacidades se interrelacionem na prática, podem ser consideradas separadamente:
- Técnicas: Referem-se ao conhecimento da pessoa relativo a um processo ou técnica. À medida que os empregados são promovidos com operações de liderança, as suas capacidades técnicas vão se tornando menos importantes. Enquanto gestores, dependem fortemente das habilidades técnicas dos seus subordinados e em muitos casos nunca praticaram algumas dessas habilidades que supervisionam.
- Humanas: São a habilidade de trabalhar efectivamente com pessoas e de trabalhar em equipa. Envolvem uma vasta gama de comportamentos: motivação dos indivíduos, proporcionar feedback, formação, demonstrar empatia e sensibilidade e mostrar compaixão e apoio às pessoas que precisam. Nenhum líder numa organização escapa à exigência de habilidades humanas. É uma parte importante do comportamento de liderança.
- Conceptuais: Relativas à habilidade de pensar em termos de modelos, estruturas e relacionamentos mais amplos. Este tipo de habilidade tem principal relevo quando falamos em trabalhos de alta gestão.
As habilidades conceptuais lidam com ideias, enquanto as habilidades humanas lidam com pessoas e as habilidades técnicas envolvem coisas.

5. Inteligência Emocional - sine qua non of the leadership.
O facto de existirem pessoas com grandes capacidades, com o aparente perfil profissional adequado, mas que não conseguem ser bem sucedidos como líderes, e o facto de pessoas não tão extraordinárias, mas que desempenham o papel de líder de forma intocável, suscita a questão de que capacidades técnicas não são, de facto, tudo.
É certo que existem condicionantes de circunstâncias e de cenários económico-financeiros de diferentes naturezas, contudo, também é possível concluir que ser um líder é muito mais do que arte e ciência. Um líder é, assim, incomparável a outros também no seu estilo pessoal de liderança (uns mais discretos, outros mais expansivos), e perante as diferenças situações com que lida (uma abordagem mais agressiva, ou mais sensível).
De acordo com Daniel Goleman (1998), e no seguimento do anteriormente referido, as chamadas “ hard skills”, as qualidades tradicionalmente associadas ao termo liderança (como inteligência, inflexibilidade, determinação e visão), são necessárias, mas não suficientes. São as “soft skills”- ou “ unbusinesslike”, e um alto grau de inteligência emocional- autoconhecimento, motivação, competências sociais e empatia que, de facto, fazem a diferença. As ditas “ hard skills” acabam por ser mais fulcrais enquanto elemento de selecção para as posições executivas, no entanto é a inteligência emocional que sustenta a acção do verdadeiro líder: um líder pode ter as melhores ideias, ser o melhor analista e profissional, mas sem estas características emocionais desenvolvidas, nunca conseguirá maximizar a sua performance.
Goleman efectuou estudos em mais de 200 grandes companhias (como a Lucent Technologies, British Airways e a Credit Suisse) concluindo que existem estreitos laços entre a inteligência emocional e a performance dos lideres.
Em tom de resumo das principais componentes que devem estar presentes no trabalho, é apresentado o Quadro 1. É possível visualizar que as principais “soft skills” são então: consciência, auto-regulação, empatia, motivação e competências sociais. Esta última será objecto detalhado de estudo deste trabalho.

Quadro 1 : As Cinco Componentes da Inteligência Social no trabalho

6. Liderança “smart-heart “
Como exemplo do que foi anteriormente referido, são apresentados dois casos que demonstram que uma liderança com “heart” é “ smart”.

Yum!

Yum! é a maior companhia de restaurantes do mundo, agregando marcas tão conhecidas como o KFC, Pizza Hut ou o Taco Bell, tendo mais de 34000 restaurantes em todo o mundo.
Esta empresa é conhecida pelo seu estilo de liderança inovadora e divertida, uma vez que a sua forma de recompensar os funcionários envolve sempre uma grande criatividade. Existem prémios de mérito como a “ Golden Glove Award”, uma luva de real boxe, com um reconhecimento monetário no seu interior por ser um “lutador” diário, ou o “ Floppy Chichen Award”, uma galinha falsa, atribuida aos melhores empregados, também com um prémio monetário no seu interior, até porque “You can’t eat a rubber chicken!”.
Cada vez mais inspirados por esta filosofia de negócio, surgiu um novo prémio “ Smart with Heart”, uma luva em forma de coração, destacando as pessoas que agem, no seu ambiente de trabalho, de maneira mais humana.

