Free Essay

Learn Korean

In: Other Topics

Submitted By ivan08
Words 32140
Pages 129
Korean Grammar Guide
Welcome Korean Alphabets Sentence Order Particles - 는, 가 Particles - 도, 를, 에 Pronouns- This, It, That Nouns - Present, Past Nouns - Nominalizing Verbs Nouns - Numbers and Counting Adjectives - Present, Past Adjectives - Polite [Present, Past] Adjectives - Descriptive Adjectives - Connective Verbs - Present, Past Verbs - Polite [Present, Past] Verbs - Future [Will] Verbs - Continuous Verbs - Connective Verbs - Can Verbs - Have Verbs - Want Verbs - Descriptive I Verbs - Descriptive II Verbs - Speech Adverbs - 부사 Particles - 께/에게/한테 Particles - 으로/로 Particles - 에서, 까지 Particles - 만 [only] Possessive - 의 Conjunctions - And Conjunctions - But Conjunctions - But [는데/은데] Conjunctions - Because, So Conjunctions - Because [때문에] Conjunctions - If Conjunctions - When Conjunctions - While 5W1H

Advanced Grammar
Comparatives & Superlatives Imperatives - 해, 하지마 Have to - 해야 한다 Allowed to - 해도 된다 I like doing - 하는게 좋다, 하는걸 좋아한다 I think - ~고 생각해 (Opinion) I think - 하는 거 같애 (General)

Special Expressions
Are you doing? - ~는 거야? [Informal] Are you doing? - ~시는 거예요? [Polite] Are we doing? - 하는 거야 / 거예요? To do something - ~기 위해 Try doing - 해 보다 Of course, I've done it before - 해봤죠 Give the favour of doing - 해 주다 Would you like to go? - 갈래요? Shall we do something? - 우리 뭐 할까? It's cold, isn't it? - 춥지요? Let's do it - 하자 Easy to do / Difficult to do - ~기 쉽다 / ~기 어렵다 I know how - 어떻게 하는지 알아 I'm in the habit of - ~되면 ~게 돼요

Miscellaneous
Addressing people

Welcome: The Beginning
Welcome You All to the Korean Grammar Guide! This blog was first created in 2006 as an experiment to help people who would like to learn Korean by providing some basic grammar lessons on Korean. Over the years, I was able to put up more and more lessons, and as of now, in January 2011, there are more than 60 lessons on Korean grammar in this blog. The principles in writing these lessons have been that I remain intentional about making them as easy to understand and readily applicable in daily life as I can, and comprehensive enough to cover major points of Korean grammar which include both the Written and Spoken forms. Now, what do I mean by written and spoken forms? In Korean, the verb endings change depending on whether the language is used in writing or speech. Note: In Korean grammar, the verbs come at the end of a sentence. For more on the sentence order, please read Sentence Order. For example, "나는 학교에 갔다" which means "I went to school" is a written form, and "나는 학교에 갔 어" is a spoken form. 나는 학교에 갔다 = I went to school (written form as in writing, books, diary and newspaper) 다 나는 학교에 갔어 = I went to school (spoken form as in conversations, movies and dramas) 어 As you can see, the ending of a verb changes from 갔다 to 갔어, both of which mean "went". Therefore you'd write in one way but speak in a slightly different way. But don't be too alarmed at the difference, as there are simple patterns to it, and you'll get to learn them along the way. It is also important to learn the differences in degrees of formalities in the Korean language. There are three major types in the degrees of formality: Informal Polite Honorific In expressing the politeness in the speech, Korean differs from English in that the verb endings change depending on the age and rank of the person being addressed to and the social setting one finds oneself in. For example, when I'm asked, "Where are you going?" I might answer, "I'm going to school" in the following ways: 학교 가 - [Informal, to people of the same age as me or younger than me, especially among close friends] 학교 가요 - [Polite, to people older than me, and in formal social situations] 학교 가는 중입니다 - [Honorific, this is rarely used in normal conversations. I would say this type of

speaking is only found in very formal settings such as on the news or in the army.]

You would use the polite form even when the person you're speaking to is of the same age as you or younger than you if you're not very close to the person and/or you're in a formal social setting. I'd say it's best to stick to the polite form first and then use the informal form later as you gain more understanding of the Korean language. The major mark of the division is probably the age. The polite language is used to people above one's age and informal language to people equal to and below one's age. However, generally, the polite language is generally used in many social situations and the informal language is usually used among close friends. I am trying to lay out some basics to the language of Korean. However it'd be good at this point to dive into the lessons and learn them for yourself. You can start reading the grammar guide from the top to bottom in the order as it's designed to guide you from the basics to intermediate and advanced grammar. Before you go, here is a bit of history of 한글 (Hangeul, the Korean alphabet): Korean is the official language of Korea, both North and South. There are around 78 million people who speak Korean around the world. [1] 한글 (the Korean alphabet) was invented by Sejong the Great in the 15th century. Before that time, people used Hanja (the equivalent of the Chinese characters) which was not only difficult to learn but was also considerably different to the Korean grammar and sentence order. [2] 한글 is a phonetic writing system which means that the words correspond to pronunciation. The English alphabet is phonetic whereas the Chinese characters are not. If you learn the English alphabet, you can read an English writing fairly well although you may not understand the meaning. Korean is even more phonetic than that of English and many other languages, in that each consonant and vowel in Korean mostly have only one sound. For example, ㄴ=n ㅏ = a (as in car and mama, short sound) ㄴ+ㅏ= 나 [na] (which means "I" as in "I" am Luke) Following the guide down the column on the right-hand of the page, we're now moving onto learning the sounds of the consonants and vowels of 한글. You'll learn to write and pronounce each of these consonants and vowels, and how to form a character in this

next lesson. Keep on reading! I hope you enjoy this journey of learning a new language! I think it's always exciting to learn a new language! ;D Luke

References [1] Wikipedia: Korean language, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_language#History, accessed Jan 2011. [2] Wikipedia: Sejong the Great, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sejong_the_Great#Hangul, accessed Jan 2011.

The Korean Alphabet
Hangeul or 한글 (the Korean alphabet) literally means "the Korean writing." In 한글, the Korean alphabet, consists of 14 consonants and 10 vowels. Cosonants: ㄱㄴㄷㄹㅁㅂㅅㅇㅈㅊㅋㅌㅍㅎ Vowels: ㅏㅑㅓㅕㅗㅛㅜㅠㅡㅣ In addition, there are 5 double consonants and 11 double vowels. Double consonants: ㄲㄸㅃㅆㅉ Double vowels: ㅐㅒㅔㅖㅘㅙㅚㅝㅞㅟㅢ Additionally, there are 11 final double consonants. Final double consonants: ㄳ ㄵ ㄶ ㄺ ㄻ ㄼ ㄽ ㄾ ㄿ ㅀ ㅄ You will get to learn these basic consonants and vowels, learning how to read, write and pronounce. For the purpose of learning the alphabet, I highly recommend the following resources to help you with familiarizing yourself with the consonants and vowels in 한글. Learn Hangeul: Korean Wiki Project Learn to read and write Hangeul by TTMIK Click on the alphabet to listen to their corresponding pronunciations. 자음[Consonants] 자음 ㄱ=g ㄴ=n ㄷ=d ㄹ = l, r (ㄹ is a sound somewhere between l and r) ㅁ=m ㅂ=b ㅅ=s ㅇ = "no sound" when used as a first consonant, "ng" when used as a final consonant. ㅈ=j ㅊ = ch ㅋ=k ㅌ=t ㅍ=p ㅎ=h 모음[Vowels] 모음

ㅏ=a ㅑ = ya ㅓ = eo ㅕ = yeo ㅗ=o ㅛ = yo ㅜ=u ㅠ = yu ㅡ = eu ㅣ=i 쌍자음[Double consonants] 쌍자음 ㄲ = gg Click on the link to hear the difference between the sounds of ㄱ, ㄲ and ㅋ. ㄸ = dd Note the difference in sounds; ㄷ, ㄸ and ㅌ. ㅃ = bb Note the difference in sounds;ㅂ, ㅃ and ㅍ. ㅆ = ss Note the difference in sounds; ㅅ and ㅆ ㅉ = jj Note the difference in sounds; ㅈ, ㅉ and ㅊ More links: ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅆ, ㅉ 쌍모음[Double Vowels] 쌍모음 ㅐ = ae ㅒ = yae (rarely used) ㅔ=e ㅖ = ye ㅘ = wa ㅙ = wae ㅚ = oe ㅝ = wo ㅞ = we (rarely used) ㅟ = wi ㅢ = ui

● How to form a character There are two ways of making a character, using the consonants and vowels as building blocks. 1. Initial consonant + Vowel 2. Initial consonant + Vowel + Final consonant 1. Examples 가 = ㄱ + ㅏ = ga 너 = ㄴ + ㅓ = neo 도 = ㄷ + ㅗ = do 루 = ㄹ + ㅜ = lu/ru 므 = ㅁ + ㅡ = meu

비 = ㅂ + ㅣ = bi 2. Examples 각 = ㄱ + ㅏ + ㄱ = gag 넌= ㄴ + ㅓ + ㄴ = neon 돗 = ㄷ + ㅗ + ㅅ = dod 를 = ㄹ + ㅡ + ㄹ = leul/reul 쟁 = ㅈ + ㅐ + ㅇ = jaeng Characters with final consonants of ㄱ, ㄲ and ㅋ, all sound the same. Thus 각, 갂 and 갘 will sound exactly the same. For example, 국, 엌, 밖 Their final consonants all sound the same. Click on the links to hear. Now, below is a list of the final consonants and their respective sounds. ㄱ/ㄲ/ㅋ = ㄱ ㅂ/ㅃ/ㅍ = ㅂ ㄷ/ㅌ/ㅅ/ㅆ/ㅈ/ㅊ/ㅎ = ㄷ ㄴ= ㄴ ㄹ= ㄹ ㅁ= ㅁ ㅇ= ㅇ For example, 낚시 [낙시] = fishing 부엌 [부억] = kitchen 앞 [압] = front 씨앗 [씨앋] = seed 낮 [낟] = day For a more detailed explanation and audio files, click here. When the initial consonant of second and/or third characters is ㅇ, for example, 돌이 and 만악이, the sound of the final consonant of each letter is pronounced with the next vowel. Because ㅇ has no sound, 돌이 is pronounced as 도리 and 만악이 as 마나기. These are just made-up words to show you how these work. 돌이[도리] 만악이[마나기] For more examples on this pronunciation, click on the link. 쌍받침[Final double consonants] 쌍받침 There are also 11 additional final double consonants. Their sounds are as follows. As you can see, the first

consonant of the double consonants is pronounced. (except ㄺ = ㄱ,ㄻ = ㅁ and ㄿ = ㅂ) I do not recommend that you learn these exhaustively right away because that is a hard work and I rarely employed them in my grammar lessons anyway. So it would be better to come back to these when you come across them from time to time. ㄳ=ㄱ ㄵ=ㄴ ㄶ=ㄴ ㄺ=ㄱ ㄻ=ㅁ ㄼ=ㄹ ㄽ=ㄹ ㄾ=ㄹ ㄿ=ㅂ ㅀ=ㄹ ㅄ=ㅂ Eg. 삯 [삭] = amount 앉다 [안따] = sit 많다 [만타] = many 읽다 [익따] = read 삶다 [삼따] = boil 넓다 [널따] = spacious 외곬 [외골] = a single way 핥다 [할따] = lick 읊다 [읍따] = recite (a poem) 잃다 [일타] = lose (a thing) 값 [갑] = price Excellent pronunciation lessons by Sogang Unversity Source: http://korean.sogang.ac.kr/ For writing practices, Consonants Vowels Consonants + Vowels Source: Slow but STEADY: http://cyjn.com/165

Sentence Order
In regards to the order of a sentence, there are four basic types in Korean. These are: S+ N S+ V S+ A S+ O+ V * S = subject, N = noun, A = adjective, O = object and V = verb. The tense of a sentence is determined by the last part of a sentence, namely, by a noun, verb or adjective. In Korean, adjectives function like verbs in that they can be converted to different forms to determine the tense of a sentence. For example, In English, the past tense of "go" is "went." In Korean, the past tense of "가다" (gada, go) is "갔다" (gatta, went). The verbs function in the same way in English and Korean. However, in the case of adjectives, the past tense of "good" in English is not "gooded" but it is written, "was good." Contrary to this, in Korean, "좋다" (jota, good) has a past tense form of "좋았다" (joatta, was good). Compare: In English, "good" (present) → "was good" (past) In Korean, "좋다" (present) → "좋았다" (past) Therefore, the adjectives in Korean function like verbs in that they can be converted to a past tense or future tense, or any other tense forms. This conversion of a verb(or adjective) to its past, future, present continuous or past continuous tense forms is called a verb (or adjective) "conjugation." Before proceeding to the explanation section below, I recommend that you read the "particles" alongside this post. To understand Korean grammar, it is crucial that you become familiar with the concept of a distinct part of speech called, "particles." Particles are function words that indicate what the subject or object is in a sentence. For example,

는/은 is a topic particle 가/이 is a identifier particle 를/을 is an object particle For more information and explanation on particles, please refer to (Particles - 는, 도, 를, 가, 에). Now, let's have a look at the four main types of Korean sentences. Note: S = Subject, N = Noun, V = Verb, A = Adjective, O = Object 1. S + N 나는 학생이다 = I am a student 리사는 선생님이다 = Lisa is a teacher 앤드류는 의사였다 = Andrew was a doctor 저는 중학생이에요 = I am a middle school student [polite spoken form] For more explanations on the S + N pattern, please read Nouns - Present, Past. 나=I 학생 = student 리사 = Lisa 선생님 = teacher 앤드류 = Andrew 의사 = doctor 저 = I (polite) 중학생 = a middle school student

2. S + V 주영은 달린다 = Ju-young runs [written form] 주영은 달려요 = Ju-young runs [polite spoken form] 주영은 힘차게 달린다 = Ju-young vigorously runs *An adverb comes before a verb. 주영 = Ju-Young (a Korean male name) 달리다 = run 달려 = run [spoken form] 달려요 = run [polite spoken form] 힘차게 = vigorously For more information and explanations on verbs, please read Verbs - Present, Past and Verbs - Polite [Present, Past].

3. S + A

그는 크다 = He is big 그녀는 작다 = She is small 앤은 예쁘다 = Anne is pretty [written form] 앤은 정말 예뻐요 = Anne is really pretty [polite spoken form] 산이 아름답다 = The mountain is beautiful 날씨가 정말 좋다 = The weather is very good 그 = he 크다 = big 그녀 = she 작다 = small 앤 = Anne 정말 = really, very 예쁘다 = pretty 산 = mountain 아름답다 = beautiful 날씨 = weather 좋다 = good For more information and explanations on adjectives, please read, Adjectives - Present, Past, Adjectives Polite [Present, Past] and Adjectives - Connective.

4. S + O + V 나는 사과를 먹었다 = I ate an apple. 지성은 물을 마신다 = Ji-sung drinks water. 새들이 노래를 부른다 = The birds are singing songs. 안나는 대학을 다닌다 = Anna attends college (university) [written form] 안나는 대학을 다녀요 = Anna attends college (university) [spoken form] 영희는 어제 정원에 꽃을 심었다 = Young-hee planted a flower in the garden yesterday. *Notice that the time(어젯밤) and place(정원에) are inserted between S and O. 나=I 사과 = apple 먹었다 = ate 물 = water 마시다 = drink 새 = a bird 새들 = birds 노래 = song 부르다 = sing 다니다 = attend [written form] 다녀요 = attend [polite spoken form] 어제 = yesterday 정원 = garden 꽃 = flower 심다 = plant (verb)

In addition, unlike English, it is quite common to leave out the subject in a sentence in Korean. When the subject is known by the readers or speakers, it is often left out. Therefore, depending on a situation or context, it is OK to write or speak without beginning the sentence with a subject. A subject may not be used in a sentence if it is known who or what the subject is. So, the sentences below are also correct and it is common in spoken Korean (conversations). 학생이다 = (am/is) a student 선생님이다 = (am/is) a teacher 의사였다 = was a doctor 중학생이에요 = (am/is) a middle school student

달린다 = runs 힘차게 달렸다 = vigorously ran

크다 = (am/is/are) big 작다 = (am/is/are) small 정말 좋아 = (am/is/are) really good [spoken form]

사과를 먹었다 = ate an apple 물을 마셨어 = drank water [spoken form] 노래를 불렀어 = sang songs [spoken form] 어제 꽃을 심었어요 = planted a flower yesterday [polite spoken form]

For more help with the particles, please refer to the following posts: Particles - 께/에게/한테 Particles - 으로/로 Particles - 에서, 까지 Particles - 만 [only] Possessive - 의

Particles - 는 , 가
This particles section is divided into two parts. The first part is on Topic and Identifier particles [는, 가], and the second part, here, is on the remaining particles, [도, 를, 에]. In these two posts, we're going to learn about 5 common particles used in a sentence in Korean. These are: 는/은 가/이 도 를/을 에 - Topic particle ┐ Subject particles - Identifier particle ┘ - Additive particle - Object particle - Time/place particle

Note: I have grouped 는/은 and 가/이 into one category, the 'Subject particles.' The explanations are given below in the 'Subject Particles' section. Particles are functional words that do not have any meaning in themselves. They are like helpers in that they are attached to the end of nouns to indicate what that noun is and how it functions in a sentence. For example, 나는 학생이다 = I am a student 는, the topic particle, is attached to the end of 나, which means the pronoun "I", to show that the topic is about "I" or the subject is "I". Here is another example, 나도 학생이다 = I am a student, too. In this sentence, 도, the additive particle, is attached to 나 to show that in addition to a person or people who are students, "I", too, am a student. Now, let us go through each of these particles. 는 /은 [Topic Particle] 은 The first particle, we'll learn, is 는/은, the topic particle. 는/은 is used for a subject or topic of a sentence. 는 is used for nouns without a final consonant, and 은 for nouns with a final consonant. Let me explain, 나는 = I am 사람은 = A person is 나 consists of ㄴ+ㅏ ㄴ = n (an initial consonant) ㅏ = a (a vowel) As you can see, 나 is a word without a final consonant, therefore 는 is attached to it.

On the other hand, 사람 which means 'a person' has 람 as a final character, and 람 consists of ㄹ+ㅏ+ㅁ ㄹ = r,l (an initial consonant) ㅏ = a (a vowel) ㅁ = m (a final consonant) 사람 is a word with a final consonant. Therefore, 은 is attached to it. The reason for these two different types of the topic particle, 는/은, is that for words with a final consonant, it is easier to pronounce them with 은 rather 는. Compare these two pronunciations, 사람는 = sa-ram-nun 사람은 = sa-ram-un → sa-ra-mun [사라믄] As you can see, 사람는 is more rigid and awkward to pronounce, whereas 사람은 is more fluid and easy to pronounce. 사람은 is actually pronounced 사라믄. The final consonant of 람, which is ㅁ, is transferred to 은 to make it sound 믄. (사람은 sounds a bit like "Sarah Moon" whereas 사람는 may sound like "Saram Noon".) Listen to the pronunciations for yourselves in the Google Translate. The following are example sentences using 는/은, the topic particle. 나는 학생이다 = I am a student 그는 친절하다 = He is kind 이것은 연필이다 = This is a pencil 하늘은 높다 = The sky is high 그녀는 공부한다 = She studies 존은 갔다 = John went 영수는 먹었다 = Young-su ate 나 = I (pronoun) 학생 = a student 그 = he 친절하다 = kind 이것 = this 연필 = pencil 하늘 = sky 높다 = high 그녀 = she 공부하다 = study 존 = John 가다 = go 영수 = Young-su (a male name) 먹다 = eat

Use Google Translate to listen the pronunciations of these words. Note: There are no articles in the parts of speech in Korean. "A, an and the" which are used to identify and specify a noun in English and other languages are absent in Korean grammar. 가 /이 [Identifier Particle] 이 가/이 is used similarly as 는/은 in that they indicate a subject but 가/이 is used when it is necessary to identify the person or thing that is talked about in a sentence. For example, 나는 샀다 = I bought 내가 샀다 = I bought Note: 나 is changed to 내 when it is used before 가. Both of these two sentences mean "I bought" but 내가 샀다 puts more emphasis on the subject of the sentence, "I". In the sentence, 내가 샀다, it is more concerned about 'who' bought rather than 'what' I did. On the other hand, 나는 샀다, is more concerned about 'what' I did. 내가 샀다 = I bought [It wasn't anyone else but I who bought] 나는 샀다 = I bought [I bought rather than doing something else] It is similar to the way in English where a person stresses a certain word to give it more emphasis or importance. For example, Who bought a new t-shirt? 내가 샀어 = I bought it. Note: It is incorrect to say, 나는 샀어, because the person is asking about who bought a new t-shirt rather than asking about what they did. What did you do in the park? 나는 잤어 = I slept (I took a nap) Note: The person may be asking to several people about what they did in the park. One person might say they took a stroll while another person may have had lunch there. But as for me, what I did was 'sleeping'. Therefore, 나는 잤어 = I slept

It is wrong to say 내가 잤어 in this case because the person is not asking about who slept but what they did in the park. If the person asked me, 'Who slept in the park?', I would answer, 내가 잤어 or 마크가 잤어 (Mark slept). The identifier particle, 가/이, identifies the subject of a sentence. 가/이 is concerned about who did the things asked. Like the 는/은 example above, 가 is used for words without a final consonant and 이 for words with a final consonant. Here are example sentences: 내가 마셨다 = I drank (It wasn't anyone else but me) 동생이 먹었다 = Younger brother/sister ate (It wasn't someone else but them) 민지가 왔다 = Min-ji came (It wasn't some other person but Min-ji) 안토니가 갔다 = Anthony went (It wasn't some other person but Anthony) 저것이 한강이야 = That is the Han River 빌딩이 높다 = The building is high 공원이 넓다 = The park is large/spacious 마시다 = drink 동생 = younger brother/sister 먹다 = eat 민지 = Min-ji (a female name) 오다 = come 안토니 = Anthony 가다 = go 저것 = that 한강 = the Han River (in Seoul) 빌딩 = a building 높다 = high 공원 = a park 넓다 = spacious, large Use Google Translate to listen the pronunciations of these words. Subject Particles [는/은 and 가 /이 ] 는은 이 는/은 and 가/이 both are used for the subject of a sentence but 는/은 introduces a topic or a subject whereas 가/이 identifies a subject. In addition to their differences already explored above, here is another big difference between the two particles. The topic particle, 는/은, is used in cases when we make a general or factual statement whereas 가/이 is not.

For example, 치타는 빠르다 = A cheetah is fast 치타는 느리다 = A cheetah is slow (This would be a wrong statement) However, if you visited a zoo and saw a cheetah who seems to move very slowly, you might say, 치타가 느리다 = (That) cheetah is slow So the identifier particle, 가/이, indicates a certain person or thing that the speaker and listener know or are aware of. In this case, it would be that cheetah in the zoo. Here is another example, 바다는 푸르다 = The sea is blue 바다는 까맣다 = The sea is black (In general, this is a wrong statement.) But say, you saw the sea at night and you may exclaim, 바다가 까맣다! = The sea is black! The sea in this sentence is identified as a particular sea at night, and both the speaker and listener know which sea is being talked about. This is not a general statement. Therefore the identifier particle, 가/이, is used in this case. Of course, 바다가 푸르다 is also perfectly acceptable. However, the difference is that the sea in this sentence is also a particular sea that is known by both the speaker and the listener. 바다는 푸르다 = The sea is blue (A general statement) 바다가 푸르다 = The sea is blue (The sea is identified and known by the speaker and listener) It's similar to the way articles are used in English. For example, An apple is red = 사과는 빨갛다 (A general or factual statement about an apple) The apple is red = 사과가 빨갛다 (A particular apple that the speaker identifies and indicates to the listener)

Particles - 도 , 를 , 에
This is the second part of the particles section on [는, 가, 도, 를, 에]. This post is on the remaining [도, 를, 에] particles. Please read the first part on [는, 가], the Subject particles, if you missed it. 도 [Additive Particle]

The additive particle, 도, is similar to subject particles 는/은 and 가/이 in that it is used for a subject (or topic). However, 도 adds the meaning of 'too' or 'also' to a subject. Here are example sentences: 나도 학생이다 = I am a student, too 그도 친절하다 = He is kind, too 이것도 연필이다 = This is a pencil, too 하늘도 높다 = The sky is high, too 그녀도 공부한다 = She studies, too 존도 갔다 = John went, too 영수도 먹었다 = Young-su ate, too As a further explanation, please have a look at the following example: 다윗은 왕이었다 = David was a king 솔로몬도 왕이었다 = Solomon was a king, too 도 always refers to the subject. For example, 솔로몬도 왕이었다 describes Solomon in terms of the fact that he was a king, too. Not only was David a king but Solomon was also a king. 다윗 = David 왕 = a king 솔로몬 = Solomon Here is another example, 제니는 나갔어 = Jenny went outside 유리도 나갔어 = Yuri went outside, too 제니 = Jenny 나가다 = go outside, leave 유리 = Yuri As you can see, 도 is used when one wants talk about the same quality or description about a different subject. When we want to talk about additive qualities and/or descriptions about the same subject, 또한 is used. For example, 다윗은 양치기였다 = David was a shepherd. 다윗은 또한 왕이었다 = David was also a king. The two sentences above both describe a certain thing about the same subject, 다윗, and 또한 refers to the rest of the sentence rather than the subject. 또한 왕이었다 describes a fact that David "was also a king."

Therefore David was both a shepherd and king. 또한 is used to give an additive quality or description about the same subject. Here is one more example, 제니는 대학생이다 = Jenny is a college (university) student 제니는 또한 음악 선생님이다 = Jenny is also a music teacher Jenny is both a college student and music teacher. Note: In spoken Korean, 또 is usually used instead of 또한. 제니는 대학생이야 = Jenny is a college (university) student 제니는 또 음악 선생님이야 = Jenny is also a music teacher 를 /을 [Object Particle] 을 The object particle, 를/을, is attached to an object which the verb describes. Here are example sentences: 나는 라면을 먹었다 = I ate noodles [Literally, noodles을 ate] 책을 읽었다 = read a book 콜라를 마셨다 = drank coke TV를 봤다 = watched TV 옷을 입었다 = wore clothes 집을 지었다 = built a house 케잌을 만들었다 = made a cake 나=I 라면 = noodles 먹다 = eat 책 = a book 읽다 = read 콜라 = coke 마시다 = drink 보다 = see, watch 옷 = clothes 입다 = wear 집 = house 짓다 = build 케잌 = a cake 만들다 = make The usage difference between 를 and 을 is that 를 is used for nouns without a final consonant, and 을 for nouns with a final consonant for the pronunciation's sake.

사진을 찍었다 = took a photo 나무를 심었다 = planted a tree 빵을 샀다 = bought some bread 차를 팔았다 = sold a car 강을 건넜다 = crossed a river 다리를 지났다 = passed a bridge 숙제를 했다 = did homework 사진 = a photo 찍다 = take (a photo) 나무 = a tree 심다 = plant (verb) 빵 = bread 사다 = buy 차 = a car 팔다 = sell 강 = a river 건너다 = cross (verb, motion) 다리 = bridge 지나다 = pass (verb, motion) 숙제 = homework 하다 = do 에 [Time/Place Particle] The Time/Place Particle, 에, is used for any words related to time and place. The 에 particle phrase is usually placed at the beginning of a sentence after a subject. 샘은 한국에 갔다 = Sam went to Korea [Sam, to Korea, went] 준수는 5월에 왔다 = Jun-su came in May [Jun-su, in May, came] 샘 = Sam 한국 = Korea 가다 = go 준수 = Jun-su 5월 = May 오다 = come Note: 1월 is January, 2월 is February and so on. You can also make long sentences like the following examples: 샘 은 작년 10월 가을에 한국에 갔다 = Sam went to Korea last year in October during the autumn season [Sam, last year, in October, in Autumn, to Korea, went] 준수는 2000년도 여름에 호주에 왔다 = Jun-su came to Australia in summer 2000. [Jun-su, in 2000, in summer, to Australia, came]

작년 = last year 10월 = October 가을 = autumn 2000년도 = in the year 2000 여름 = summer 호주 = Australia Note: 에 is used for words both with or without a final consonant. 학교에 = to school 병원에 = to hospital Please note also that when 에 is used as a Place Particle, it is usually used with 'go' and 'come' to indicate a place to which you're going or coming, and 에 functions like 'to' in English. For example, 공원에 = to a park, 영국에 = to Britain and 공항에 = to the airport. When you want to say you did something at a particular place 'for a certain period of time,' 에서 is used for that location or place. In this case, the function of 에서 is similar to "in, at or on" in English. For example, 공원에서 놀았다 = played (had fun) at the park [At the park, (we) played (had fun)] 영국에서 지냈다 = stayed in Britain [In Britain, (I) stayed] 공항에서 기다렸다 = waited at the airport [At the airport, (we) waited] 공원 = a park 놀다 = play, have fun 영국 = Britain 지내다 = stay 공항 = airport 기다리다 = wait However, in the case of 'was', you can use 에 instead of 에서 for some strange reason I do not know. The following two sentences mean exactly the same. 영국에서 있었다 = I was in Britain 영국에 있었다 = I was in Britain But in the case of other verbs, 에 is not allowed. 공원에 놀았다 영국에 지냈다 공항에 기다렸다 Here are a few more examples: 시골에 갔다 = went to a countryside 친구가 병원에 방문왔다 = A friend of mine came (to visit me) to hospital 집에 있었다 = was home

대학에서 강의를 들었다 = listen to a lecture at the university 많은 사람들이 놀이 공원에 왔다 = A lot of people came to the theme park 아침에 시리얼을 먹었다 = I ate cereal in the morning [In the morning, I ate cereal] 오후 2시에 비가 내렸다 = It started raining at 2 o'clock in the afternoon [Lit. The rain fell] 시골 = countryside 가다 = go 친구 = a friend 병원 = a hospital 방문 = a visit 오다 = come 방문오다 = came to visit 집 = home, house 있다 = be 대학 = college, university 강의 = a lecture 듣다 = listen, hear 많다 = a lot, many 사람 = a person 사람들 = people (들 is attached to a noun to make it plural) 놀이 공원 = a theme park 아침 = morning 시리얼 = cereal 먹다 = eat 오후 = afternoon, pm 2시 = 2 o'clock (1시 is 1 o'clock, 7시 is 7 o'clock and so on) 비 = rain 내리다 = fall down

This, It and That
In this lesson, we learn about some of the most common and useful words, 'This, It and That.' This = 이것 It = 그것 That = 저것 Example sentences [Informal written form] 이것은 연필이다. = This is a pencil. 그것은 창문이다. = It is a window. 저것은 꽃이다. = That is a flower. [Polite written form] 이것은 연필입니다. = This is a pencil. 그것은 창문입니다. = It is a window. 저것은 꽃입니다. = That is a flower. Note: For more information on the formality and the written and spoken forms, please read Nouns - Present, Past. 이것, 저것 and 그것 are mainly used in the written form. The equivalent spoken forms are 이건, 그건 and 저건. Please note that 이건, 그건 and 저건 are actually contracted forms of 이것은, 저것은 and 그것은. 이것은 → 이건 그것은 → 그건 저것은 → 저건 Here are the sentences in the spoken form. [Informal spoken form] 이건 연필이야. 그건 칠판이야. 저건 꽃이야. [Polite spoken form] 이건 연필이에요.

그건 칠판이에요. 저건 꽃이에요. "Here, there and over there" are used in similar ways to "This, it and that". Here = 여기 There (it) = 거기 Over there = 저기 Alternatively, (A bit more formal) Here = 이곳 (Lit. This place) There (it) = 그곳 (Lit. That place (it) ) Over there = 저곳 (Lit. That place over there) Example sentences 이곳은 어디에요? = Where is this place? (Where are we?) 이곳은 서울이에요. = This place is Seoul (We're in Seoul.) 저곳은 뭐에요? = What is that place over there? 그곳은 서울시청이에요. = That place (It) is a Seoul City Council. 저기는 어디에요? = Where is that over there? 저기는 남대문이에요. = That is Namdaemun (shopping center). 그리고 여기는 세종문화회관이에요. = And this place is Sejong Cultural Center. 여기는 is also usually contracted to 여긴 for the pronunciation's sake. 여기는 → 여긴 거기는 → 거긴 저기는 → 저긴 Similarly, 이, 그 and 저 are used with 쪽 to make the following words to denote a certain direction. 이쪽 = This direction 그쪽 = That direction (it) 저쪽 = That direction Example sentences 이쪽은 거실이에요. = This way is (to) the living room. 그쪽은 베란다에요. = That way (It) is (to) to the verandah. 저쪽은 출구에요. = That way is (to) the exit. 샘 [Sam]: 여기 화장실 어디 있어요? [Where is the toilet here?] 민지 [Minji]: 화장실은 저쪽에 있어요. (The toilet is that way.) 샘 [Sam]: 서점은 어디 있어요? [What about a bookstore? (Lit. Where is a bookstore?)]

민지 [Minji]:서점은 이쪽에 있어요. [The bookstore is this way.] 이, 그 and 저 are used with nouns to mean 'this, it and that' respectively. 이 나무 = This tree 그 집 = That house (It) 저 산 = That mountain 이 사과 맛있어요 = This apple is delicious 저 사과도 맛있어요 = That apple is delicious, too. 이 음식점은 비빔밥이 유명해요 = This restaurant is famous for Bibimbap. (Lit. This restaurant, Bimbimbap is famous.) 저 빌딩은 63빌딩이에요 = That building is the 63 building. (The landmark building in Seoul)

Note: Bibimbap - is a popular Korean dish. The word literally means "mixed meal." Bibimbap is served as a bowl of warm white rice topped with 나물, namul (sautéed and seasoned vegetables) and 고추장, gochujang (chili pepper paste). A raw or fried egg and sliced meat (usually beef) are common additions. The ingredients are stirred together thoroughly just before eating. It can be served either cold or hot.[1] Reference: [1] Wikipedia: Bibimbap, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bibimbap

Nouns - Present, Past
Nouns [명사 명사] 명사 In this lesson, we're going to learn how to say a word in present and past tenses plus how to use the same expression in polite forms.

Present and Past Tenses Each table below show how to say 'an apple' and 'a pencil' in four different ways. The table is divided into present and past tenses, and positive and negative forms. Also, the first table shows the written form of Korean and the second table shows the spoken form. The written form is used in literature such as books, newspapers and any form of writing that is not 'conversational.' The written form, in essence, is literary, factual and declarative. It is rarely used in normal everyday conversations. However, the news on TV uses this written form of Korean. It is also used in public speeches. The reason is probably due to the fact that the news and public announcements or speeches are usually all declarative and/or factual.

The spoken form is the usual way in which people speak and have a conversation. It is used in all types of spoken Korean such as normal conversations, dramas, and movies, with the possible exceptions of news, documentaries and other factual, formal types of programs on TV and radio.

Informal Written Form Positive Negative

Present 사과다 연필이다 사과가 아니다 연필이 아니다 Present 사과야 연필이야 사과(가) 아니야 연필(이) 아니야

Past 사과였다 연필이었다 사과가 아니었다 연필이 아니었다 Past 사과였어 연필이었어 사과(가) 아니었어 연필(이) 아니었어

Informal Spoken Form Positive Negative

사과 = an apple 연필 = a pencil

사과다 = is an apple 사과가 아니다 = is not an apple 사과였다 = was an apple 사과가 아니었다 = was not an apple 연필이야 = is a pencil 연필(이) 아니야 = is not a pencil 연필이었어 = was a pencil 연필(이) 아니었어 = was not a pencil Note: The verb ending, 다 , is used for nouns without a final consonant, and 이다 for nouns with a final consonant. Likewise, in the spoken form, 야 is used for nouns without final consonant and 이야 for nouns with a final consonant. Therefore: 사과다 연필이다 사과야 연필이야 Note: In spoken Korean, the particles are usually omitted. In the above example, 가/이 are in brackets to show that they are usually left out. For more information on the 가/이 particle, please read Particles - 는, 가.

Polite Form Each table below shows the polite form of the respective written and spoken forms we've looked at above which were in the informal form. Polite Written Form Positive Negative Present 사과입니다 연필입니다 사과가 아닙니다 연필이 아닙니다 Past 사과였습니다 연필이었습니다 사과가 아니었습니 다 연필이 아니었습니 다

Note: To change the informal form to the polite form, the following rules apply: In the case of the present tense, 사과다 → 사과입니다 = 다 (or 이다 in the case of nouns with a final consonant, e.g. 연필) is taken off and replaced by 입니다 사과가 아니다 → 사과가 아닙니다 = 아니다 is changed to 아닙니다 In the case of the past tense, 다 is changed to 습니다.

사과였다 → 사과였습니다 사과가 아니었다 → 사과가 아니었습니다

Polite Spoken Form Positive

Present 사과예요 연필이에요 사과(가) 아니에요 연필(이) 아니에요

Past 사과였어요 연필이었어요 사과(가) 아니었어요 연필(이) 아니었어요

Negative

Note: To change the informal form to the polite form, the following rules apply: In the case of the present tense: 사과야 → 사과예요 = 야 changes to 예요(or 에요 in the case of nouns with a final consonant, e.g. 연 필) 사과 아니야 → 사과 아니에요 = 야 changes to 에요 In the case of the past tense, 요 is attached at the end. 사과였어 → 사과였어요 사과 아니었어 → 사과 아니었어요 Here are some example sentences in the written form. 가게다 = is a shop 가방이다 = is a bag 소고기였다 = was beef 선생님이었다 = was a teacher 꽃이 아니다 = is not a flower 항구가 아니었다 = was not a port 동물이 아니었다 = was not an animal Try translating the following sentences in the spoken form. What do they mean? 시계야 집이야 비둘기였어 사람이었어 구름(이) 아니야 빌딩(이) 아니었어 닭고기(가) 아니었어

Answers: is a clock/watch is a house was a pigeon was a person is not a cloud was not a building was not chicken (meat) Now try rewrite the English sentences above in the polite spoken form of Korean, and pronounce them one by one. At this point, I'd recommend that you get hold of someone who is Korean to teach you the correct pronunciation of each sentence, but I think many of you would not have that kind of luxury. So alternatively, as imperfect as it may be, I'd recommend the Google Translate's 'Listen' feature. It allows you to listen to the pronunciation of the words you put in. Google Translate For those of you who would like to know how to type in Korean, please try the google results for 'How to type in Korean.'

Nouns - Nominalizing Verbs
In this lesson, we're going to learn how to nominalize a verb, which means converting a verb to a noun. First, take 다 off the plain form of a verb, and then attach 기 to it. (For a list of verbs in the plain from, please refer to Verbs - Present/Past) The following is a list of some of the verbs which have been converted to nouns. 읽다 → 읽기 = reading 쓰다 → 쓰기 = writing 듣다 → 듣기 = listening 말하다 → 말하기 = speaking 하다 → 하기 = doing 가다 → 가기 = going 오다 → 오기 = coming 보다 → 보기 = watching 먹다 → 먹기 = eating 마시다 → 마시기 = drinking 자다 → 자기 = sleeping 걷다 → 걷기 = walking 달리다 → 달리기 = running 사다 → 사기 = buying 팔다 → 팔기 = selling 서다 → 서기 = standing 앉다 → 앉기 = sitting 살다 → 살기 = living 죽다 → 죽기 = dying

Example Sentences 걷기는 하기 쉬운 운동이다 = Walking is an exercise that (we) can do easily 나는 쇼핑 하기를 좋아한다 = I like shopping (Lit. I like doing shopping) 한나는 아이스크림 먹기를 좋아한다 = Hannah likes eating an icecream 비 오는 날 학교 가기는 쉽지 않다 = It's not easy going to school in a rainy day 제인은 오래된 CD 플레이어를 팔기를 원했다 = Jane wanted 'selling' an old CD player 쇼핑 = shopping 좋아하다 = like 한나 = Hannah (Also a Korean female name) 아이스크림 = icecream 비 = rain (noun) 오다 = come 날 = a day

비 오는 날 = a rainy day (Lit. a rain-coming day) (For more information, refer to Verbs - Descriptive I) 학교 = a school 쉽다 = easy 쉬운 = easy (Adjectives - Descriptive) 운동 = exercise 제인 = Jane 오래되다 = old CD 플레이어 = a CD player 원하다 = want (Please refer to Verbs - Want to learn how to form 'want to do') Here are some more example sentences using nominalized verbs. 사기와 팔기는 비지니스의 기초다. = Buying and selling are the business's basis. 비지니스 = business 기초 = basis, foundation

지영은 공원에서 걷기와 새들의 노래 듣기를 좋아했다. = Ji-young liked walking in the park and listening to birds singing. 지영 = Ji-young (A female name) 공원 = a park 걷다 = walk 새 = a bird 노래 = a song 듣다 = listen, hear

외국어를 배울 때 읽기, 쓰기, 듣기, 말하기는 모두 매우 중요하다. = When we learn a foreign language, reading, writing, listening and speaking are all very important. 외국어 = a foreign language 배우다 = learn 배울 때 = When we learn (To learn how to use 'when', please read Conjunctions - When) 모두 = all 매우 = very 중요하다 = important

Nouns - Numbers and Counting
There are two ways of pronouncing numbers in Korean. These are: Sino-Korean numerals - 일, 이, 삼, ... Native Korean numerals - 하나, 둘, 셋, ... The Sino-Korean numerals are used for dates, minutes and prices. The native Korean numerals are used for counting, age and hours.