Herb Kelleher, CEO da Southwest Airlines
O seu estilo de liderança levou-o a ganhar dois prémios, um pela sua surpreendente performance na indústria aérea, e outro pela melhor liderança num ambiente de negócios, em 2003. A Southwest Airlines, maior companhia aérea low-cost americana, com sede em Dallas, é antes mais conhecida pelo seu espírito divertido, cantando-se sempre durante as viagens, apesar da seriedade exigida pelo trabalho. A Southwest figura no top 5 das companhias mais admiráveis da América, muito em parte às medidas criadas por Herb, como o facto das hospedeiras estarem em bikini ou lingerie e oferecerem garrafas de alcool gratuitas com todos os bilhetes. Também no 11 de Setembro, em que todas as companhias foram obrigadas a cancelar os voos, os empregados foram convidados a tomar uma atitude diferente das outras companhias aéreas: levar os passageiros que ficaram em terra a ir ao bowling ou ao cinema. O próprio Herb mantem uma relação de proximidade com os clientes, mas ainda mais com os empregados, os quais trata pelos nomes e cumprimenta afavelmente.

7. A biologia da liderança
É possível afirmar-se que a biologia está para a liderança no século XXI, como a psicologia o estava, no século XX.
Nos últimos anos, uma área, chamada neurociência social - o estudo como o cérebro funciona aquando do relacionamento inter-pessoal, tem revelado algumas pistas acerca de como ser um bom líder. A existência de uma correlação entre o pensamento e os centros emocionais do cérebro sugerem que as emoções podem facilitar as aprendizagens. (Ahcroft & Kirk, 2001). As últimas descobertas demonstram, assim, que alguns comportamentos dos líderes (como agir empaticamente), provoca efeitos, quer no cérebro da outra pessoa, quer no próprio cérebro. (Daniel Goleman & Richard Boyatzis, 2008)
Começando por estudar a situação contrária do que deve ser um bom líder - pessoas com sérios problemas sociais ou mesmo casos de desordem, como o autismo - foi possível observar um subdesenvolvimento nas áreas do cérebro associadas à interacão social. Pelo contrário, investigadores concluiram que a dinâmica líder - seguidor não se trata apenas de uma reação isolada, consciente ou inconsciente, mas sim de um efeito - espelho, criado entre o líder e o seguidor, resultado da sinapse enviada pelos neurónios-espelho, que cria toda uma ideia de experiencia partilhada ( Daniel Goleman & Richard Boyatzis, 2008).É possìvel afirmar que os estados emocionais são, assim, “contagiosos” de cérebro para cérebro. O “cérebro social” diz respeito ao estado de uma pessoa que ajusta os seus sentimentos e acções de modo a conseguir sincronizar-se com a outra pessoa com quem contacta (Winkleman, & Harmon-Jone, 2006)
Desta maneira, é possível desenvolver o potencial de se tornar um bom líder: encontrar contextos que permitam desenvolver o comportamento social, reforçando os circuitos sociais cerebrais.
É também interessante referir que, segundo pesquisas, líderes de topo provocam o riso aos seus empregados mais três vezes do que, em média, líderes de média performance. A boa disposição ajuda as pessoas a trabalhar de uma maneira mais eficaz e a responder criativamente quando solicitadas- é caso para dizer: “Rir é um assunto sério”.