Sino-Korean Numerals [Dates, Minutes and Prices] The key to memorizing the pronunciations of the Sino-Korean numerals is to learn from 1(일) to 10(십), and use these ten numbers as building blocks to learn the rest of the numbers. Here is a list of the first ten numbers: 1=일 2=이 3=삼 4=사 5=오 6=육 7=칠 8=팔 9=구 10 = 십 From 11 to 19, what you need to do is say 10(십) first and say the ones' number. For example, 11 = 10 + 1 → 십 + 일 = 십일 12 = 10 + 2 → 십 + 이 = 십이 13 = 10 + 3 → 십 + 삼 = 십삼 17 = 10 + 7 → 십 + 칠 = 십칠 19 = 10 + 9 → 십 + 구 = 십구

From 20 and onward, it works in the same way. But in addition, 20, 30, ..., 90 are pronounced in the following way: 20 = 이 + 십 = 이십 (Lit. two-ten) 30 = 삼 + 십 = 삼십 (Lit. three-ten) 50 = 오 + 십 = 오십 80 = 팔 + 십 = 팔십

90 = 구 + 십 = 구십 Additionally, 21 = 이십 + 일 = 이십일 (Lit. two-ten one) 22 = 이십 + 이 = 이십이 32 = 삼십 + 이 = 삼십이 45 = 사십 + 오 = 사십오 57 = 오십 + 칠 = 오십칠 89 = 팔십 + 구 = 팔십구 100 is 백, and 200 is 이백 which literally means 'two-hundred.' Then how do you say 300 as a Sino-Korean numeral? Yes, it's 삼백 (Lit. three-hundred) 100 = 백 101 = 백일 105 = 백오 127 = 백이십칠 200 = 이백 219 = 이백십구 324 = 삼백이십사 508 = 오백팔 731 = 칠백삼십일 945 = 구백사십오 1000 is 천, then 2000 is? Yes, it's 이천. Then how do you say 3283 in a Sino-Korean way? It's 삼천이백팔심 삼. [Lit. three-thousand two-hundred eight-ten three] 1000 = 천 1001 = 천일 1035 = 천삼십오 2427 = 이천사백이십칠 8492 = 팔천사백구십이 What is 10000? It's 만. It is not 십천 (or ten-thousand). 20000 is 이만, 30000 is 삼만 and so on. 10000 = 만 10002 = 만이 10034 = 만삼십사 20673 = 이만육백칠십삼 84832 = 팔만사천팔백삼십이 Now 100000 is 십만 and 200000 is 이십만. At this point, it'd help you understand the naming system of these

numbers if you think them in terms of their number of zeros. Here is what I mean: 10000 is 만 10,0000 is 십만 100,0000 is 백만 1000,0000 is 천만 1,0000,0000 is 억 (NOT 만만) 10,0000,0000 is 십억 100,0000,0000 is 백억 1000,0000,0000 is 천억 1,0000,0000,0000 is 조 You can see that numbers obtain a new name every time they get additional 4 zeros. This is different to English where the name of numbers change after every additional 3 zeros. For example, 'thousand', 'million' and 'billion'. However, when we write numbers, we follow the international standard in that the comma is placed after every threes. The examples above where the comma is placed after every 4 zeros are for the purpose of easier understanding only. Therefore: 만 = 10,000 십만 = 100,000 (NOT 10,0000) 백만 = 1,000,000 (NOT 100,0000) Let's revise what we've learned above: 11 = 십일 12 = 십이 13 = 십삼 20 = 이십 25 = 이십오 30 = 삼십 40 = 사십 50 = 오십 56 = 오십육 70 = 칠십 80 = 팔십 100 = 백 101 = 백일 107 = 백칠 120 = 백이십 150 = 백오십 200 = 이백 202 = 이백이 537 = 오백삼십칠 [500 +30 + 7 → 오백 + 삼십 + 칠 = 오백삼십칠] 1000 = 천

2000 = 이천 2500 = 이천오백 10000 = 만 10500 = 만오백 [10000 + 500 → 만 + 오백 = 만오백] 53847 = 오만삼천팔백사십칠 [50000 + 3000 + 800 + 40 + 7 → 오만 + 삼천 + 팔백 + 사십 + 칠 = 오만삼천팔백사십칠] The following are the examples of how the Sino-Korean numerals are used for dates, minutes and prices.

[Dates] The order in which the date is written is reversed in Korean. A day of the week comes first, then a month and then a year. [a year = 년, a month = 월, a day of the week = 일] Notice how the Sino-Korean numerals are used in pronouncing dates. 28 Jan 2010 → 2010년 1월 28일 = 이천십 일 월 이십팔 이천십년 이십팔일 17/10/2011 → 2011/10/17 = 2011년 10월 17일 =이천십일 시 월 십칠 이천십일년 십칠일 이천십일 Note: 10월 is not 십월, but rather 시월. This exception is due to the awkwardness of pronouncing 십월, which is quite cumbersome to pronounce. Therefore 10월 is 시월 for the pronunciation's sake.

[Minutes] The Sino-Korean numerals are also used for 'minutes' but not for 'hours'. The native Korean numerals which are used for pronouncing the number of 'hours' are explained below in the second section of this post. [an hour, o'clock = 시, a minute(s) = 분, am = 오전, pm = 오후] 9:38 am → 오전 9시 38분 = 오전 아홉시 삼십팔 삼십팔분 6:19 pm → 오후 6시 19분 = 오후 여섯시 십구분 십구

[Prices] The Korean currency is called 'won.' Its symbol is '₩', and it's pronounced 원. ₩12,800 → 12,800원 = 만이천팔백 만이천팔백원 ₩39,130 → 39,130원 = 삼만구천백삼십 삼만구천백삼십원

Native Korean numerals [Counting, Age and Hours]

The basic numbering system of the native Korean numerals is the same as that of the Sino-Korean numerals. However, in addition to one to ten, there is a need to learn the special pronunciations of tens, i.e. 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90. From 100, the pronunciation is the same as the Sino-Korean numerals we've looked at above. [hundred (100) = 백, thousand (1000) = 천, ten thousand (10000) = 만] 1 = 하나 2=둘 3=셋 4=넷 5 = 다섯 6 = 여섯 7 = 일곱 8 = 여덟 9 = 아홉 10 = 열 11 = 열 하나 12 = 열 둘 13 = 열 셋 17 = 열 일곱 20 = 스물 21 = 스물 하나 22 = 스물 둘 23 = 스물 셋 30 = 서른 40 = 마흔 50 = 쉰 55 = 쉰 다섯 60 = 예순 70 = 일흔 75 = 일흔 다섯 [70 + 5 → 일흔 + 다섯 = 일흔다섯] 80 = 여든 90 = 아흔 100 = 백 189 = 백 여든 아홉 [100 + 80 + 9 → 백 + 여든 + 아홉 = 백여든아홉] Below are the examples of how the native Korean numerals are used in counting, age and hours.

[Counting] The native Korean numerals are used for counting, e.g. the number of people in a class, the number of cars in a car park, the numbers of apples on an apple tree, the numbers of pencils or pens on a desk, etc. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ... = 하나, 둘, 셋, 넷, 다섯, ... When counting, we use distinctive identifier words called counters. Each kind of object (or person for that

matter) has their own counter to distinguish them from other kinds. This counter system is a bit like the system found in English, i.e. 3 cups of juice, 5 glasses of water. However, the Korean counting system extends to every object. For example, three cups of juice = 주스 세컵 컵 five glasses of water = 물 다섯잔 잔 six people = 여섯명 (사람 사람) 명 사람 five cars = 차 다섯대 대 three apples = 사과 세개 개 two pencils = 연필 두자루 자루 four books = 책 네권 권 ten roses = 장미 열송이 송이 Listed below are some of the most common counters used in counting. 명 = people 마리 = animals 대 = cars 개 = objects (this is very widely used for any inanimate objects) 자루 = long, lean objects 그루 = trees 송이 = flowers 켤레 = shoes 장 = paper 권 = books 살 = age 층 = floor [The Sino-Korean numerals are used for counting the number of floors, i.e. the first floor = 일층, the second floor = 이층, and the eighth floor = 팔층] Please also note that 하나 becomes 한, and the final consonant of each of 둘, 셋, 넷 and 스물 is omitted when they are attached to counters. For example, (물) 한잔 = a glass of water (NOT 하나잔) (종이) 두장 = two pieces of paper (NOT 둘장) (신발) 세켤레 = three pairs of shoes (NOT 셋켤레) (사람) 네명 = four people (NOT 넷명) (나이) 스무살 = twenty (years of age) (NOT 스물살) The counters work in a similar way to some of the counter words in English, e.g. 장 is similar to 'pieces' and 켤레 is similar to 'pairs'.

[Age] As we've looked at above, the counter, 살, is attached to years of age. For example:

1 = 한살 2 = 두살 3 = 세살 4 = 네살 5 = 다섯살 7 = 일곱살 10 = 열살 11 = 열한살 12 = 열두살 13 = 열세살 17 = 열일곱살 20 = 스무살 24 = 스물 네살 32 = 서른 두살 58 = 쉰 여덟살

[Hours] The native Korean numerals are also used for 'hours' but not for 'minutes' which use the Sino-Korean numerals. 10:25 am → 오전 10시 25분 = 오전 열 시 이십오분 7:30 pm → 오후 7시 30분 = 오후 일곱 삼십분 or 오후 일곱 반 (반 means 'a half') 일곱시 일곱시

[Months] 한달 = 1 month 두달 = 2 months 세달 = 3 months 네달 = 4 months 다섯달 = 5 months 여섯달 = 6 months 일곱달 = 7 months 여덞달 = 8 months 아홉달 = 9 months 열달 = 10 months Example sentence 2달 동안 학교를 다니고 2주동안 방학을 했다 = I went to school for 2 months and had a break(holidays) for 2 weeks.

Adjectives - Present, Past
형용사 [Adjectives] We're going to look at adjectives in this post. First of all, please have a look at the two tables below, which are similar to the way the 'nouns' were presented in the previous post, Nouns - Present, Past. As I've mentioned before in Nouns - Present, Past, there are two primary forms in which Korean is used, the written and spoken forms. The written form is used in literature such as books, newspapers and any form of writing that is not 'conversational.' The written form, in essence, is literary, factual and declarative. It is rarely used in normal everyday conversations. However, the news on TV uses this written form of Korean. It is also used in public speeches. The reason is probably due to the fact that the news and public announcements or speeches are usually all declarative and/or factual.

The spoken form is the usual way in which people speak and have a conversation. It is used in all types of spoken Korean such as normal conversations, dramas, and movies, with the possible exceptions of news, documentaries and other factual, formal types of programs on TV and radio.

Please also note that there are two ways of expressing negatives, for example, 좋다 means 'good' and 많다 means 'many', and they can be expressed in the negative form in the following two ways: 1. Take 다 off the present tense of an adjective, and attach 지 않다 (or 지 않아 for the spoken form). The Written Form 좋지 않다 = not good 많지 않다 = not many The Spoken Form 좋지 않아 = not good 많지 않아 = not many 2. Attach 안 to the present tense of an adjective. The Written Form 안좋다 = not good 안많다 = not many

The Spoken Form 안좋아 = not good 안많아 = not many Below are the two tables showing the informal written and spoken forms of the adjective, 빠르다. (Please read Adjectives - Polite for polite forms) Please note that the words in bold indicate which of the two negatives are more common in each form, i.e. 빠 르지 않다 is more commonly used than 안 빠르다 in the written form whereas 안 빨라 is more commonly used than 빠르지 않아 in the spoken form. Informal Written Form Positive Negative Present 빠르다 빠르지 않다 안 빠르다 Present 빨라 빠르지 않아 안 빨라 Past 빨랐다 빠르지 않았다 안 빨랐다 Past 빨랐어 빠르지 않았어 안 빨랐어

Informal Spoken Form Positive Negative

Here are the meanings of the different forms of an adjective, 빠르다. 빠르다 = fast 빠르지 않다/안 빠르다 = not fast 빨랐다 = was/were fast 빠르지 않았다/안 빨랐다 = was/were not fast 빨라 = fast 빠르지 않아/안 빨라 = not fast 빨랐어 = was/were fast 빠르지 않았어/안 빨랐어 = was/were not fast

The List of Common Adjectives Present Positive Written Spoken Written Past Spoken

High Low Big Small (size) Spacious Cramped Many

높다 낮다 크다 작다 넓다 좁다 많다

높아 낮아 커 작아 넓어 좁아 많아 적어 착해 빨라 느려 쉬워 어려워 재미있어 새로워 뜨거워 차가워 따뜻해 시원해 굉장해 아름다워 솔직해 사랑스러워

높았다 낮았다 컸다 작았다 넓었다 좁았다 많았다 적었다 착했다 빨랐다 느렸다 쉬웠다 어려웠다 재미있었다 새로웠다 뜨거웠다 차가웠다 따뜻했다 시원했다 굉장했다 아름다웠다 솔직했다 사랑스러웠 다

높았어 낮았어 컸어 작았어 넓었어 좁았어 많았어 적었어 착했어 빨랐어 느렸어 쉬웠어 어려웠어 재미있었어 새로웠어 뜨거웠어 차가웠어 따뜻했어 시원했어 굉장했어 아름다웠어 솔직했어 사랑스러웠 어

Small (quantity) 적다 Kind Fast Slow Easy Difficult Interesting New Hot (tangible) Cold (tangible) Warm Cool Wonderful Beautiful Honest Lovely 착하다 빠르다 느리다 쉽다 어렵다 재미있다 새롭다 뜨겁다 차갑다 따뜻하다 시원하다 굉장하다 아름답다 솔직하다 사랑스럽다

Humble

겸손하다

겸손해

겸손했다

겸손했어

The following are the rules for the conjugation of adjectives: I) Present (Written) → Past (Written) 1. For adjectives whose last character contain a final consonant, add 았 or 었 . 았 for the vowels, ㅏ and ㅗ 었 for the vowels, ㅓ, ㅜ, ㅡ and ㅣ E.g. 얇다 → 얇았다 = was thin 높다 → 높았다 = was high 적다 → 적었다 = was small (quantity) 굵다 → 굵었다 = was thick 가늘다 → 가늘었다 = was thin 재미있다 → 재미있었다 = was interesting/fun Note: The rules 2 to 6 override the rule 1. 2. For adjectives whose last character is 하 , it changes to 했 . E.g. 착하다 → 착했다 = was kind 따뜻하다 → 따뜻했다 = was warm 시원하다 → 시원했다 = was cool 신기하다 → 신기했다 = was amazing 굉장하다 → 굉장했다 = was wonderful

3. For adjectives whose last character contain ㅂ as a final consonant, take it off and add 웠다 (Except 웠다. for 좁다 which changes to 좁았다 좁았다) E.g. 아름답다 → 아름다웠다 = was beautiful 뜨겁다 → 뜨거웠다 = was hot (tangible) 차갑다 → 차가웠다 = was cold (tangible) 춥다 → 추웠다 = was cold (feeling)

4. For adjectives whose last character contain no final consonant and the vowel, ㅡ , take it off and add

ㅓ ,ㅆ. ㅆ E.g. 크다 → 컸다 = was big 예쁘다 → 예뻤다 = was pretty However, when the vowel before the last character is ㅏ , then ㅏ , ㅆ can be used instead. 아프다 → 아팠다/아펐다 = was sick (illness) 나쁘다 → 나빴다/나뻤다 = was bad Also, in the case of 르 as the last character, ㄹ , 랐 is used. 빠르다 → 빨랐다 = was fast

5. For adjectives whose last character contain the vowel, ㅣ , take it off and add ㅕ , ㅆ . E.g. 느리다 → 느렸다 = was slow 잘생기다 → 잘생겼다 = was handsome/good-looking 못생기다 → 못생겼다 = was ugly

6. For adjectives whose last character contains ㅏ as a vowel and ㅎ as a final consonant, they change to ㅐ and ㅆ , i.e. 앟 changes to 앴 . E.g. 빨갛다 → 빨갰다 = was red 노랗다 → 노랬다 = was yellow 파랗다 → 파랬다 = was blue

II) Present (Written) → Present (Spoken) First of all, take 다 off adjectives and then: 1. For adjectives whose last character contain a final consonant, add 아 or 어 . 아 for the vowels, ㅏ and ㅗ 어 for the vowels, ㅓ, ㅜ, ㅡ and ㅣ E.g.

작다 → 작아 = small (size) 높다 → 높아 = high 적다 → 적어 = small (quantity) 굵다 → 굵어 = thick 가늘다 → 가늘어 = thin 재미있다 → 재미있어 = interesting/fun

2. For adjectives whose last character is 하 , it changes to 해 . E.g. 지루하다 → 지루해 = boring 시원하다 → 시원해 = cool 겸손하다 → 겸손해 = humble 신기하다 → 신기해 = amazing

3. For adjectives whose last character contain ㅂ as a final consonant, take it off and add 워 . (Except for 좁다 which changes to 좁았다 좁았다) E.g. 춥다 → 추워 = cold (feeling) 어렵다 → 어려워 = difficult 뜨겁다 → 뜨거워 = hot (tangible) 사랑스럽다 → 사랑스러워 = lovely

4. For adjectives whose last character contain ㅡ as a vowel and no final consonant, change ㅡ to ㅓ . (Except for 빠르다 which changes to 빨라 빨라) E.g. 크다 → 커 = big/large 예쁘다 → 예뻐 = pretty However, when the vowel before the last character is ㅏ , then ㅡ can be changed to ㅏ instead. 아프다 → 아파/아퍼 = sick (illness) 나쁘다 → 나빠/나뻐 = bad

5. For adjectives whose last character contain ㅣ as a vowel and no final consonant, change ㅣ to ㅕ . E.g. 느리다 → 느려 = slow 잘생기다 → 잘생겨 = handsome/good-looking

못생기다 → 못생겨 = ugly

6. For adjectives whose last character contains ㅏ as a vowel and ㅎ as a final consonant, ㅏ is changed to ㅐ , and ㅎ is taken off. (i.e. 앟다 is changed to 애 ) E.g. 빨갛다 → 빨개 = red 노랗다 → 노래 = yellow 파랗다 → 파래 = blue

III) Past (Written) → Past (Spoken) Simply change 다 to 어 . 컸다 → 컸어 = was big/large 높았다 → 높았어 = was high 느렸다 → 느렸어 = was slow 빨갰다 → 빨갰어 = was red 따뜻했다 → 따뜻했어 = was warm (both tangibility and feeling) 뜨거웠다 → 뜨거웠어 = was hot (tangible)

Adjectives - Polite [Present, Past]
Polite Form In the previous post, Adjectives - Present, Past, we learned to distinguish between the written and spoken forms of Korean. In addition to it, we're going to further distinguish between the polite and informal forms in Korean. What are the difference between the informal and polite forms? Informal - Generally speaking, the informal form is used among people of the same age or to people who are younger by older people. It is also used by people who are closely related such as such family members and relatives. People who are close friends would use this form depending on the familiarity and acceptability.

Polite - The polite form is used when speaking to people who are older than you or of a higher rank than you such as in the company, army and other institutions. However, people generally use the polite form in many social settings regardless of one's age. Initially, it would be best to stick to the polite form when learning Korean, as this would be the predominant form of speaking to people in many social environments. However, if you attend school or other similar institutions where you'd make friends and the environment is more casual, it might be more appropriate to use the informal form. Below are the two tables showing the polite form of the written and spoken forms of Korean. Please note that the words in bold indicate which of the two negatives are more common in each form, i.e. 빠르지 않습니다 is more commonly used than 안 빠릅니다 in the written form whereas 안 빨라요 is more commonly used than 빠르지 않아요 in the spoken form.

Polite Written Form Positive Negative

Present 빠릅니다 빠르지 않습니다 안 빠릅니다

Past 빨랐습니다 빠르지 않았습니다 안 빨랐습니다

Polite Spoken Form Positive Negative

Present 빨라요 빠르지 않아요 안 빨라요

Past 빨랐어요 빠르지 않았어요 안 빨랐어요

Conjugations rules I) Informal written form → Polite written form (Present tense) First of all, take 다 off adjectives, and then: 1. For adjectives whose final character has no final consonant, add ㅂ 니다 니다. E.g. 크다 → 큽니다 = big/large 세다 → 셉니다 = strong 빠르다 → 빠릅니다 = fast 느리다 → 느립니다 = slow 착하다 → 착합니다 = kind 따뜻하다 → 따뜻합니다 = warm (touch, feeling) 시원하다 → 시원합니다 = cool (touch, feeling)

2. For adjectives whose final character has a final consonant, attach 습니다. 습니다 E.g. 작다 → 작습니다 = small (size) 많다 → 많습니다 = many 적다 → 적습니다 = small (quantity) 쉽다 → 쉽습니다 = easy 어렵다 → 어렵습니다 = difficult 뜨겁다 → 뜨겁습니다 = hot (touch) 새롭다 → 새롭습니다 = new

II) Informal written → Polite written (Past tense) Take 다 off the past tense of adjectives, and then attach 습니다 습니다. E.g. 컸다 → 컸습니다 = was big/large 작았다 → 작았습니다 = was small (size) 좋았다 → 좋았습니다 = was good 빨랐다 → 빨랐습니다 = was fast 느렸다 → 느렸습니다 = was slow 쉬웠다 → 쉬웠습니다 = was easy 어려웠다 → 어려웠습니다 = was difficult 뜨거웠다 → 뜨거웠습니다 = was hot (touch)

차가웠다 → 차가웠습니다 = was cold (touch) 새로웠다 → 새로웠습니다 = was new

III) Informal → Polite (Spoken) Attach 요 at the end of the adjectives of all forms.

E.g. 높아 → 높아요 = high 안높아 → 안높아요 = not high 높았어 → 높았어요 = was high 안높았어 → 안높았어요 = was not high

많아 → 많아요 = many 안많아 → 안많아요 = not many 많았어 → 많았어요 = were many 안많았어 → 안많았어요 = were not many

커 → 커요 = big/large 안커 → 안커요 = not big/large 컸어 → 컸어요 = was big/large 안컸어 → 안컸어요 = was not big/large

For help with the pronunciations of these adjectives in various forms, please use the 'listen' feature on Google Translate.

Adjectives - Descriptive Form
In the previous posts, Adjectives - Present, Past and Adjectives - Polite [Present, Past], we learned that adjectives in Korean function like verbs in that they can be conjugated into present and past tenses, and various other forms. However, when describing nouns using adjectives placed in front of them, for example, 'a beautiful bird', the adjectives must be conjugated to the descriptive form. E.g. 아름답다 → 아름다운 [A plain form → A descriptive form] 아름다운 새 = a beautiful bird

The Table of Common Adjectives and Their Descriptive Forms Written Form High Low Big Small (size) Spacious Cramped Many Plain Positive 높다 낮다 크다 작다 넓다 좁다 많다 착하다 빠르다 느리다 멋있다 못생기다 쉽다 어렵다 재미있다 지루하다 뜨겁다 차갑다 Descriptive 높은 낮은 큰 작은 넓은 좁은 많은 적은 착한 빠른 느린 멋있는 못생긴 쉬운 어려운 재미있는 지루한 뜨거운 차가운

Small (quantity) 적다 Kind Fast Slow Handsome Ugly Easy Difficult Interesting Boring Hot Cold

Warm Cool Wonderful Beautiful Pretty Humble Loving Red Yellow

따뜻하다 시원하다 굉장하다 아름답다 예쁘다 겸손하다 사랑스럽다 빨갛다 노랗다

따뜻한 시원한 굉장한 아름다운 예쁜 겸손한 사랑스러운 빨간 노란

Conjugations rules First of all, take 다 off adjectives and then: 1. Attach 은 to any adjectives of one character with a final consonant. (Note: The next rules override this rule.) E.g. 많다 → 많은 = many 많은 사람들 → many people 작다 → 작은 = small 작은 난쟁이 → a small dwarf 얇다 → 얇은 = thin 얇은 팔 → a thin arm 높다 → 높은 = high 높은 하늘 → a high sky

2. Attach 는 to any adjectives whose final character is 있 and 없 . E.g. 맛있다 → 맛있는 = delicious 맛있는 음식 → delicious food 멋있다 → 멋있는 = handsome/good-looking 멋있는 차 → a good-looking car 재미있다 → 재미있는 = interesting/fun 재미있는 영화 → a fun movie

재미없다 → 재미없는 = not interesting (boring) 재미없는 드라마 = a boring drama (soap opera) Note: The meaning of 있다 is 'to exist', and its opposite is 없다 which means 'to not exist'. Therefore, the adjectives which have a stem of 있다 can also be used with 없다. E.g. 맛있다 → 맛없다 [tasty/delicious → not tasty/delicious] 멋있다 → 멋없다 [handsome/good-looking → not handsome/good-looking (ugly)] 재미있다 → 재미없다 [interesting/fun → not interesting/fun (boring)]

3. For adjectives whose final character has a final consonant of either ㄹ or ㅎ , replace them with ㄴ . E.g. 길다 → 긴 = long 긴 연필 → a long pencil 달다 → 단 = sweet (taste) 단 초콜렛 → sweet chocolate 빨갛다 → 빨간 = red 빨간 사과 → a red apple 노랗다 → 노란 = yellow 노란 우산 = a yellow umbrella 4. For adjectives who final character has a final consonant, ㅂ , take it off and attach 운 to them. E.g. 쉽다 → 쉬운 = easy 쉬운 문제 → an easy problem/question 아름답다 → 아름다운 = beautiful 아름다운 꽃 → a beautiful flower 차갑다 → 차가운 = cold (tangible) 차가운 바닥 = a cold floor 뜨겁다 → 뜨거운 = hot (tangible) 뜨거운 커피 = hot coffee

*Exception:

좁다 → 좁은 = narrow, small, cramped (space) (NOT 조은) 좁은 운동장 = a small/cramped playground 5. For adjectives whose last character does not have a final consonant, just attach ㄴ to it. E.g. 멋지다 → 멋진 = nice/cool 멋진 모자→ a nice/cool hat 예쁘다 → 예쁜 = pretty 예쁜 구두 → pretty shoes 빠르다 → 빠른 = fast 빠른 자동차 → a fast car 느리다 → 느린 = slow 느린 속력 → a slow speed Irregular 좋다 → 좋은 = good 좋은 사람 → a good man Please note, however, that the descriptive form is usually used in writings, as in written Korean. In spoken Korean, it is more natural to say 'beautiful flowers' as '꽃이 아름다워요' rather than '아름다운 꽃 이에요.' (For more on the 'spoken form,' please read Adjectives - Present, Past) E.g. 꽃들이 아름다워요 = The flowers are beautiful. 자동차가 멋져요 = The car is good-looking. 문제가 쉬워요 = The question is easy. Also, in spoken Korean, the particles are often omitted except for the 을/를 particle. 꽃들 아름다워요 = The flowers are beautiful. 자동차 멋져요 = The car is good-looking. 문제 쉬워요 = The question is easy. Again, in casual conversations, these sentences would more naturally flow by using '네.' 꽃들 아름답네요 자동차 멋지네요

문제 쉽네요 The difference between '문제 쉬워요' and '문제 쉽네요' is that '쉽네요' is less blunt than '쉬워요' which sounds more factual and generalised. 문제 쉽네요 = (I see that) The problem/question is easy. 문제 쉬워요 = The problem/question is easy. 방이 넓네요 = (I see that) The room is spacious/large. 방이 넓어요 = The room is spacious/large. (It can sound quite blunt and just factual.)

Adjectives - Connective Form
This lesson is about the connective form of adjectives. This form is used to list several adjectives in a sequence, and to connect one sentence to another. The conjugation rule for the connective form is easy. Take 다 off adjectives and then attach 고 to them.

Written Form High Low Big Small (size) Spacious Cramped Many Small (quantity) Kind Fast Slow Outgoing Quiet Easy Difficult Interesting Boring Hot (tangible) Cold (tangible) Warm Cool Wonderful Beautiful Patient

Present 높다 낮다 크다 작다 넓다 좁다 많다 적다 착하다 빠르다 느리다 활달하다 조용하다 쉽다 어렵다 재미있다 지루하다 뜨겁다 차갑다 따뜻하다 시원하다 굉장하다 아름답다 인내심 있다

Connective 높고 낮고 크고 작고 넓고 좁고 많고 적고 착하고 빠르고 느리고 활달하고 조용하고 쉽고 어렵고 재미있고 지루하고 뜨겁고 차갑고 따뜻하고 시원하고 굉장하고 아름답고 인내심 있고

Humorous Calm Humble Lovely

웃기다 침착하다 겸손하다 사랑스럽다

웃기고 침착하고 겸손하고 사랑스럽고

The connective form of adjectives is used in two situations: To list adjectives in a sequence To connect one sentence to another

1. To list adjectives in a sequence If I was to say 'kind, beautiful and humble' in Korean, the adjectives must be changed to their connective forms except the last adjective of a sentence which determines its tense. E.g. 착하다 → 착하고 = kind 아름답다 → 아름답고 = beautiful 겸손하다 = humble 착하고 아름답고 겸손하다 → kind, beautiful and humble 착하고 아름답고 겸손했다 → was kind, beautiful and humble Alternatively, 아름답고 겸손하고 착했다 → was beautiful, humble and kind 겸손하고 착하고 아름다웠다 → was humble, kind and beautiful As you can see, the last adjective determines the tense of a sentence.

2. To connect one sentence to another. The connective form of adjectives is also used to connect sentences. 유리는 착해요 = Yuri is kind 미나는 아름다워요 = Mina is beautiful 진수는 겸손해요 = Jinsu is humble

유리는 착하고, 미나는 아름답고, 진수는 겸손해요. = Yuri is kind, Mina is beautiful and Jinsu is humble. 앤디는 웃겨요 = Andy is humorous/funny 프랭클린은 조용해요 = Franklin is quiet 제시카는 활달해요 = Jessica is outgoing 앤디는 웃기고, 프랭클린은 조용하고, 제시카는 활달해요 = Andy is humorous/funny, Franklin is quiet, and Jessica is outgoing. 음료수는 시원하다 = A soft drink is cool 차는 뜨겁다 = Tea is hot 포도는 달다 = Grapes are sweet 음료수는 시원하고, 차는 뜨겁고, 포도는 달다. = A soft drink is cool, tea is hot, and grapes are sweet.

Verbs - Present, Past
동사 [Verbs] Now, we come to learn, possibly, the most important subject of all Korean grammar, the 'verbs.' I have drawn up tables below to display various conjugations of verbs. But first of all, we need to pay attention to a distinct feature in Korean verbs, namely, the plain form. The plain form is the most basic form of verbs, from which all the other conjugations of verbs are derived and produced. However, the plain form is almost never used in both written and spoken Korean. The only instance where the plain form is used is when verbs are listed in the dictionary. Therefore, it is necessary to know the plain form if you'd like to know the meaning of certain verbs and find them in the dictionary. Examples of the plain form of verbs 하다 = do 먹다 = eat 가다 = go 달리다 = run

Informal Written Form Positive Negative

Plain

Present 먹는다 먹지 않는다 안 먹는다

Past 먹었다 먹지 않았다 안 먹었다

먹다 먹지 않다

Informal Spoken Form Positive Negative

Plain

Present 먹어 먹지 않아 안 먹어

Past 먹었어 먹지 않았어 안 먹었어

먹다 먹지 않다

Note: The words in bold indicate which of the two negatives are more commonly used in each case, i.e. 먹지 않는다 is more commonly used than 안 먹는다 in the written form, and 안 먹어 is more commonly used than 먹지 않아 in the spoken form.

A Table of Commonly Used Verbs

Written Plain Go Come Run Eat Stand Sit Buy Sell Grow Throw Borrow Lend Play Write Read Listen Live Die Present 간다 온다 달린다 먹는다 선다 앉는다 산다 판다 자란다 던진다 빌린다 빌려준다 논다 쓴다 읽는다 듣는다 산다 죽는다 Past 갔다 왔다 달렸다 먹었다 섰다 앉았다 샀다 팔았다 자랐다 던졌다 빌렸다 빌려주었 다 놀았다 썼다 읽었다 들었다 살았다 죽었다 Present 가 와 달려 먹어 서 앉아 사 팔아 자라 던져 빌려 빌려줘 놀아 써 읽어 들어 살아 죽어

Spoken Past 갔어 왔어 달렸어 먹었어 섰어 앉았어 샀어 팔았어 자랐어 던졌어 빌렸어 빌려주었 어 놀았어 썼어 읽었어 들었어 살았어 죽었어

가다 오다 달리다 먹다 서다 앉다 사다 팔다 자라다 던지다 빌리다 빌려주다 놀다 쓰다 읽다 듣다 살다 죽다

Conjugations Rules I) Plain → Present (Written) 는다. 1. For verbs whose last character has a final consonant, replace 다 with 는다 E.g. 먹다 → 먹는다 = eat 사과를 먹는다 = eat an apple 걷다 → 걷는다 = walk 사람은 걷는다 = A human walks

믿다 → 믿는다 = believe 나는 예수님을 믿는다 = I believe Jesus

2. For verbs whose last character has no final consonant, replace 다 with ㄴ 다 . E.g. 잠자다 → 잠잔다 = sleep 지금 새들은 잠잔다 = Now birds sleep (= At the moment, the birds are sleeping) 가다 → 간다 = go 민아는 학교를 간다 = Mina goes to school 보다 → 본다 = watch/look/see 현주는 자주 밖을 본다 = Hyun-ju often looks outside

3. For verbs whose last character has ㄹ as a final consonant, replace it with ㄴ . E.g. 팔다 → 판다 = sell 이 가게는 과일을 판다 = This shop sells fruit 살다 → 산다 = live 지우는 여기에서 산다 = Ji-u lives here 밀다 → 민다 = push 자동차를 민다 = push a car

II) Plain → Past (Written) First of all, take 다 off a verb, and then: 1. For verbs whose last character has no final consonant, attach ㅆ as a final consonant. E.g. 가다: 가 + ㅆ 다 = 갔다 = went 사다: 사 + ㅆ 다 = 샀다 = bought 서다: 서 + ㅆ 다 = 섰다 = stood 자다: 자 + ㅆ 다 = 잤다 = slept 자라다: 자라 + ㅆ 다 = 자랐다 = grew Exception:

하다 → 했다 = did (NOT 핬다) Note: The following rules override the rule 1. 2. For verbs whose last character has a final consonant, add 었 or 았 . For vowels, ㅏ and ㅗ , add 았 . For vowels, ㅓ , ㅜ , ㅡ and ㅣ , add 었 . E.g. 날다: 날 + 았다 = 날았다 = flew 살다: 살 + 았다 = 살았다 = lived 놀다: 놀 + 았다 = 놀았다 = played (had fun) 먹다: 먹 + 었다 = 먹었다 = ate 죽다: 죽 + 었다 = 죽었다 = died 들다: 들 + 었다 = 들었다 = lifted up 밀다: 밀 + 었다 = 밀었다 = pushed

3. For verbs whose last character has ㅣ as a vowel, and no final consonant, change ㅣ to ㅕ and attach ㅆ as the final consonant. E.g. 달리다: 달리 → 달렸 → 달렸다 = ran 빌리다: 빌리 → 빌렸 → 빌렸다 = borrowed 이기다: 이기 → 이겼 → 이겼다 = won 던지다: 던지 → 던졌 → 던졌다 = threw 다니다: 다니 → 다녔 → 다녔다 = attended

4. For verbs whose last character has ㅗ as a vowel and no consonant, change ㅗ to ㅘ and attach ㅆ as the final consonant. E.g. 오다 → 왔다 = came 보다 → 봤다 = saw/looked/watched

5. For verbs whose last character has ㅡ as a vowel, replace it with ㅓ and then attach ㅆ as the final consonant. E.g.

크다: 크 → 컸 → 컸다 = grew 쓰다: 쓰 → 썼 → 썼다 = wrote 트다: 트 → 텄 → 텄다 = sprouted

Irregular form E.g. 하다 → 했다 듣다 → 들었다

III) Plain → Present (Spoken) 1. For verbs whose last character has a vowel, ㅏ or ㅓ and no final consonant, just drop 다 off. E.g. 가다 → 가 = go 서다 → 서 = stand 사다 → 사 = buy 자라다 → 자라 = grow Exception: 하 changes to 해 . E.g. 하다 → 해 = do 원하다 → 원해 = want 구하다 → 구해 = save (a life)

2. For verbs whose last character has a vowel, ㅗ or ㅜ and no final consonant: ㅗ changes to ㅘ ㅜ changes to ㅝ E.g. 오다 → 와 = come 보다 → 봐 = see/watch/look 두다 → 둬 = place (something) on, leave (something as it is) 주다 → 줘 = give 빌려주다 → 빌려줘 = lend

3. For verbs whose last character is 르 , drop it off and then attach a final consonant, ㄹ , to the character preceding 르 , and then attach 라 or 러 to them. 라 for verbs whose character preceding 르 has a vowel, ㅏ or ㅗ . 러 for verbs whose character preceding 르 has a vowel, ㅓ , ㅜ or ㅣ . E.g. 가르다 → 갈라 = divide 자르다 → 잘라 = cut 오르다 → 올라 = climb 거르다 → 걸러 = filter, sift 서두르다 → 서둘러 = hurry 구르다 → 굴러 = roll 가로지르다 → 가로질러 = go cross (Also, for verbs which have a last consonant of ㅡ , replace it with ㅓ .) 쓰다 → 써 = write 끄다 → 꺼 = extinguish (a fire) 뜨다 → 떠 = float

4. For verbs whose last character has ㅣ as a vowel and no final consonant, change ㅣ to ㅕ . E.g. 지다 → 져 = lose 이기다 → 이겨 = win 던지다 → 던져 = throw

5. For verbs whose last character has a final consonant, attach: 아 for characters whose vowel isㅏ or ㅗ ㅏ 어 for characters whose vowel is ㅓ , ㅜ , ㅡ or ㅣ . E.g. 살다 → 살아 = live 팔다 → 팔아 = sell 앉다 → 앉아 = sit 놀다 → 놀아 = play (have fun) 먹다→ 먹어 = eat

물다 → 물어 = bite 늙다 → 늙어 = age 읽다 → 읽어 = read Irregular form
듣 다 → 들 어 = listen/hear

IV) Past (Written) → Past (Spoken) Simply change 다 to 어 . 갔다 → 갔어 = went 왔다 → 왔어 = came 달렸다 → 달렸어 = ran 먹었다 → 먹었어 = ate 마셨다 → 마셨어 = drank

Verbs - Polite [Present, Past]
Polite Form This lesson is about the polite form of verbs, in addition to the informal form which we learned in the previous lesson. Let's go over again the differences between the informal and polite forms. Informal - Generally speaking, the informal form is used among people of the same age or to people who are younger by older people. It is also used by people who are closely related such as such family members and relatives. People who are close friends would use this form depending on the familiarity and acceptability.

Polite - The polite form is used when speaking to people who are older than you or of a higher rank than you such as in the company, army and other institutions. However, people generally use the polite form in many social settings regardless of one's age. Initially, it would be best to stick to the polite form when learning Korean, as this would be the predominant form of speaking to people in many social environments. However, if you attend school or other similar institutions where you'd make friends and the environment is more casual, it might be more appropriate to use the informal form.

Note: The words in bold indicate which of the two negatives are more commonly used in each case, i.e. 먹지 않습니다 is more commonly used than 안 먹습니다 in the written form, and 안 먹어요 is more commonly used than 먹지 않아요 in the spoken form.

Polite Written Form Positive Negative

Present 먹습니다 먹지 않습니다 안 먹습니다

Past 먹었습니다 먹지 않았습니다 안 먹었습니다

Polite Spoken Form Positive Negative

Present 먹어요 먹지 않아요 안 먹어요

Past 먹었어요 먹지 않았어요 안 먹었어요

Conjugation Rules I) Informal Plain → Polite Present (Written)

First of all, take 다 off the plain form of verbs, and then: 1. For verbs whose final character has no final consonant, add ㅂ 니다 니다. E.g. 하다 → 합니다 = do 가다 → 갑니다 = go 오다 → 옵니다 = come 쓰다 → 씁니다 = write 말하다 → 말합니다 = speak 바라다 → 바랍니다 = hope 자라다 → 자랍니다 = grow

2. For verbs whose final character has a final consonant, add 습니다 습니다. E.g. 먹다 → 먹습니다 = eat 걷다 → 걷습니다 = walk 듣다 → 듣습니다 = listen 읽다 → 읽습니다 = read 입다 → 입습니다 = wear Note: The rule 3 overrides the rule 2.

3. For verbs whose last character has ㄹ as a final consonant, change it to ㅂ and add 니다 니다. E.g. 살다 → 삽니다 = live 놀다 → 놉니다 = play (have fun) 알다 → 압니다 = know 날다 → 납니다 = fly 걸다 → 겁니다 = hang (up) 말다 → 맙니다 = roll (up) 밀다 → 밉니다 = push

II) Informal Past → Polite Past (Written) Take 다 off the informal past form of verbs, and then add 습니다 습니다. 했다 → 했습니다 = did 갔다 → 갔습니다 = went 왔다 → 왔습니다 = came

봤다 → 봤습니다 = watched 먹었다 → 먹었습니다 = ate 달렸다 → 달렸습니다 = ran 만났다 → 만났습니다 = met

III) Informal → Polite (Spoken) Just add 요 to the informal spoken forms. 해 → 해요 = do 가 → 가요 = go 와 → 와요 = come 안해 → 안해요 = not do 안봐 → 안봐요 = not watch 안사 → 안사요 = not buy 안자 → 안자요 = not sleep 먹었어 → 먹었어요 = ate 걸었어 → 걸었어요 = walked 만났어 → 만났어요 = met 안했어 → 안했어요 = didn't do 안갔어 → 안갔어요 = didn't go 안먹었어 → 안먹었어요 = didn't eat 안빌렸어 → 안빌렸어요 = didn't borrow

A brief revision of the differences between the written and spoken forms The written form is used in literature such as books, newspapers and any form of writing that is not 'conversational.' The written form, in essence, is literary, factual and declarative. It is rarely used in normal everyday conversations. However, the news on TV uses this written form of Korean. It is also used in public speeches. The reason is probably due to the fact that the news and public announcements or speeches are usually all declarative and/or factual.