8. Conclusão
Com este trabalho, julga-se poder afirmar que, de facto, é necessária a inteligência emocional para se ser um bom líder. Com isto não se está a excluir a existência de líderes eficazes cujo seu estilo é simplesmente autoritário; apenas que os melhores líderes, aqueles que ficam para a história e fazem a diferença, são os líderes que o fazem de coração. Pessoalmente, e com base nas experiências académicas e do dia-a-dia, achamos que é efectivamente importante ter uma atenção aos detalhes, ao tratar as pessoas como seres humanos, e não como agentes-de-acção. Humanamente, é revitalizante ver uma equipa motivada, originando resultados surpreendentes.
De acordo com Shoshona Zuboff ( 1994), psicóloga de Harvard Business School, “ as empresas passaram ao longo deste século por uma revolução radical, e com ela veio uma correspondente transformação da paisagem emocional. Houve um longo período de domínio administrativo da hierarquia empresarial em que o chefe duro, manipulador, capaz de todos os truques foi recompensado. Mas essa hierarquia rígida começou a desmoronar-se nos anos 80, sob as pressões conjuntas da globalização e das tecnologias da informação. O homem da selva simboliza aquilo que a empresa foi; o virtuoso das relações interpessoais representa o futuro”
Fazendo uso das palavras de Jim Roth, escritor e orador americano: “O desafio de liderar é ser forte, mas não rude; ser generoso, mas não fraco; ser pensativo, mas não preguiçoso; ser humilde, mas não tímido; ser orgulhoso, mas não arrogante; ter humor, mas não parecer engraçadinho.” Julga-se que estas palavras sintetizam o que foi anteriormente estudado neste trabalho - agir como um bom líder requer diversos tipos de capacidades e atitudes, adequadas a contextos.

------------------------------------------------- 8. Bibliografia

Artigos:
- Cramm, Susan (2010) Five Ways to Lead with more compassion, Bloomberg Businessweek
-Freeman, R. Edward & Stewart, Lisa, (2006), Developing Ethical, 1-12
-Jones, Marianne, (2007) What is a leader anyway?, Exchange, 74-76
-Goleman, Daniel, (2006), The Socially Intelligent, 76-81
-Goleman, Daniel,& Boyatzis, Richard, (2008). Social Intelligence and the Biology of Leadership, Harvard Business Review, 1-8
-Goleman, Daniel, (2004). What makes a leader, Harvard Business Review, 1-5
-Stone, Gregory & Patterson, Kathleen, (2005) The History of Leadership Focus, Association for supervision and curriculum development, 1-23

Livros:
-Goleman, Daniel (2006) Inteligência Emocional. Espanha: SÁBADO, pp.194-205.
-Goleman, Daniel ( 2006) Inteligência Social- A nova ciência do relacionamento humano. Barcelos: TEMAS E DEBATES, pp.9-46.

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. retirado da Harvard Business Review ( 2004) What Makes a Leader? de Daniel Goleman

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Leadership

...Leadership September 8, 2013 MGMT 1115 Instructor: Sandi Wakefield Leadership is the ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organizational goals. Leadership involves establishing a vision that is clear to others so that they will follow specific goals willingly. In leadership this person will guide and or direct a group of people. A person that has leadership skills always steps up in crisis, and has the ability to act and think in difficult crisis. Leadership cannot be taught like management can, it may be learned and improved through mentoring and instruction. Whereas, with management one act as a boss and a implementer. In management a person produces order, stability, and expectedness. As oppose to leadership this person produces change and adaptability to new products, new markets, new customers, and new work processes. (DuBrin, The Nature and Importance of Leadership, 2010) According to Ernie DiMattia in the Library Journal, leadership and management are two related terms related to the operation of any successful organization. He states that leadership refers to someone who guides or influences others while management is the process of directing or administering. Motivating different level of staff members encouraging them and organizing them, maintaining stability, and balancing external change with internal culture, are some of the ways leadership and management are internally linked. Not all leaders manage and...