The spoken form is the usual way in which people speak and have a conversation. It is used in all types of spoken Korean such as normal conversations, dramas, and movies, with the possible exceptions of news, documentaries and other factual, formal types of programs on TV and radio.

Verbs - Future [Will]
We're going to learn how to form a future tense of verbs in this lesson. Please have a look at the table below.

Informal Written Form Spoken Form

will do 할 거다 할 거야

won't do 하지 않을 거다 안 할 거다 하지 않을 거야 안 할 거야

Note: The bold letters indicate which of the two alternatives in the negative form is more commonly used in each of the written and spoken forms, i.e.: 하지 않을 거다 is more commonly used than 안 할 거다 in written Korean. 안 할 거야 is more commonly used than 하지 않을 거야 in spoken Korean.

Conjugation rules First of all, take 다 off the plain form of verbs and then: I) Will 1. For verbs whose final character has no final consonant, attach ㄹ 거다 to them. E.g. 하다 → 할 거다 = will do 가다 → 갈 거다 = will go 오다 → 올 거다 = will come 만나다 → 만날거다 = will meet 자라다 → 자랄거다 = will grow

2. For verbs whose final character has a final consonant, attach 을 거다 to them. E.g. 먹다 → 먹을 거다 = will eat 앉다 → 앉을 거다 = will sit 읽다 → 읽을 거다 = will read 입다 → 입을 거다 = will wear 잡다 → 잡을 거다 = will catch Note: The rule 3 overrides the rule 2. 3. For verbs whose final character has ㄹ as a final consonant, just attach 거다 to them. E.g.

밀다 → 밀거다 = will push 날다 → 날거다 = will fly 살다 → 살거다 = will live Irregular form 듣다 → 들을 거다 = will listen

II) Won't Simply attach 지 않을 거다 to verbs. E.g. 하다 → 하지 않을 거다 = won't do 가다 → 가지 않을 거다 = won't go 오다 → 오지 않을 거다 = won't come 사다 → 사지 않을 거다 = won't buy 먹다 → 먹지 않을 거다 = won't eat 입다 → 입지 않을 거다 = won't wear 앉다 → 앉지 않을 거다 = won't sit 밀다 → 밀지 않을 거다 = won't push

Example sentences 집에 갈 거야? = Will you go home? 사라는 수영 할 거야 = Sarah will swim 다윗은 골리앗 이길 거야 = David will beat Goliath 난 방에서 기타 칠 거야 = I will play the guitar in my room 존은 박물관에 들어갈 거야 = John will enter the museum 집 = home 존 = John 들어가다 = enter 기타 = guitar 치다 = play (the instrument) 사라 = Sarah 수영 = swim 다윗 = David 골리앗 = Goliath Question Form Raise the tone of your voice at the last syllable to turn it into a question form.

축구 할 거야? = Will you do(play) soccer? 벌써 갈 거야? = Will you go(leave) already? 씻을 거야? = Will you wash? (Will you take a shower?/Will you take a bath?) 올림픽 볼 거야? = Will you watch the Olympics? 학교 안 갈 거야? = Won't you go to school? 점심 안 먹을 거야? = Won't you have lunch? 이 책 안 읽을 거야? = Won't you read this book?

Polite Form Let's briefly go over the differences between the informal and polite forms again. While the informal form in the examples above is used by people who are of the same age and/or close, or when older people are talking to younger people in informal situations, the polite form is commonly used by younger people addressing older people, and in any formal situations.

Polite Written Form

Will do 할 겁니다

Won't do 하지 않을 겁니 다 안 할 겁니다 Won't do 하지 않을 거예요 안 할 거예요

Polite Spoken Form

Will do 할 거예요

Note: The bold letters indicate which of the two alternatives in the negative form is more commonly used in each of the written and spoken forms, i.e.: 하지 않을 겁니다 is more commonly used than 안 할 겁니다 in written Korean. 안 할 거예요 is more commonly used than 하지 않을 거예요 in spoken Korean.

Conjugations rules I) Informal → Polite (Written) Simply change 거다 to 겁니다 겁니다. E.g.

할 거다 → 할 겁니다 = will do 갈 거다 → 갈 겁니다 = will go 먹을 거다 → 먹을 겁니다 = will eat 마시지 않을 거다 → 마시지 않을 겁니다 = won't drink 달리지 않을 거다 → 달리지 않을 겁니다 = won't run

II) Informal → Polite (Spoken) Simply change 야 to 예요 예요. E.g. 할 거야 → 할 거예요 = will do 올 거야 → 올 거예요 = will come 들어갈 거야 → 들어갈 거예요 = will enter (go in) 안 볼 거야 → 안 볼 거예요 = won't see/watch 안 달릴 거야 → 안 달릴 거예요 = won't run

Example sentences 집에 갈 거예요? = Will you go home? 사라는 수영 할 거예요. = Sarah will swim. 다윗은 골리앗 이길 거예요. = David will beat Goliath. 존은 박물관에 들어갈 거예요. = John will enter the museum. 저는 거실에서 기타 칠 거예요. = I will play the guitar in the living room.

씻을 거예요? = Will you wash? (Will you take a shower?/Will you take a bath?) 벌써 갈 거예요? = Will you go(leave) already? 축구 할 거예요? = Will you do(play) soccer? 월드컵 볼 거예요? = Will you watch the World Cup?

학교 안 갈 거예요? = Won't you go to school? 점심 안 먹을 거예요? = Won't you have lunch? 이 책 안 읽을 거예요? = Won't you read this book?

Verbs - Contiunous
Continuous Form [~고 있다 고 있다] In this lesson, we'll learn about the 'continuous' form. It would be similar to the '-ing' form in English.

Informal Written Form Positive Negative

Plain Form 하다 하지 않다 안 하다

Present Continuous 하고 있다 하지 않고 있다 안 하고 있다

하다 = do 않다/안 하다 = not do 하지 않다 하고 있다 = is doing 있다/안 하고 있다 = is not doing 하지 않고 있다 Note: The bold letters indicate which of the two alternatives in the negative form is more commonly used in the written form, i.e.: 하지 않다 is more commonly used than 안 하다 in written Korean.

Informal Written Form Positive Negative

Past 했다 하지 않았다 안 했다

Past Continuous 하고 있었다 하지 않고 있었다 안 하고 있었다

했다 = did 하지 않았다/안 했다 = didn't do 않았다 하고 있었다 = was doing 하지 않고 있었다/안 하고 있었다 = wasn't doing 있었다

Conjugation Rules Take 다 off the plain form of verbs, and then add 고 있 (었)다 for their positive form and 지 않고 있 (었) 었다 었 다 for their negative form. E.g.

쓰다 → 쓰고 있다 = is writing 피터는 편지를 쓰고 있다 = Peter is writing a letter.

나눠주다 → 나눠 주고 있다 = is serving/distributing 보영은 아이들에게 학교급식을 나눠주고 있다 = Bo-young is serving school meals to children.

듣다 → 듣고 있었다 = was listening 폴은 팀 켈러의 메세지를 듣고 있었다 = Paul was listening to a Tim Keller's message.

자다 → 자지 않고 있었다 = was not sleeping 아기는 자지 않고 있었다 = The baby was not sleeping

서다 → 서고 있었다 = was standing 영근 근위병은 버킹엄 궁전앞에서 계속 서고 있었다 = The English guardsman was standing continuously in front of the Buckingham Palace.

Spoken Form Informal Spoken Form Positive Negative Present Continuous 하고 있어 하지 않고 있어 안 하고 있어 Past Continuous 하고 있었어 하지 않고 있었어 안 하고 있었어

하고 있어 = is doing 하지 않고 있어/안 하고 있어 = is not doing 안 하고 있었어 = was doing 하지 않고 있었어/안 하고 있었어 = was not doing 안

The conjugation rule is the same as the written form except 다 at the end of sentences changes to 어 . 점심 먹고 있어 = I am eating lunch 줄리아는 안 달리고 있어 = Julia is not running

현우는 산을 올라가고 있어 = Hyun-woo is climbing a mountain. 민주는 과일 샐러드와 연어 조림을 만들고 있어 = Min-ju is making a fruit salad and fried salmon.

아까부터 고슴도치가 안 움직이고 있었어 = Since a while ago, the hedgehog was not moving.

Polite Form While the informal form in the examples above is used by people who are of the same age and/or close, or when older people are talking to younger people in informal situations, the polite form is commonly used by younger people addressing older people, and in any formal situations. Polite Written Form Present Continuous Positive Negative 하고 있습니다 하지 않고 있습니 다 안 하고 있습니다 Past Continuous 하고 있었습니다 하지 않고 있었습 니다 안 하고 있었습니다

하고 있습니다 = is doing 있습니다/안 하고 있습니다 = is not doing 하지 않고 있습니다 하고 있었습니다 = was doing 있었습니다/안 하고 있었습니다 = was not doing 하지 않고 있었습니다

Polite Spoken Form Present Continuous Positive Negative 하고 있어요 하지 않고 있어요 안 하고 있어요

Past Continuous 하고 있었어요 하지 않고 있었어요 안 하고 있었어요

하고 있어요 = is doing 하지 않고 있어요/안 하고 있어요 = is not doing 안 하고 있었어요 = was doing 하지 않고 있었어요/안 하고 있었어요 = was not doing 안

Conjugation rules I) Informal → Polite (Written) Simply 다 at the end of the informal written 'continuous' forms changes to 습니다 하고 있다 → 하고 있습니다 = is doing 가고 있다 → 가고 있습니다 = is going 오고 있다 → 오고 있습니다 = is coming 걷고 있다 → 걷고 있습니다 = is walking

만들고 있다 → 만들고 있습니다 = is making

II) Informal → Polite (Spoken) Simply add 요 at the end of the sentences of the informal 'continuous' spoken form. 지혜는 학교 가고 있어요 = Ji-hye is going to school 영수는 수영 하고 있어요 = Young-su is swimming

철민이는 영화 보고 있었어요 = Chul-min is watching a movie. 정수는 조금 전까지 거실에 있었어요 = Jung-su was in the living room until a short while ago.

10분전쯤까지 버킹엄 궁전 앞에 아무도 안 서고 있었어요 = Until about 10 minutes ago, there was no one standing in front of the Buckingham Palace.

Verbs - Connective
Connective Form [하고 하고] 하고 This lesson is about the connective form which is primarily used in two ways: 1. To list verbs. 2. To link one sentence to the next. We'll have a look at these functions of the connective form in detail below.

Table of Common Verbs and Their Connective Forms Written Form Do Go Come Eat Drink Walk Run Stand Sit Get up Sleep Buy Sell Grow Throw Borrow Lend Play Write Read Plain 하다 가다 오다 먹다 마시다 걷다 달리다 서다 앉다 일어나다 자다 사다 팔다 자라다 던지다 빌리다 빌려주다 놀다 쓰다 읽다 Connective 하고 가고 오고 먹고 마시고 걷고 달리고 서고 앉고 일어나고 자고 사고 팔고 자라고 던지고 빌리고 빌려주고 놀고 쓰고 읽고

Listen Live Die

듣다 살다 죽다

듣고 살고 죽고

Conjugation rule Take 다 off the plain form of verbs, and then attach 고 to them. 하다 → 하고 가다 → 가고 The connective form of verbs is used: 1. To list verbs. 2. To link one sentence to the next. 1. To list verbs. For example, if I wanted to say "I get up, eat and go.", the verb stems are changed to their connective forms except the last verb which determines the tense of a sentence. 일어나다 → 일어나고 먹다 → 먹고 걷다 → 걷고 일어나고 먹고 가다 = get up, eat and go 일어나고 먹고 갔다 = got up, ate and went 일어나고 먹고 갈 거다 = will get up, eat and go In each instance, the last verb determines the tense of a sentence.

2. To link one sentence to the next. The example below shows how three sentences can be linked together using the connective form of verbs. 유리는 학교에 가요. (Yuri goes to school) 진수는 밖에서 놀아요. (Jinsu plays outside) 미나는 책 읽어요. (Mina reads a book) 유리는 학교에 가고, 진수는 밖에서 놀고, 미나는 책 읽어요. = Yuri goes to school, Jinsu plays outside and Mina reads.

However, the verbs in each sentence can be conjugated into different tenses. 유리는 학교에 갔어요. = Yuri went to school 진수는 밖에서 놀거에요. = Jinsu will play outside 미나는 책 읽어요. = Mina reads (or Mina is reading) 유리는 학교에 갔고, 진수는 밖에서 놀거고, 미나는 책 읽어요. = Yuri went to school, Jinsu will play outside and Mina is reading.

Example sentences E.g. I heard and spoke = 듣고 말했다 I studied, revised and taught = 공부하고, 복습하고, 가르쳤다. I washed and ate dinner. = 나는 씻고 저녁을 먹었다.

이 상점에서는 과일과 채소를 사고 팔아요. = This shop sells and buys fruit and vegetables. 친구를 만나고, 같이 놀고, 점심을 먹었어요. = I met my friend, had fun and ate lunch together.

비가 오고 눈이 오고 바람이 불고 번개가 쳐요 = It's raining and snowing, the wind is blowing and the lightning strikes. 다니엘은 TV를 보고, 수잔은 아침을 만들고 있고, 삼손은 아직 자고 있어요. = Daniel is watching TV, Suzanne is making breakfast and Samson is still in bed.

Verbs - Can
Can do [할 수 있다 있다] 할 In this lesson, we'll learn about how to conjugate verbs to form 'can' and 'cannot'.

Informal Written Spoken Informal Written Spoken

Can do 할 수 있다 할 수 있어 Can't do 할 수 없다 못 한다 할 수 없어 못 해

Could do 할 수 있었다 할 수 있었어 Couldn't do 할 수 없었다 못 했다 할 수 없었어 못 했어

Note: 할 수 없다 and 할 수 없었다 is more commnly used than 못 한다 and 못 했다 in written Korean. Similarly, 못 해 and 못 했어 is more commonly used than 할 수 없어 and 할 수 없었어 in spoken Korean.

Conjugation rules First of all, take 다 off the plain form of verbs. 1. For verbs whose last character has no final consonant, attach ㄹ 수 있다 to them, and for verbs whose last character has ㄹ as a final consonant, attach 수 있다 to them. E.g. 하다 → 할 수 있다 = can do 가다 → 갈 수 있다 = can go 보다 → 볼 수 있다 = can see 자다 → 잘 수 있다 = can sleep 마시다 → 마실 수 있다 = can drink 달리다 → 달릴 수 있다 = can run 놀다 → 놀 수 있다 = can play 살다 → 살 수 있다 = can live 날다 → 날 수 있다 = can fly

2. For verbs whose last character has a final consonant, attach 을 수 있다 to them. E.g. 먹다 → 먹을 수 있다 = can eat 입다 → 입을 수 있다 = can wear 앉다 → 앉을 수 있다 = can sit 잡다 → 잡을 수 있다 = can catch

Irregular forms 듣다 → 들을 수 있다 (can hear) 걷다 → 걸을 수 있다 (can walk)

Add 못 in front of the spoken form of positive verbs to express 'can't do' and 'couldn't do.' E.g. 해 → 못 해 = can't do 와 → 못 와 = can't come 봐 → 못 봐 = can't see 가 → 못 가 = can't go 들어 → 못 들어 = can't hear 먹어 → 못 먹어 = can't eat 갔어 → 못 갔어 = couldn't go 들었어 → 못 들었어 = couldn't hear 먹었어 → 못 먹었어 = couldn't eat Example Sentences 치타는 빨리 달릴 수 있다 = A cheetah can run fast. 종달새는 하늘을 날 수 있다 = A lark can fly in the sky. 솔로몬은 어려운 수수께끼를 풀 수 있다 = Solomon can solve a difficult riddle. 애완동물은 박물관에 들어갈 수 없다. = A pet cannot enter the museum.

기타 칠 수 있어 = I can play the guitar. 존은 해물은 못 먹어 = John can't eat seafood. 사라는 아파서 학교에 못 갔어 = Because Sarah was sick, she couldn't go to school.

치타 = cheetah 빨리 = fast, quickly 종달새 = lark 날다 = fly 솔로몬 = Solomon 어려운 = difficult 수수께끼 = riddle 풀다 = solve 애완동물 = a pet 박물관 = museum 들어가다 = enter 기타 = guitar 치다 = play (the instrument) 존 = John 해물 = seafood 사라 = Sarah 아프다 = sick

Polite Form While the informal form in the examples above is used by people who are of the same age and/or close, or when older people are talking to younger people in informal situations, the polite form is commonly used by younger people addressing older people, and in any formal situations.

Formal Written Spoken Formal Written Spoken

Can do 할 수 있습니다 할 수 있어요 Can't do 할 수 없습니다 못 합니다 할 수 없어요 못 해요

Could do 할 수 있었습니다 할 수 있었어요 Couldn't do 할 수 없었습니다 못 했습니다 할 수 없었어요 못 했어요

Note: The ones in bold characters are more commonly used alternative of the two in each box.

Conjugation rules 1. Informal → Polite (Written) Replace 다 with 습니다 습니다. 할 수 있다 → 할 수 있습니다 = can do 갈 수 있다 → 갈 수 있습니다 = can go

말할 수 있다 → 말할 수 있습니다 = can speak 올 수 있었다 → 올 수 있었습니다 = could come 일어설 수 있었다 → 일어설 수 있었습니다 = could stand

2. Informal → Polite (Spoken) Attach 요 at the end of sentences. 할 수 있어 → 할 수 있어요 = can do 갈 수 있어 → 갈 수 있어요 = can go 줄 수 있어 → 줄 수 있어요 = can give 받을 수 있었어 → 받을 수 있었어요 = could receive 올라갈 수 있었어 → 올라갈 수 있었어요 = could go up

Example Sentences 치타는 빨리 달릴 수 있습니다 = A cheetah can run fast. 종달새는 하늘을 날 수 있습니다 = A lark can fly in the sky. 솔로몬은 어려운 수수께끼를 풀 수 있습니다 = Solomon can solve a difficult riddle. 애완동물은 박물관에 들어갈 수 없습니다. = A pet cannot enter the museum.

기타 칠 수 있어요 = I can play the guitar. 존은 해물은 못 먹어요 = John can't eat seafood. 사라는 아파서 학교에 못 갔어요 = Because Sarah was sick, she couldn't go to school.

Verbs - Have
Have (있다 / Don't have (없다 있다) 없다) 있다 없다 This lesson covers how the verb, 'have', is used. It can be expressed in two ways: 있다 = there is/are (Lit. is present) 가지고 있다 = have, possess 없다 = there isn't/aren't (Lit. is not present) 가지고 있지 않다 = do not have/possess

Informal Written Form

Have 있다 가지고 있다

Don't have 없다 가지고 있지 않 다 안 가지고 있다 Don't have 없어 가지고 있지 않아 안 가지고 있어

Informal Spoken Form

Have 있어 가지고 있어

Note: The words in bold letters are the more commonly used of the two alternatives in each of the Written and Spoken forms. Have (있다 있다) 있다 있다 means 'there is/are', for example: 정원에 강아지가 있다 = There is a puppy in the garden. 책상 위에 개미가 있다 = There's an ant on the desk. However, 있다 can also mean 'have'. It is used more frequently than the alternative, '가지고 있다 which 가지고 있다', is more cumbersome to pronounce. Written form → 있다, 가지고 있다 Spoken form → 있어, 가지고 있어

Example Sentences Written Form 책이 있다. = I have a book. (Lit. There is a book) 시계가 있다. = I have a watch. 핸드폰이 있다. = I have a mobile phone. 책을 가지고 있다. = I have a book. 핸드폰을 가지고 있다. = I have a mobile phone. Spoken Form 책(이) 있어. 핸드폰(이) 있어. 시계(가) 있어. 책(을) 가지고 있어. 핸드폰(을) 가지고 있어.

Note: 1. Use 이 /가 with "있다 and 을 /를 with "가지고 있다 있다" 가 있다 를 가지고 있다". 2. The particles are usually omitted in spoken Korean. When you say, 'I have a brother or sister', 가지고 있다 CANNOT be used because it implies ownership. Only 있다 can be used in relation to people. For example, Written Form 남동생이 있다. = I have a younger brother. 여동생이 있다. = I have a younger sister. Spoken Form 형(이) 있어. = I have an older brother. 누나(가) 있어. = I have an older sister. 남동생(이) 있어. = I have a younger brother. 여동생(이) 있어. = I have a younger sister.

Don't have (없다 없다) 없다 없다 literally means 'there isn't/aren't'. However, it can also mean 'don't have' For example,

Written Form 없다 = don't have (Lit. there isn't/aren't) 않다/안 가지고 있다 = don't have (Lit. don't own/possess) 가지고 있지 않다

Spoken Form 없어 = don't have (Lit. there isn't/aren't) 가지고 있지 않아/안 가지고 있어 = don't have (Lit. don't own/possess) 안 Note: For the negatives, the words in bold letters are the more commonly used of the two alternatives in each of the Written and Spoken forms.

Example Sentences Written Form 책이 없다. = I don't have a book. 시계가 없다. = I don't have a watch. 핸드폰이 없다. = I don't have a mobile phone. 책을 가지고 있지 않다. = I don't have/own a book. 핸드폰을 가지고 있지 않다. = I don't have/own a mobile phone. Spoken Form 책(이) 없어. 시계(가) 없어. 핸드폰(이) 없어. 책(을) 안 가지고 있어. 핸드폰(을) 안 가지고 있어.

Question Form In spoken Korean, in order to change a sentence into a question, you simply need to raise your tone at the last letter. To see how it's done, it'd be probably best to watch a native Korean do it for you. However, as I figure most of you would not have that kind of luxury, having a native speaker do it for you whenever you want, I encourage you to listen to the Korean audios or recordings online or watch Korean dramas or movies and familiarize yourself with the intonation of questions. For excellent free audio and video resources, please try 'Talk To Me In Korean' (http://www.talktomeinkorean.com/).

형(이) 있어? = Do you have an older brother? 누나(가) 있어? = Do you have an older sister? 남동생(이) 있어? = Do you have a younger brother? 여동생(이) 있어? = Do you have a younger sister?

책(이) 없어? = Don't you have a book? 시계(가) 없어? = Don't you have a watch? 핸드폰(이) 없어? = Don't you have a mobile phone?

Polite Form While the informal form in the examples above is used by people who are of the same age and/or close, or when older people are talking to younger people in informal situations, the polite form is commonly used by younger people addressing older people, and in any formal situations. Polite Written Form Have 있습니다 가지고 있습니다 Don't have 없습니다 가지고 있지 않습니 다 안 가지고 있습니다 Don't have 없어요 가지고 있지 않아요 안 가지고 있어요

Polite Spoken Form

Have 있어요 가지고 있어요

I) Informal → Polite (Spoken) Just add 요 at the end of a sentence. 형 있어요? = Do you have an older brother? 누나 있어요? = Do you have an older sister? 남동생 있어요? = Do you have a younger brother? 여동생 있어요? = Do you have a younger sister?

책 없어요? = Don't you have a book? 시계 없어요? = Don't you have a watch?

핸드폰 없어요? = Don't you have a mobile phone?

II) Informal → Polite (Written) Replace 다 with 습니다 습니다. 책이 있습니다. = I have a book. 시계가 있습니다. = I have a watch. 핸드폰이 있습니다. = I have a mobile phone.

책을 가지고 있지 않다. = I don't have/own a book. 핸드폰을 가지고 있지 않다. = I don't have/own a mobile phone.

Verbs - Want
Verbs - Want [~고 싶다 고 싶다] Informal Written Form Positive Negative Present 하고 싶다 Past 하고 싶었다

하고 싶지 않다 하고 싶지 않았 하기 싫다 다 하기 싫었다 Present 하고 싶어 하고 싶지 않아 하기 싫어 Past 하고 싶었어 하고 싶지 않았 어 하기 싫었어

Informal Spoken Form Positive Negative

Note: 하고 싶지 않다 and 하기 싫다 both mean "I don't want to do." However, In written Korean, 하고 싶 지 않다 is more commonly used whereas in spoken Korean, 하기 싫어 is more commonly used. 하기 싫어 literally means "I hate to do." The bold letters indicate which one is more commonly used. Rule Take 다 off a plain form of verbs and attach 고 싶다 고 싶었다 기 싫다 기 싫었다 고 싶어 고 싶었어 싶다/고 싶었다/기 싫다/기 싫었다/고 싶어/고 etc. Examples (Written Form) 하다 → 하고 싶다 = I want to do. 먹다 → 먹고 싶다 = I want to eat. 날다 → 날고 싶었다 = I wanted to fly. 놀다 → 놀고 싶지 않았다 = I did't want to play. 마시다 → 마시고 싶지 않았다 = I didn't want to drink. 바나나가 먹고 싶지 않았다 = I didn't want to eat a banana. 하늘에서 날고 싶지 않았다 = I didn't want to fly in the sky. Examples (Spoken Form) 하다 → 하고 싶어 = I want to do. 먹다 → 먹고 싶어 = I want to eat. 날다 → 날고 싶었어 = I wanted to fly. 놀다 → 놀기 싫어 = I don't want to play.

마시다 → 마시기 싫었어 = I didn't want to drink. 바나나 먹기 싫어 = I don't want to eat a banana. 하늘 날기 싫었어 = I didn't want to fly in the sky. Questions (Spoken Form) 자고 싶어? = Do you want to sleep? 어. 자고 싶어. = Yes, I want to sleep. 뭐 먹고 싶어? = What do you want to eat? 라면 먹고 싶어. = I want to eat noodles. 어디 가고 싶어? = Where do you want to go? 공원에 가고 싶어. = I want to go to a park. Formal Form Formal Written Form Positive Negative Present Past

하고 싶습니다 하고 싶지 않습니 다 하기 싫습니다

하고 싶었습니다 하고 싶지 않았습니다 하기 싫었습니다

Formal Spoken Form Positive Negative

Present 하고 싶어요 하고 싶지 않아요 하기 싫어요

Past 하고 싶었어요 하고 싶지 않았어요 하기 싫었어요

Note: The informal spoken form is used between close friends or when older people are talking to younger people in informal situations. The formal form is used commonly between adults, by people in formal situations or when younger people are speaking to older people. Rules For the formal written form, the suffix , 다 , is replaced by 습니다 습니다. For the formal spoken form, attach 요 at the end of a sentence. Examples (Written Form) 하다 → 하고 싶습니다 = I want to do. 먹다 → 먹고 싶습니다 = I want to eat. 날다 → 날고 싶었습니다 = I wanted to fly. 놀다 → 놀고 싶지 않았습니다 = I did't want to play. 마시다 → 마시고 싶지 않았습니다 = I didn't want to drink.

Examples (Spoken form) 하다 → 하고 싶어요 = I want to do. 먹다 → 먹고 싶어요 = I want to eat. 날다 → 날고 싶었어요 = I wanted to fly. 놀다 → 놀기 싫었어요 = I did't want to play. 마시다 → 마시기 싫었어요 = I didn't want to drink. More examples 자고 싶어요? = Do you want to sleep? 네. 자고 싶어요. = Yes, I want to sleep. 뭐 먹고 싶어요? = What do you want to eat? 라면 먹고 싶어요. = I want to eat noodles. 어디 가고 싶어요? = Where do you want to go? 공원에 가고 싶어요. = I want to go to a park. In addition: When talking about a third person, '고 싶어 한다' is used instead of 고 싶다, and '고 싶어해' instead of 고 싶어. Examples 가다 → 가고 싶어 한다 루크는 극장에 가고 싶어 한다 = Luke wants to go to the theatre. 선미는 사과주스 마시고 싶어해 = Sunmi wants to drink an apple juice.

Verbs - Descriptive Form I
Verbs - Descriptive Form I The descriptive form I of verbs takes the meaning of "~ing." (ie. Continuous), or is used as a present tense clause involving "which, that, who etc.".

Written Form Positive Negative

Plain 달리다 달리지 않다

Descriptive I 달리는 달리지 않는

The Table of Common Verbs and Their Descriptive Forms I Written Form Plain Descriptive I Run Eat Go Stand Come Sit Buy Sell Grow Throw Borrow Lend Play Write Read Listen to Live Die 달리다 먹다 가다 서다 오다 앉다 사다 팔다 자라다 던지다 빌리다 빌려주다 놀다 쓰다 읽다 듣다 살다 죽다 달리는 먹는 가는 서는 오는 앉는 사는 파는 자라는 던지는 빌리는 빌려주는 노는 쓰는 읽는 듣는 사는 죽는

These descriptive forms I are used in front of nouns to describe them, and form a present tense clause

involving "who, which, that" of English. For example, the descriptive form I of 가다 is 가는 and 가는 기차 means a "train which goes". Literally, 가는 means "going" therefore 가는 기차 = a going train. ● Rules First, take 다 off a verb and then, 1. add 는 Eg. 먹다 → 먹는 = eating 사과 먹는 난쟁이 → a dwarf who eats an apple (= Lit. an apple-eating dwarf) 잠자다 → 잠자는 = sleeping 잠자는 공주 → a princess who sleeps (= Lit. A sleeping princess) 죽다 → 죽는 = dying 죽는 병사 → a soldier who is dying (= Lit. a dying soldier) 믿다 → 믿지 않는 = not believing/unbelieving 믿지 않는 토마스 → Thomas who does not believe (= Lit. unbelieving Thomas) 2. Take ㄹ off a verb with a final consonant, ㄹ and add 는 . Eg. 팔다 → 파는 = selling 골동품 파는 가게 → A shop which sells antiques (= Lit. An antique-selling shop) 살다 → 사는 사는 곳 → A place where I'm living (= Lit. A living place) More examples 사막에서 자라는 선인장 = A cactus which grows in the desert (= Lit. A desert-growing cactus) 내가 읽는 책은 다 유익하다. = All the books that I read are informative.

Verbs - Descriptive Form II
Verbs - Descriptive Form II The descriptive form II of verbs takes the meaning of "~ed." (ie. past tense) or is used as a past tense clause involving "who, which, that etc.".

Written Form Positive Negative

Plain 달리다 달리지 않다

Descriptive II 달린 달리지 않은

The Table of Common Verbs and Their Descriptive Forms II Written Form Run Eat Go Stand Come Sit Buy Sell Grow Throw Borrow Lend Play Write Read Listen to Live Die Plain 달리다 먹다 가다 서다 오다 앉다 사다 팔다 자라다 던지다 빌리다 빌려주다 놀다 쓰다 읽다 듣다 살다 죽다 Descriptive II 달린 먹은 간 선 온 앉은 산 판 자란 던진 빌린 빌려준 논 쓴 읽은 들은 산 죽은

Verbs can be used in front of nouns to describe them, and form a past tense clause involving "who, which, that" of English. For example, the descriptive form II of 떠나다 is 떠난 and 떠난 기차 means a "train which left". Literally, 떠난 means "left" therefore 떠난 기차 = a left train ● Rules First, take 다 off a verb and then, 1. For verbs with a final consonant, add 은 Eg. 먹다 → 먹은 = ate 사과 먹은 난쟁이 → a dwarf who ate an apple 죽다 → 죽은 = died/dead 죽은 병사 → a dead soldier (= a soldier who died) 믿다 → 믿지 않은 = disbelieved 믿지 않은 토마스 → Thomas who disbelieved 읽다 → 읽은 = read (past tense) 읽은 기사 → an article that I read 2. For verbs without a final consonant and verbs with ㄹ as a final consonant, replace it with ㄴ as a final consonant. Eg. 빌리다 → 빌린 = borrowed 빌린 책 → a book which I borrowed (Lit. a borrowed book) 쓰다 →쓴 = wrote 성루까가 쓴 복음 = the gospel which St. Luke wrote 멈추다 → 멈춘 = stopped 버스가 멈춘 곳 = a place where the bus stopped Sentences: Negatives 기다리다 → 기다리지 않은 = didn't wait 주님을 기다리지 않은 하인 → a servant who didn't wait for the Lord 먹다 → 먹지않은 = didn't eat 음식을 먹지 않은 개 = a dog who didn't eat food 포기하다 → 포기하지 않은 = didn't give up 끝까지 포기하지 않은 욥 = Job who didn't give up till the end

Verbs - Spoken Form

The Spoken Form of Verbs The following dialogue between two close friends involve the informal spoken forms of verbs. 잘 = well 쇼핑 = shopping 어 = yes 오전 = am 오후 = pm 먼저 갈게 = I'll go first This dialogue should be easy to comprehend. 대화 시작 = The conversation starts 상우: 지우야, 뭐 해? 지우: 밥 먹어. 상우: 어디 가? 지우: 어. 학교 가. 상우: 언제 가? 지우: 9시에. 상우: 왜? 지우: 학교에서 공부해. 상우: 재밌어? 지우: 어. 재밌어. 상우: 어떻게 공부해? 지우: 선생님이 가르쳐 주셔. 상우: 아~ 그래? 지우: 어. 너는 뭐 해? 상우: 나는 쇼핑 가. 지우: 언제? 상우: 오후 3시에. 지우: 밥은 먹었어? 상우: 어. 먹었어. 나 먼저 갈게. 잘 있어~ 지우: 잘 가~ Sang-u: Ji-u, what are you doing? Ji-u: I'm eating. Sang-u: Where are you going? Ji-u: I'm going to school. Sang-u: When are you going? Ji-u: At 9 o'clock. Sang-u: Why? [are you going to school?] Ji-u: I study at school. Sang-u: Is it fun? Ji-u: Yes, it's fun. Sang-u: How do you study? Ji-u: My teacher teaches me. Sang-u: Ahh... really? Ji-u: Yeap. How about you? Sang-u: I'll go shopping

Ji-u: When? Sang-u: At 3 o'clock pm. Ji-u: Did you have a meal? Sang-u: Yes. I have. I'll go first then. Bye~ Ji-u: Bye~ This is a conversation between Sang-u and Ji-u. This is a type of conversation that is common between close friends, yet it is extremely simple to understand even for beginners of Korean. So pay attention to how these "spoken forms" are used. ● A list of written forms and their respective spoken forms. Written Form - Spoken Form [For detailed explanation, refer to (Verbs - Present, Past)] go = 가다 - 가 come = 오다 - 와 do = 하다 - 해 eat = 먹다 - 먹어 give = 주다 - 줘 receive = 받다 - 받아 play = 놀다 - 놀아 sleep = 자다 - 자 run = 달리다 - 달려 teach = 가르치다 - 가르쳐 learn = 배우다 - 배워 These spoken forms are informal so you should only use them with very close friends.

Adverbs - 부사
Adverbs - 부사 Adjective Positive Negative Present 크다 크지 않다 Adverb 크게 크지 않게 안크게

Note: 크지 않게 is more commonly used in written Korean while 안크게 is more common in spoken Korean. Rules 1. Take 다 off an adjective of the present tense and attach 게 /지 않게 to it. 지 2. Attach 안 to a positive form of adverbs to turn it into its negative form.

Written High Low Big Small (size) Spacious Delicious Many Small (quantity) Kind Fast Slow Handsome

Present 높다 낮다 크다 작다 넓다 맛있다 많다 적다 착하다 빠르다 느리다 멋있다

Adverb 높게, 높이 낮게 크게 작게 넓게 맛있게 많게, 많이 적게 착하게 빠르게, 빨리 느리게 멋있게

Note: Adverbs come just before verbs to describe actions. 많다, 빠르다 and 높다 each have two adverbial forms. 많이, 빨리 and 높이 are more commonly used than 많게, 빠르게 and 높게. Example sentences

나는 스테이크를 맛있게 먹었다 = I ate my steak deliciously. 거북이는 느리게 걷는다 = A tortoise walks slowly 밥을 많이 먹었다 = I ate a big meal. (Lit. I ate a meal a lot.) 집에 빨리 가자! = Let's go home quickly! 철수는 결승점까지 빨리 달렸다. = Cheol-su ran fast to the finish line. 성우는 케이크를 크게 만들었다 = Seong-u made a large cake. (Lit. Seong-u made his cake big.) 높이 나는 새가 멀리 본다 = The higher a bird flies, the farther it sees. (Lit. A bird which flies high sees afar.)

Particles - 께 /에게 한테 에게/한테 에게
Particles - 께 /에게 한테 [Dative Particle] 에게/한테 에게 The dative particle, 에게/한테, is mainly used for someone/something to whom you are giving something. 께 is a honorific form, 에게 is a formal form and 한테 is an informal form. Eg. 1 아버지께 선물을 드렸다 = To my father, I gave a present. 아버지 = Father 선물 = present 드리다 = give (honorific form) 드렸다 = gave (honorific form) Eg.2 아빠에게 선물을 드렸다 = To my dad, I gave a present. 아빠 = Dad 선물 = present 드리다 = give (honorific form) 드렸다 = gave (honorific form) Eg.3 누나한테 물을 주었다. = To older sister, I gave water 누나 = older sister 물 = water 주다 = give 주었다 = gave (으)로부터/에게서/한테서 is used when you are receiving something from someone. Again, (으)로부터 is an honorific form, 에게서 is formal and 한테서 is informal. Eg.1 대통령으로부터 상을 받았다 = From the president, I received a prize.

Eg.2 엄마에게서 편지를 받았다 = From mum, I received a letter 엄마 = mum 편지 = letter 받다 = receive 받았다 = received Eg. 2

형한테서 소식을 들었다 = From older brother, I heard news 형 = older brother 소식 = news 듣다 = hear 들었다 = heard

Particles - 으로 로 으로/로
Particles - 으로 로 으로/로 Use 으로 for words that have a final consonant and 로 for words that don't. (Exception: Use 로 for words that have ㄹ as a final consonant.) e.g. 트럭으로 = by truck 컴퓨터로 = by/with a computer 연필로 = by/with pencil I. 으로/로 is used for tools/methods/transport with which you do something. 으로 로 Eg.1 가위로 종이를 잘랐다 = With scissors, I cut a paper. 연필로 그림을 그렸다 = With a pencil, I drew a picture. 활로 사냥을 했다 = With a bow, I did hunting. 가위 = scissors 종이 = paper 자르다 = cut 잘랐다 = cut (past) 연필 = pencil 그림 = picture 그리다 = draw 그렸다 = drew 활 = bow 사냥 = hunting 하다 = do 했다 = did 사냥을 하다 = do hunting Eg. 2 다윗은 좋은 머리로 골리앗을 이겼다 = With his good brain, David beat Goliath. 나는 상상으로 천국을 보았다 = By my imagination, I saw the heaven. 갈매기는 큰 부리로 물고기를 잡았다 = With its large beak, the gull caught a fish. 다윗 = David 좋은 = good 머리 = head (brain) 골리앗 = Goliath 이기다 = win/beat 상상 = imagination 천국 = heaven 보다 = see 보았다 = saw

갈매기 = a gull 큰 = big, large 부리 = beak 물고기 = fish 잡다 = catch 잡았다 = caught Eg. 3 비행기로 섬에 갔다 = By a plane, I went to an island. 차로 학교까지 1시간 걸린다 = By car, it takes an hour to school. KTX로 서울에서 부산까지 3시간 걸린다 = By KTX, it takes 3 hours to go from Seoul to Busan. 비행기 = plane 섬 = island 가다 = go 갔다 = went 차 = car 학교 = school 시간 = hour 걸리다 = take (time) 걸린다 = take (time) KTX = Korea Train Express II. 으로 로 is used for a destination/place for which you are headed. 으로/로 천국으로 간다 = I am headed for the heaven 천국으로 들어가는 문 = a door for entering the heaven 나오미는 모압으로 떠났어요 = Naomi left for Moab 짐은 집으로 갔다 = Jim went home. The difference between 으로/로 and 에/게 is that 으로/로 emphasises where one is headed/has gone whereas 에/게 doesn't. 나는 집으로 갔다 = I went home. (I didn't go to any other place.)

Particles - 에서 까지 [From, to; at/in] 에서,
에서, 에서 까지 [From, to] 에서 and 까지 are used after places/times just like "from" and "to" in English. Example sentences 집에서 학교까지 = From home to school 1시에서 2시까지 = From 1pm to 2pm 영국에서 왔어 = I came from England 산 정상까지 올라갔다 = I climbed up to the summit of the mountain. 저녁까지 돌아와 = Come back by evening 영국 = England 산 정상 = mountain summit 저녁 = evening 에서 [At/in] 에서 is used after places to mean that something is happening at a particular place. Example sentences 학교에서 미식축구를 했다. = At school, we played American football. 일식집에서 초밥을 먹었다 = At a Japanese restaurant, I ate sushi. 공원에서 배드민턴을 쳤다 = In a park, we played badminton. 방에서 공부를 했다 = In my room, I studied. 화장실에서 샤워를 했다 = In the bathroom, I had a shower. 미식축구 = American football 일식집 = Japanese restaurant 초밥 = sushi 공원 = park 배드민턴 = badminton 방 = room 공부 = study (noun) 공부를 했다 = studied 화장실 = bathroom/toilet 샤워 = shower 샤워를 했다 = had a shower (Lit. did a shower) Note: In spoken Korean, 를/을 is usually omitted. For example: 공부를 했다 → 공부 했어 (I studied) 샤워를 했다 → 샤워 했어 ( I had a shower) 저녁을 먹었다 → 저녁 먹었어 (I had dinner)

Particles - 만 [only]
만 [Only Particle] 만 essentially means "only" and it is used after a noun. Sometimes, 오직 is used before a noun to emphasize the "only-ness." 나만 떠났다. = Only I left. 아빠만 TV를 보셨다. = Only Dad watched TV. 룻만 이스라엘에 왔다. = Only Ruth came to Israel. 물만 마셨다. = I drank only water. 스티븐은 구두만 샀다. = Stephen bought only shoes. 오직 나만 먹었다. = Only I ate. 오직 폴만 한국어를 공부했다. = Only Paul studied Korean. 오직 존만 떠났다. = Only John left. 만 can be also used for nominalized verbs.(Nouns - Nominalizing Verbs) In this case, 만 했다 is attched after a nominalized verb. Eg. 나는 먹기만 했다. = I did only eating. 폴은 1주일 동안 한국어 공부하기만 했다. = Paul, for a week, did only studying Korean. 동물원에서 본 코알라는 자기만 했다. = The koala, which I saw at the zoo, did only sleeping. 동물원에서 본 코알라 = The koala, which I saw at the zoo For a detailed explanation of the descriptive verb, see (Verbs - Descriptive I)

Possessive - 의
Possessive - 의 Rule ● Add 의 to a noun. (Note: mainly used in a written form) Eg. 나 + 의 → 나의 = my 너 + 의 → 너의 = your 그 + 의 → 그의 = his 그녀 + 의 → 그녀의 = her However, in most spoken Korean, they are simplified for easier pronunciation. Eg. 나의 → 내 너의 → 네 (pronounced 니) 그의/그녀의 → 쟤,걔 (not commonly used) 누가(who) → 누구 (whose) For all possessives, only 내 and 네(니) are commonly used in spoken Korean. In most cases 의 is omitted. Eg. My car = 내 차 Your shoes = 네 신발 (pronounced 니 신발) Michael's car = 마이클의 자동차 (written form) or 마이클 차 (spoken form) Notice that 의 has been omitted, and 자동차 has been simplified to 차. 누구 차야? (Whose car is it?) 마이클 (차) (You can either answer by saying 마이클 or 마이클 차) In spoken Korean, 'he/she' or 'his/her' are rarely (almost never) used. Instead, his/her name is addressed as a subject in a first sentence, and then omitted for sentences following. This is the same for possessive forms. Instead of 'his/her', 'Michael's/Lisa's' are used. Eg. Lisa's friend1: 리사 가방 진짜 예뻐. (Lisa's handbag is really pretty) Lisa's friend2: 진짜? 나도 그거 사고 싶다. (Really? I, too, want to buy that) Another thing to note is that 네 is attached to a personal name if a noun being possessed is a group/organisation. (Spoken Form) Lisa's friend1: 리사네 집 진짜 커 (Lisa's house is really big)

Lisa's friend2: 리사네 학교도 커. (Lisa's school, too, is big) Note: A school, house, company and country are some of the 'group/organisation' nouns that require 네 attached to a personal name which are being possessive. Any other personal items such as one's bag, car and so on do not need 네 attached to a personal name.