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...Title: Effective Leadership Introduction: Leadership is "the conduct of an individual when he is guiding the activities of a group towards a collective goal". A leader is described as someone who sets supervision in an effort and influences people to pursue that direction. How they establish that direction and influence individuals depends on a variety of factors. Before I get started, let me characterize leadership according to all the books and academic journals I have read. Leadership is a course of action by which a person inspires others to accomplish a purpose and manages the organization in a way that makes it more systematic, coherent and run like an excellent tuned engine. Leaders carry out this practice by applying their leadership characteristics, such as vision, attitude, values, ethics, character, intelligence and skills. “Effective leaders rely more on personal power than on position power,” albeit your position in an organization as a manager, administrator, lead, etc. gives you the power by virtue of the position to accomplish specific tasks and objectives in the organization, this authority does not make you a leader...it merely makes you the person in charge by the position. Leadership varies in that it makes the followers want to accomplish high goals, rather than merely bossing or dictating people around. Leadership is said to be a whole lot and nothing. It is everything because it can be established at all levels in organizations, not just at the......

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...Evaluation of Leadership in private sector organizations in Aruba Faculty of Hospitality & Tourism Management Leadership and Management Midterm Report Abstract This paper brings forward the key aspects of the Aruban Entrepreneur. These would be discussed and related to different theories. To obtain these aspects of entrepreneurial activity two local entrepreneurs were interviewed and their philosophies were put into this paper. Beside the key aspects this paper would also discuss entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship, the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth and the common traits and skills of the Aruban entrepreneur. Abstract Content Introduction to the organization Current leadership Scientific analysis and diagnosis of leadership Areas of improvements Recommendations Critical reflections Resources Introduction As part of the Master’s program at the University of Aruba, in the Faculty of Hospitality & Tourism Management Studies, in the course “Leadership & Management”, it is required to submit a paper on the “Evaluation of leadership in private organizations in Aruba”. More specifically, this paper will have an in depth look at the leadership styles within the Aruban businesses and analyze and explained the findings/ observations based on leadership theories. More particular, we will try to uncover the different leadership models that can be applied in order to improve effectiveness and efficiency, overall......

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...ADEOYE MATRIC NUMBER: PG/SMS/014/14495 COURSE CODE: BUS 838 COURSE TITLE: MANAGEMENT THEORY. TOPIC: LEADERSHIP DATE: AUGUST, 2015 An Assignment Submitted To Prof. J.O. Adetayo OUTLINE: A. Introduction B. The Concept of Leadership C. Conclusion D. References INTRODUCTION There is nothing elusive about leadership. Although great leaders may be rare as great runners great partners or great actors, everyone has leadership potential just as everyone has some ability at running painting and acting. (The management bible leadership is about knowing what the next step is (John Adair). Ref: Neil Flamaga & Jaruis Finger (2004): The management bible cape town Zebra Press. Leadership is not an exclusive club for those who are born with it. Employees generally follows their leaders. They are therefore much likely to comply with laws and guidelines when leaders show high commitment to compliance. Leaders must set a good example and clearly communicate their expectations. Compliance with regulations much more likely when leaders develop and carry out programs that emphasize the goals of regulation such as diversity and safety. Various programme should be carefully developed and communicated to increase employees knowledge and motivation (Stewart & Brown, 2009). The Black ants filled out aimlessly without a leader. (French Proverb) a lot leadership has a lot to should in the direction of the human efforts towards organisational goal achievement.......

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...Management http://jom.sagepub.com/ Servant Leadership: A Review and Synthesis Dirk van Dierendonck Journal of Management 2011 37: 1228 originally published online 2 September 2010 DOI: 10.1177/0149206310380462 The online version of this article can be found at: http://jom.sagepub.com/content/37/4/1228 Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of: Southern Management Association Additional services and information for Journal of Management can be found at: Email Alerts: http://jom.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Subscriptions: http://jom.sagepub.com/subscriptions Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Permissions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Citations: http://jom.sagepub.com/content/37/4/1228.refs.html Downloaded from jom.sagepub.com at The Hebrew University Library Authority on June 29, 2011 Journal of Management Vol. 37 No. 4, July 2011 1228-1261 DOI: 10.1177/0149206310380462 © The Author(s) 2011 Reprints and permission: http://www. sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Servant Leadership: A Review and Synthesis Dirk van Dierendonck Erasmus University Servant leadership is positioned as a new field of research for leadership scholars. This review deals with the historical background of servant leadership, its key characteristics, the available measurement tools, and the results of relevant studies that have been conducted so far. An overall conceptual model of servant leadership is presented. It is argued......

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