Conjunctions - And
그리고 [and] 그리고 can only be used between sentences. Yesterday = 어제 Book = 책 Banana = 바나나 read = 읽다 read[past] = 읽었다 sleep = 자다 slept = 잤다 Eg. 어제 책을 읽었다. 그리고 잤다. [Yesterday, read book. And slept.] 바나나는 맛있다. 그리고 달다. [Banana is delicious. And sweet.] The two sentences are linked by 그리고 but they are still separate. To link two or more sentences into one sentence, please refer to Verbs - Connective. 와 /과 ['and' for nouns] 과 와/과 is used for nouns. Use 와 after nouns without a final consonant, and 과 for nouns with a final consonant. 과/와 is only used to join nouns. Eg. 바다와 산 = Sea and Mountain 너와 나 = You and I 밥과 빵 = rice and bread 책과 연필과 종이 = book, pencil and paper

Conjunctions - But
그러나 [But] 그러나 can only be used between sentences. Book = 책 Banana = 바나나 read = 읽다 want to read = 읽고 싶다 wanted to read = 읽고 싶었다 (Verbs - Want) sleep = 자다 slept = 잤다 like = 좋다 (plain) like = 좋아한다 (present) (Verbs - Present/Past) Eg. 책을 읽고 싶었다. 그러나 잤다. [I wanted to read a book. But I slept.] 바나나는 맛있다. 그러나 나는 좋아하지 않는다. [Banana is delicious. But I don't like it] The two sentences are linked by 그러나 but they are still separate. ~데/~지만 [But] 데 지만 To link two or more sentences into one sentence, ~데 or ~지만 are used. ● For verbs, add 데 to Verbs - Descriptive I ● For adjectives, add 데 to Adjectives - Descriptive Eg. 쓰는 → 쓰는데 = write but 글씨는 쓰는데, 읽을 수 없다 = I write words but I cannot read 사는 → 사는데 = live but 물에서는 사는데, 땅에서는 못 산다 = It lives in the water but it cannot live on the ground 어려운 → 어려운데 = difficult but 외국어는 배우기 어려운데 재미있다 = A foreign language is difficult to learn but it's interesting. ● For verbs and adjectives, add 지만 to a plain form without 다 . Eg. 쓰다 → 쓰지만 = write but 글씨는 쓰지만, 읽을 수 없다 = I write words but I cannot read 살다 → 살지만 = live but 물에서는 살지만, 땅에서는 못 산다 = It lives in the water but it cannot live on the ground

어렵다 → 어렵지만 = difficult but 외국어는 배우기 어렵지만 재미있다 = A foreign language is difficult to learn but it's interesting.

Conjunctions - But [는데 데 ] 는데/데 는데
는데/데 is frequently used in casual spoken Korean. 는데/데 means "but" For example, 그리스어는 할 줄 아는데 이태리어는 할 줄 몰라 = I know how to do(speak/write/read) Greek but I don't know how to do(speak/write/read) Italian. 밥은 먹는데 반찬은 안 먹어. = I eat 밥 (cooked rice) but I don't eat side dishes. 먹는데, 방은 넓은데 화장실은 좁아 = The room is spacious but the bathroom is cramped(small). 넓은데, Rules 1. Take 다 off a plain form of verbs and attach 는데 to it. 하다 → 하는데 가다 → 가는데 오다 → 오는데 먹다 → 먹는데 마시다 → 마시는데 사다 → 사는데 팔다 → 파는데 걷다 → 걷는데

Note: Take a final consonant, ㄹ, off a plain form of verbs and then attach 는데. 알다 → 아는데 (know) 팔다 → 파는데 (sell) 2. Add 데 to Adjectives - Descriptive form of adjectives. 크다 → 큰데 작다 → 작은데 가깝다 → 가까운데 멀다 → 먼데 많다 → 많은데 적다 → 적은데 뜨겁다 → 뜨거운데 차갑다 → 차가운데

Example sentences (spoken form) 오늘은 학교 가는데, 내일은 학교 안가요. = I go to school today but I don't go to school tomorrow. 영화를 보러 갔는데, 보고 싶은 영화가 없었어 = I went to see a movie but there was no movie that I wanted to watch. 예전에는 키가 작았는데, 지금은 키 커. = (I/He/She) was small (height) before but (I/He/She) am/is tall now. 이 음식 보기에는 맛있어 보이는데, 먹어보니까 맛이 없어. = This meal looks delicious but it's not delicious (at all) after I've tried it.

Conjunctions - Because, So
Conjunctions - Because and So [~서] 서 ~서 has many usages and "because and so" is one of them. Rules ● Add 서 to a spoken form of the present tense of verbs or adjectives. (Adjectives - Present/Past, Verbs Present/Past) 해 → 해서 = Because (I) do / (I) do and so 가서 → 가서 = Because (you) go / (you) go and so 떠나 → 떠나서 = Because (you) leave / (you) leave and so 좋아 → 좋아서 = Because (I) like / (I) like and so 먹어 → 먹어서 = Because (you) eat / (you) eat and so 잡아 → 잡아서 = Because (I) catch / (I) catch and so 빨라 → 빨라서 = Because (he's) fast / (he's) fast and so 높아 → 높아서 = Because (it's) high / (it's) high and so 작아 → 작아서 = Because (she's) small / (she's) small and so 커 → 커서 = Because (it's) big / (it's) big and so Example Sentences 농구를 해서 키가 크다 = Because I play basketball, I'm tall. = I play basketball and so I'm tall. 한국에 가서 지금 미국에 없다 = Because he's gone to Korea, now he's not in America. = He's gone to Korea and so he's not in America. 나무는 커서 좋다 = Because a tree is big, I like it. = A tree is big and so I like it. 과학이 좋아서 대학에 갔다 = Because I like science, I went to college. = I like science and so I went to college. 빌딩이 높아서 엘리베이터를 사용해야 한다 = Because the building is high, we have to use an elevator. = The building is high and so we have to use an elevator. 농구 = basketball 한국 = Korea 미국 = America 나무 = tree 과학 = science

대학 = college/university 빌딩 = building 엘리베이터 = elevator Conjunctions - So [그래서 그래서] 그래서 A sentence containing ~서 can be divided into two separate sentences and 그래서 is used to link them. Example sentences 농구를 한다. 그래서 키가 크다. = I play basketball. So I'm tall. 한국에 갔다. 그래서 지금 미국에 없다. = He's gone to Korea. So he's not in America. 나무는 크다. 그래서 좋다. = A tree is big. So I like it. 과학이 좋다. 그래서 대학에 갔다. = I like science. So I went to college. 빌딩이 높다. 그래서 엘리베이터를 사용해야 한다. = The building is high. So we have to use an elevator.

Conjunctions - Because [때문에 때문에] 때문에
Conjunctions - Because [때문에 왜냐하면 때문이다 때문에; 때문에 왜냐하면, 때문이다] 때문에 is more frequently used in written Korean and ~서 is favoured in spoken Korean because of its brevity. Rules Take 다 off a plain form and past tenses of verbs and adjectives and then attach 기 때문에 (But NOT a 때문에. present tense of verbs ie. 한다 → 한기 때문에 is wrong! 하다 → 하기 때문에 is right!) 하다 → 하기 때문에 = Because I do 가다 → 가기 때문에 = Because I go 사다 → 사기 때문에 = Because I buy 보다 → 보기 때문에 = Because I see 먹기 → 먹기 때문에 = Because I eat 좋아하다 → 좋아하기 때문에 = Because I like 했다 → 했기 때문에 = Because I did 갔다 → 갔기 때문에 = Because I went 먹었다 → 먹었기 때문에 = Because I ate 크다 → 크기 때문에 = Because it's big 작다 → 작기 때문에 = Because it's small 덥다 → 덥기 때문에 = Because it's hot 춥다 → 춥기 때문에 = Because it's cold 많다 → 많기 때문에 = Because there is a lot 길다 → 길기 때문에 = Because it's long 맛있다 → 맛있기 때문에 = Because it's delicious 높았다 → 높았기 때문에 = Because it was high 예뻤다 → 예뻤기 때문에 = Because it was pretty 빨랐다 → 빨랐기 때문에 = Because it was fast 강했다 → 강했기 때문에 = Because it was strong Example sentences - Compare and contrast 때문에 and ~서 . 서 중국음식을 좋아하기 때문에 중국음식을 먹었다. = Because I like Chinese food, I ate Chinese food. (Written Korean) 중국음식 좋아하기 때문에 중국음식 먹었어요. = Because I like Chinese food, I ate Chinese food. (Spoken Korean) 중국음식 좋아해서 중국음식 먹었어요 = Because I like Chinese food, I ate Chinese food. (Spoken Korean) Conjunctions - Because, So 아침 일찍 학교를 가기 때문에 일찍 일어났다. = Because I go to school early in the morning, I got up early. 아침 일찍 학교 가서 일찍 일어났어요 = Because I go to school early in the morning, I got up early. 겨울에는 춥기 때문에 사람들은 따뜻한 옷을 입는다. = Because the winter is cold, people wear warm clothes. 겨울엔 추워서 사람들은 따뜻한 옷을 입어요 = Because the winter is cold, people wear warm

clothes. 인터넷에는 잘못된 정보가 많기 때문에 무엇을 읽는지 조심해야 한다. = Because on the internet, there is a lot of false information, we should be careful about what we read. 인터넷엔 잘못된 정보가 많아서 뭘 읽는지 조심해야 되요. = Because on the internet, there is a lot of false information, we should be careful about what we read Note: The object particle, 를/을, is omitted and some words are abbreviated in the spoken form. For example, 에는 →엔 무엇을 → 무얼 → 뭘 Although it is less commonly used, a sentence containing two clauses can be divided into two sentences using 왜냐하면 and 때문이다. 왜냐하면 is attached to the front of a second clause and 때문이다 replaces 때문 에. 중국음식을 먹었다. 왜냐하면 중국음식을 좋아하기 때문이다. = I ate Chinese food because I like Chinese food. 중국음식 먹었어요. (왜냐면) 중국음식 좋아해서요. = I ate Chinese food because I like Chinese food. 일찍 일어났다. 왜냐하면 아침 일찍 학교를 가기 때문이다. = I got up early because I go to school early in the morning. 일찍 일어났어요. (왜냐면) 아침 일찍 학교 가서요. = I got up early because I go to school early in the morning. Note: 왜냐하면 is abbreviated to 왜냐면 or it is altogether omitted in spoken Korean. 때문에 is mainly used in literature and the news reporters use it often. However, people still use 때문에 occasionally in conversations instead of ~서, especially when one wants to explain and reason.

Conjunctions - If
Conjunctions - If [~면/으면 으면] 면 으면 ~면/으면 is used after a verb and the clause containing ~면 must always come first and its meaning is "if I do such and such." Rules 1. Take 다 off a plain verb and add 면 to it. 하다 → 하면 = If (I) do 가다 → 가면 = If (you) go 던지다 → 던지면 = If (you) throw 2. Take 다 off a verb with a final consonant and add 으면 to it. 좋다 → 좋으면 = If (I) like 먹다 → 먹으면 = If (you) eat 잡다 → 잡으면 = If (I) catch Eg. 학교에 가면 공부 할 수 있다 = If I go to school, I can study. 의대에 가면 의사가 될 수 있다 = If you go to med school, you can become a doctor. 책을 가져오면 읽어 줄께 = If you bring (me) a book, I will read (it) to you. 학교 = school 할 수 있다 = can do 의대 = med school 의사 = doctor 될 수 있다 = can become 책 = book 가져오다 = bring 읽다 = read

Conjunctions - When
Conjunctions - When [~을 때 ] 을 ● Rules First, take 다 off a plain form of verbs(Verbs - Present/Past) then: 1. Add ~을 때 to verbs with a final consonant 을 먹다 → 먹을 때 = when I eat 앉다 → 앉을 때 = when I sit 믿다 → 믿을 때 = when I believe 죽다 → 죽을 때 = when I die 2. Add ~ㄹ 때 to verbs without a final consonant. ㄹ 가다 → 갈 때 = when I go 오다 → 올 때 = when I come 자다 → 잘 때 = when I sleep 사다 → 살 때 = when I buy 3. Add ~때 to verbs with ㄹ as a final consonant 때 팔다 → 팔 때 = when I sell 살다 → 살 때 = when I live 놀다 → 놀 때 = when I play (muck around) Eg. 저녁 먹을 때 비가 왔다. = When we were eating dinner, the rain came. 의자에 앉을 때 조심하세요. = When you sit on the chair, be careful. 병사는 죽을 때 한 마디를 남겼다. = When the soldier was dying, he left a message. 학교 갈 때 차로 간다. = When I go to school, I go by car. 집에 올 때 친구 집에 들린다. = When I come home, I visit my friend's house. 우리는 잘 때 꿈을 꾼다. = When we sleep, we dream. 사람들은 먹을 것을 살 때 슈퍼마켓으로 간다= When people buy food, they go to a supermarket. ● Take 다 off and add ~을 때 to the past tense of verbs 을 먹었다 → 먹었을 때 = when I ate 앉았다 → 앉았을 때 = when I sat 믿었다 → 믿었을 때 = when I believed 죽었다 → 죽었을 때 = when I died 팔았다 → 팔았을 때 = when I sold 살았다 → 살았을 때 = when I lived 놀았다 → 놀았을 때 = when I played (mucked around)

Eg. 시카고에 살았을 때 영어를 배웠다. = When I lived in Chicago, I learned English. 밖에서 놀았을 때, 날씨가 좋았다 = When we played outside, the weather was good. Note: 왔다. 저녁 먹을 때 비가 왔다 = When we were eating dinner, the rain came. 왔다. 저녁 먹었을 때 비가 왔다 = When we were eating dinner, the rain came. both 먹을 때 or 먹었을 때 can be used and they mean the same thing. This is because the final verb, 왔다 왔다, determines the tense of a sentence. The former is a more casual form than the latter.

Conjunctions - While
Conjunctions - While [~(으)면서 면서] 으 면서 Rules 1. Take 다 off a plain form of verbs with no final consonant and add 면서 to it. 하다 → 하면서 = while doing 가다 → 가면서 = while going 주다 → 주면서 = while giving 사다 → 사면서 = while buying 보다 → 보면서 = while watching 말하다 → 말하면서 = while speaking 마시다 → 마시면서 = while drinking 자다 → 자면서 = while sleeping 2. Take 다 off a plain form of verbs with a final consonant and add 으면서 to it. 먹다 → 먹으면서 = while eating 받다 → 받으면서 = while receiving 찾다 → 찾으면서 = while looking for 읽다 → 읽으면서 = while reading Exceptions 걷다 → 걸으면서 = while walking 듣다 → 들으면서 = while listening

Example sentences Written Korean 나는 운동을 하면서 매트릭스를 봤다. = While doing exercise, I watched Matrix. 나는 노래를 들으면서 지리 공부를 했다. = While listening to music, I studied geography. 호머는 자면서 코를 골았다. = While sleeping, Homer snored. 민지는 스타벅스에서 잡지를 읽으면서 커피를 마셨다. = At Starbucks, while reading a magazine, Minji drank coffee. 준호는 차를 타고 회사를 가면서 라디오를 들었다. = While going to work by car, Junho listened to radio. Spoken Korean 운동 하면서 매트릭스 봤어. = While doing exercise, I watched Matrix 노래 들으면서 지리 공부 했어. = While listening to music, I studied geography. (호머는) 자면서 코 골았어. = While sleeping, Homer snored. (민지는) 스타벅스에서 잡지 읽으면서 커피 마셨어. = At Starbucks, while reading a magazine,

Minji drank coffee. (준호는) 차 타고 회사 가면서 라디오 들었어. = While going to work by car, Junho listened to radio. 매트릭스 = Matrix (The movie) 노래 = music, song 지리 = geography 호머 = Homer (a male name as in Simpsons) 민지 = Minji (a female name) 스타벅스 = Starbucks 잡지 = magazine 커피 = coffee 회사 = work, company 라디오 = radio 준호 = Junho (a male name) Note: The spoken Korean usually omits a subject because it is usually understood by the speakers as to who they are talking about. For example, if I were talking about myself, I wouldn't need to use 나는 to say something about me because it is assumed that I am talking about me. Likewise, the third person subjects like 호머는 and 민지는 can also be omitted when a person being talked about is already known by people having a conversation. The object particle, 를/을, is omitted in spoken Korean.

5W1H
5W1H - When, Where, Who, What, How and Why Note: Please refer to Verbs - Present/Past for the spoken form of verbs. When, where, who, what, how and why are very useful words to make a question and they are convenient to use in conversations with friends. Here are some simple sentences. You may hear these this pattern of the speech a lot from Korean dramas, animations, and people. To show you how they are used, I've made simple sentences using the verb,"go". When: 언제 가? = When do you go? (Lit. when go?) Where: 어디 가? = Where do you go? Who: 누가 가? = Who is going? What: 뭐가 가? = What is going? How: 어떻게 가? = How do you go? Why: 왜 가? = Why do you go? Note: The subject is usually omitted. Eg. Sam: I will go to school. Jenny: 언제 가? [Here, it would mean 'When will you go?'] Sam: Peter told me that we are going to a museum! Jenny: 언제 가? [When are we going?] 언제 와? = When do you come? 왜 쳐? = Why do you hit me? 왜 울어? = Why do you cry? 뭐 줘? = What do I give to you? or What do you give to me? [Depends on the context] Honorific Form While the spoken form above is used between close friends or when older people are talking to younger people in informal situations. The honorific form is used commonly between adults, by people in formal situations or when younger people are speaking to older people. ● Just add 요 at the end of a sentence. When: 언제 가요? = When do you go? (Lit. when go?) Where: 어디 가요? = Where do you go? Who: 누가 가요? = Who is going? What: 뭐가 가요? = What is going? How: 어떻게 가요? = How do you go? Why: 왜 가요? = Why do you go?

언제 와요? = When do you come? 왜 쳐요? = Why do you hit me? 왜 울어요? = Why do you cry? 뭐 줘요? = What do I give to you? or What do you give to me? [Depends on the context]

Comparatives & Superlatives
Comparatives [~보다 보다] 보다 ~보다 is used to compare two persons or things. The person/thing that 보다 is referring to is the one that comes after "~er than" in English. The "~보다" phrase can also come before a subject. So the sentences below have the same meaning. Note: 이/가 particles are more frequently used than 은/는 particles, and in the spoken Korean, almost exclusively 이/가 are used. 나는 동생보다 키가 크다 = I am taller than (my) younger sibling. 내가 동생보다 키가 크다 = "I" am taller than (my) younger sibling. 동생보다 내가 키가 크다 = I am taller than (my) younger sibling. 동생보다 내가 키가 커 = I am taller than (my) younger sibling. [spoken form] 동생보다 제가 키가 커요 = I am taller than (my) younger sibling. [formal spoken form] 동생보다 = than younger sibling 동생 = younger sibling 키 = height 크다 = big 키가 크다 = tall 키가 작다 = short 나=I 내 = 나 changes to 내 before 이/가 제 = the honorific form of 내 used in formal expressions 더 is usually added before an adjective. 더 = more More examples 동물보다 사람이 더 똑똑하다 = Man is cleverer than an animal. 나일강이 아마존강보다 더 길다 = The Nile River is longer than the Amazon River. 철이 구리보다 강하다 = Iron is stronger than copper. 피는 물보다 진하다 = Blood is thicker than water. 진수가 진호보다 더 빨라요 = Jinsu is faster than Jinho. 저보다 형이 더 잘해요 = My older brother does it better than me. 빵보다 밥이 더 좋아요 = I like rice more than bread. Superlatives [제일 제일] 제일 제일 is added before an adjective to make it a superlative. 진수가 제일 빠르다 = Jinsu is the fastest 치타가 육지 동물중에서 제일 빠르다 = The cheetah is the fastest among the land animals. 에베레스트산은 세계에서 제일 높다 = Mt. Everest is the highest mountain in the world. 피자가 세계에서 제일 맛있는 음식이다 = Pizza is the most delicious food in the world. 제일 아름다운 것은 사랑이에요 = The most beautiful thing is love. [formal spoken form] (Nouns -

Present, Past) 세계 = world 맛있다 = delicious 맛있는 = delicious [descriptive form] Adjectives - Descriptive 아름다운 = beautiful [descriptive form] 것 = thing

Imperatives
Imperatives - 해 , 하지마 Imperative Informal Positive 해 가 먹어 해요 가요 먹어요 하세요 가세요 드세요 Negative 하지마 가지마 먹지마 하지마요 가지마요 먹지마요 하지마세요 가지마세요 드시지마세요

Formal

Honorific

The informal form is used among very close friends or when talking to a younger person who is very close to you in informal situations. The formal form and the honorific form are used in formal situations. However, if I were to choose which one to use, I would choose the honorific form because the formal form is a bit casual-ish. It is safe to use the honorific form if you are unsure which one to use. Note: The honorific form of verbs is present in Korean such as: 먹다 → 드시다 = eat 자다 → 주무시다 = sleep 죽다 → 돌아가시다 = die, pass away 먹어's honorific form is 드세요. It is usually used when talking to people above your age or in formal situations. Rules Informal positive (Imperative) = Present positive (spoken Korean) 해! = Do! 저리 가! = Go over there! (Leave me alone!) 이 과자 좀 먹어. = Eat some of these snacks. 물 좀 마셔. = Drink some water. Informal negative = Take 다 off a plain form of verbs and attach 지마 to it. 가지마! = Don't go! 이 영화는 보지마! = Don't watch this movie! 이거는 먹지마. = Don't eat this.

이 책은 읽지마. = Don't read this book.

Formal positive and negative = Attach 요 to informal forms Honorific positive = 1. Take 다 off a plain form of verbs and then attach 세요 to verbs without a final consonant. 2. Attach 으세요 to verbs with a final consonant. 3. For verbs with a final consonant of ㄹ, drop it off and attach 세요 to it. 가세요! = Please go! 이리 오세요. = Please come here. 빨리 떠나세요! = Please leave quickly! 어서 드세요. = Please eat already. 물고기 손으로 잡으세요. = Please catch the fish with your hands. 손 흔드세요! = Please wave your hands! (흔들다 = wave) 빙글빙글 도세요! = Please turn round and round! (돌다 = turn round, spin) Honorific negative = Take 다 off a plain form of verbs and attach 지마세요. 장난 하지 마세요! = Please don't fool around! 저 곳에는 가지 마세요. = Please don't go to that place. (Keep away from that place.) 박물관에 있는 물건들은 만지지 마세요. = Please don't touch things in the museum.

Have to - 해야 한다
Have to - 해야 한다

Informal form Informal Written Spoken Have to 해야 한다 해야 된다 해야 해 해야 돼 Don't have to 하지 않아도 된 다 하지 않아도 돼 안해도 돼 Had to 해야 했다 해야 됐다 해야 했어 해야 됐어 Didn't have to 하지 않아도 됐다 하지 않아도 됐어 안해도 됐어

Informal Written Spoken

Note: The words in bold are the more commonly used alternative of the two in each box. Rules 1. Attach 야 한다 야 된다 야 돼 /야 됐어 etc. to the informal spoken form of verbs. Verbs - Present, Past 한다/야 된다/야 야 해 → 해야 한다 = have to do 가 → 가야 한다 = have to go 와 → 와야 한다 = have to come 봐 → 봐야 한다 = have to see 먹어 → 먹어야 한다 = have to eat 마셔 → 마셔야 한다 = have to drink 2. Take 다 off a plain form of verbs and then attach 지 않아도 된다 지 않아도 됐다 지 않아도 돼 etc. 된다/지 됐다/지 to it. 하다 → 하지 않아도 된다 = don't have to do 가다 → 가지 않아도 된다 = don't have to go 오다 → 오지 않아도 된다 = don't have to come 보다 → 보지 않아도 된다 = don't have to see 먹다 → 먹지 않아도 된다 = don't have to eat 마시다 → 마시지 않아도 된다 = don't have to drink 3. Attach 안 and 도 돼 / 도 됐었어 to the front and back of the informal spoken form of verbs respectively. Verbs - Present, Past 안해도 돼 = don't have to do

안가도 돼 = don't have to go 안와도 돼 = don't have to come 안봐도 돼 = don't have to see 안먹어도 돼 = don't have to eat 안마셔도 돼 = don't have to drink

Example sentences Written Form 성민은 오늘 서울에 가야 한다. = Seong-min has to go to Seoul today. 민주는 내일 학교에 가지 않아도 된다. = Min-ju doesn't have to go to school tomorrow. 애쉴리는 병때문에 작년 매일 약을 먹어야 했다 = Because of her sickness, Ashley had to take (lit. eat) medicine everyday last year. Spoken Form 이번 주 목요일까지 과학 과제 끝내야 돼 = I have to finish the science assignment by this Thursday. 애쉴리는 이제 다 나아서 병원에 안가도 돼 = Because Ashley has been healed now, she doesn't have go to the hospital. 고추가 너무 매우면 안먹어도 돼 = If the chillies are too spicy, you don't have to eat them.

Formal form Formal Written Spoken Have to 해야 합니다 해야 됩니다 해야 해요 해야 돼요 Don't have to 하지 않아도 됩 니다 안해도 됩니다 Had to 해야 했습니다 해야 됐습니다 해야 했어요 해야 됐어요 Didn't have to 하지 않아도 됐습 니다 안해도 됐습니다.

Formal Written

Spoken

하지 않아도 돼 하지 않아도 됐어요 요 안해도 됐어요 안해도 돼요

Note: The rules for the conjugation are the same as above. Example sentences Written Form 성민은 오늘 서울에 가야 합니다. = Seong-min has to go to Seoul today.

민주는 내일 학교에 가지 않아도 됩니다. = Min-ju doesn't have to go to school tomorrow. 애쉴리는 병때문에 작년 매일 약을 먹어야 했습니다 = Because of her sickness, Ashley had to take (lit. eat) medicine everyday last year. Spoken Form 이번 주 목요일까지 과학 과제 끝내야 돼요 = I have to finish the science assignment by this Thursday. 애쉴리는 이제 다 나아서 병원에 안가도 돼요 = Because Ashley has been healed now, she doesn't have go to the hospital. 고추가 너무 매우면 안먹어도 돼요 = If the chillies are too spicy, you don't have to eat them. Source: Learn Korean: LP's Korean Grammar Guide

Allowed to - 해도 된다
Allowed to - 해도 된다 Informal Form Informal Written Spoken Informal Written Spoken are allowed to 해도 된다 해도 돼 aren't allowed to 하면 안된다 하면 안돼 were allowed to 해도 됐었다 해도 됐었어 weren't allowed to 하면 안됐었다 하면 안됐었어

Note: 해도 돼 means "allowed to do" and 안해도 돼 means "don't have to do," NOT "not allowed to do." This needs some explanations. First of all, 돼 means "ok or allowed." 해도 돼 literally means "doing is ok." 안해도 literally means "not doing" therefore 안해도 돼 literally means "not doing is ok" which means "don't have to do." 하면 안돼 means "not allowed to do." 하면 literally means "if I do" and 안돼 means "not ok" therefore 하 면 안돼 literally means "if I do it, it's not ok" which can be expressed as "not allowed to do" Compare this with Have to - 해야 한다 However, you don't have to know these explanations to use them. Actually, I've never thought about why these mean what they mean until today. The best way to learn them is to use them frequently until they become memorised. Rules 1. Attach 도 된다 도 됐었다 도 돼 /도 됐었어 to the positive informal spoken form of verbs Verbs 된다/도 됐었다/도 도 Present, Past 해 → 해도 된다 = allowed to do 가 → 가도 된다 = allowed to go 봐 → 봐도 된다 = allowed to see 들어 → 들어도 된다 = allowed to hear 먹어 → 먹어도 된다 = allowed to eat 마셔 → 마셔도 된다 = allowed to drink 달려 → 달려도 된다 = allowed to run 앉아 → 앉아도 된다 = allowed to sit

놀아 → 놀아도 된다 = allowed to play/muck around 2a. Take 다 off a plain form of verbs without a final consonant and attach 면 안된다 면 안됐었다 면 안 안된다/면 안됐었다/면 돼 /면 안됐었어 to it. (Includes verbs with ㄹ as a final consonant) 면 하다 → 하면 안된다 = aren't allowed to do 가다 → 가면 안된다 = aren't allowed to go 춤추다 → 춤추면 안된다 = aren't allowed to dance 놀다 → 놀면 안된다 = aren't allowed to play/muck around 밀다 → 밀면 안된다 = aren't allowed to push 돌다 → 돌면 안된다 = aren't allowed to spin 2b. Take 다 off a plain form of verbs with a final consonant and attach 으면 안된다 으면 안됐었다 으 안된다/으면 안됐었다/으 안돼/으면 면 안돼 으면 안됐었어 to it. 먹다 → 먹으면 안된다 = aren't allowed to eat 앉다 → 앉으면 안된다 = aren't allowed to sit 숨다 → 숨으면 안된다 = aren't allowed to hide 잡다 → 잡으면 안된다 = aren't allowed to catch 집다 → 집으면 안된다 = aren't allowed to pick up 접다 → 접으면 안된다 = aren't allowed to fold Exceptions 듣다 → 들으면 안된다 = aren't allowed to listen 걷다 → 걸으면 안된다 = aren't allowed to walk Example sentences Written form 부페에서는 먹고 싶은 만큼 먹어도 된다 = At a buffet (restaurant), people are allowed to eat as much as they want. 시험을 마친 사람은 집에 가도 된다 = Those who have finished the exam can go home. 도서관에서는 크게 얘기하면 안된다. = It is not allowed to speak loudly in the library. 신생아들은 딱딱한 음식을 먹으면 안된다. = Infants are not allowed to eat solid food. 작년까지 학생들은 매점 자판기를 사용해도 됐었다 = Until last year, students were allowed to use a stall vending machine. Spoken form TV 봐도 돼 = You are allowed to watch TV. (You can watch TV.) 이 케잌 먹어도 돼 = You are allowed to eat this cake. (You can eat this cake,) 술과 담배는 사면 안돼 = You are not allowed to buy alcohol and tobacco. 어제까지 놀아도 됐었어 = Until yesterday, I was allowed to muck around. 작년까지 빅토리아공원에는 들어가면 안됐었어 = Until last year, people were not allowed to enter the Victoria park.

Formal Form

Formal Written Spoken Formal Written Spoken

are allowed to 해도 됩니다 해도 돼요 aren't allowed to 하면 안됩니다 하면 안돼요

were allowed to 해도 됐었습니다 해도 됐었어요 weren't allowed to 하면 안됐었습니다 하면 안됐었어요

Note: The rules are the same as above. Example sentences Written form 부페에서는 먹고 싶은 만큼 먹어도 됩니다 = At a buffet (restaurant), people are allowed to eat as much as they want. 시험을 마친 사람은 집에 가도 됩니다 = Those who have finished the exam can go home. 도서관에서는 크게 얘기하면 안됩니다. = It is not allowed to speak loudly in the library. 신생아들은 딱딱한 음식을 먹으면 안됩니다. = Infants are not allowed to eat solid food. 작년까지 학생들은 매점 자판기를 사용해도 됐었습니다 = Until last year, students were allowed to use a stall vending machine. Spoken form TV 봐도 돼요 = You are allowed to watch TV. (You can watch TV.) 이 케잌 먹어도 돼요 = You are allowed to eat this cake. (You can eat this cake,) 술과 담배는 사면 안돼요 = You are not allowed to buy alcohol and tobacco. 어제까지 놀아도 됐었어요 = Until yesterday, I was allowed to muck around. 작년까지 빅토리아공원에는 들어가면 안됐었어요 = Until last year, people were not allowed to enter the Victoria park.

I like doing - 하는게 좋다 하는걸 좋아한다 좋다,
I like doing - 하는게 좋다 하는게 좋다 is a contracted form of 하는 것이 좋다 (것이 → 게) 하는 것 means "doing" and if you remember, "가/이" is an identifier particle. I'd also like to call it a specificity particle. For example, 점심에는 샌드위치 먹는 것이 좋다 = I like eating a sandwich at lunch (among a variety of things to eat at lunch, a sandwich is my choice) 시골에서 사는게 좋다 = I like living in the country (Although I could live in the city or urban area, I like living in the country) 좋다 means two things 1. I like 2. It's good Usually, its meaning is "I like doing" in spoken Korean. In written Korean, "하는게 좋다" is more likely to mean "it's good to do something." However, the meaning depends on the context.

Informal Written Spoken Formal Written

Positive 하는게 좋다 하는게 좋아 Positive 하는게 좋습니다

Negative 하지 않는게 좋다 안하는게 좋다 안하는게 좋아 Negative 하지 않는게 좋습 니다 안하는게 좋습니다 하지 않는게 좋아요 안하는게 좋아요

Spoken

하는게 좋아요

Note: The words in bold are the more commonly used alternatives of the two in each box. Rules 1. Take 다 off a plain form of verbs and then attach 는게 좋다 2. If a verb has a final consonant of ㄹ , it is omitted. 하다 → 하는게 좋다 = I like doing, it's good to do 먹다 → 먹는게 좋다 = I like eating, it's good to eat

보다 → 보는게 좋다 = I like watching, it's good to watch 듣다 → 듣는게 좋다 = I like listening, it's good to listen 걷다 → 걷는게 좋다 = I like walking, it's good to walk 쓰다 → 쓰는게 좋다 = I like writing, it's good to write 읽다 → 읽는게 좋다 = I like reading, it's good to read 만들다 → 만드는게 좋다 = I like making, it's good to make 살다 → 사는게 좋다 = I like living, it's good to live 말다 → 마는게 좋다 = I like wrapping, it's good to wrap Example sentences 운동하는게 좋다 = I like exercising. It's good to exercise. 휴일에는 바닷가에 가는게 좋다 = I like going to the beach at weekends. It's good to go to the beach at weekends. 금요일밤에는 피자 먹는게 좋다 = On a Friday night, I like eating pizza. On a Friday night, it's good to eat pizza. 심심할땐 영화보는게 좋아 = When I'm bored, I like watching movies. When you're bored, it's good to watch movies.

I like doing - 하는걸 좋아한다 하는걸 is a contracted form of 하는것을 and 을 is an object particle. 하는걸 좋아한다 just means "I like doing" Informal Written Positive 하는걸 좋아한다 Negative 하는걸 좋아하지 않는 다 하는걸 안좋아한다 하는걸 좋아하지 않아 하는걸 안좋아해 Negative

Spoken

하는걸 좋아해

Formal Written

Positive

하는것을 좋아합니 하는것을 좋아하지 않 다 습니다 하는걸 안좋아합니다 하는걸 좋아해요 하는걸 좋아하지 않아 요 하는걸 안좋아해요

Spoken

Note: 걸 is a contracted form of 것을. Rules are the same as above. 하다 → 하는걸 좋아한다 = I like doing 먹다 → 먹는걸 좋아한다 = I like eating

보다 → 보는걸 좋아한다 = I like watching 듣다 → 듣는걸 좋아한다 = I like listening 걷다 → 걷는걸 좋아한다 = I like walking 쓰다 → 쓰는걸 좋아한다 = I like writing 읽다 → 읽는걸 좋아한다 = I like reading 만들다 → 만드는걸 좋아한다 = I like making 살다 → 사는게 좋아한다 = I like living 말다 → 마는게 좋아한다 = I like wrapping Example sentences 운동하는것을 좋아하지 않는다 = I don't like exercising. 휴일에는 바닷가에 가는걸 좋아한다 = I like going to the beach at weekends. 금요일밤에는 피자 먹는걸 좋아합니다 = On a Friday night, I like eating pizza. 심심할땐 영화보는걸 좋아해요 = When I'm bored, I like watching movies.

I think - ~고 생각해 (Opinion) 고
I think - ~고 생각해 (Opinion) 고 고 생각해 is usually used when you are expressing your opinion on something like what people should and shouldn't do and what people should and should not be allowed to do etc. Refer to Have to - 해야 한다, Allowed to - 해도 된다 and I like doing - 하는게 좋다, 하는걸 좋아한다 to learn following examples. Rules Attach 고 생각해 to the present informal written form of verbs. eg. 그걸 해야 한다고 생각해 = I think we should do it. 공원엔 가도 된다고 생각해 = I think it's OK to go to a park. 우유를 마시는게 좋다고 생각한다 = I think it's good to drink milk Note: 그걸 = 그것을, 공원엔 = 공원에는 Example sentences 저녁에 일찍 자고 아침에 일찍 일어나야 된다고 생각해.= I think people should go to bed early at night and get up early in the morning. 건강해지기 위해 과일과 채소를 많이 먹어야 한다고 생각해. = I think people should eat a lot of fruits and vegetables to become healthy. TV는 많이 봐도 된다고 생각해요 = I think it's allowable to watch a lot of TV. 시간약속에 늦으면 안된다고 생각합니다 = I think it's not acceptable to be late for an appointment 책은 많이 읽는게 좋다고 생각한다 = I think it's good to read a lot of books. 청량음료는 많이 마시지 않는게 좋다고 생각합니다 = I think it's not good to drink a lot of soft drinks.

I think - 하는 거 같애 (General)
I think - 하는 거 같애 (General) [Verbs] Written Form Positive Negative Present 하는 것 같다 Past 했던 것 같다

하지 않는 것 하지 않았던 것 같다 같다 안하는 것 같다 안했던 것 같다 Present 하는 거 같애 Past 했던 거 같애

Spoken Form Positive Negative

하지 않는 거 같 하지 않았던 거 애 같애 안하는 거 같애 안했던 거 같애

Note: In spoken Korean, 것 is pronounced as 거 for the ease of pronunciation.

Rules 1. Take 다 off a plain form of verbs and attach 는 거 같애 지 않는 거 같애 etc. to it. 같애/지 2. Drop ㄹ off a plain form of verbs that have ㄹ as a final consonant. 3. Take 다 off a past tense form of verbs and attach 던 것 같다 던 거 같애 etc. to it. 같다/던 하다 → 하는 거 같애 = I think they do 먹다 → 먹는 거 같애 = I think they eat 일어나다 → 일어나는 거 같애 = I think they get up 자다 → 자는 거 같애 = I think they sleep 보다 → 보는 거 같애 = I think they watch 씻다 → 씻는 거 같애 = I think they wash 달리다 → 달리는 거 같애 = I think they run 놀다 → 노는 거 같애 = I think they muck around 살다 → 사는 거 같애 = I think they live 했다 → 했던 거 같애 = I think they did 먹었다 → 먹었던 거 같애 = I think they ate 봤다 → 봤던 거 같애 = I think they watched 살았다 → 살았던 거 같애 = I think they lived 놀았다 → 놀았던 거 같애 = I think they mucked around Example Sentences

저기서 사람들이 축구 하는 거 같애 = I think people are playing soccer over there. 이 개는 저 개집에서 살았던 거 같애 = I think this dog lived in that kennel. = I think this dog used to live in that kennel. 저 방에는 아기가 자고 있는 거 같애 = I think a baby is sleeping in that room. 나는 밥을 빨리 안먹는 거 같애 = I think I don't eat (a meal) fast.

[Adjectives] Written Form Positive Negative Present 좋은 것 같다 Past 좋았던 것 같다

좋지 않은 것 좋지 않았던 것 같다 같다 안좋은 것 같다 안좋았던 것 같 다 Present 좋은 거 같애 Past 좋았던 거 같애

Spoken Form Positive Negative

좋지 않은 거 같 좋지 않았던 거 애 같애 안좋은 거 같애 안좋았던 거 같 애

Rules 1. Attach a descriptive form of adjectives to 거 같애 같애. 2. Take 다 off a past tense form of adjectives and attach 었던 거 같애 같애. 좋은 → 좋은 거 같애 = I think it's good 많은 → 많은거 같애 = I think there's a lot 큰 → 큰 거 같애 = I think it's big 작은 → 작은 거 같애 = I think it's small 예쁜 → 예쁜 거 같애 = I think it's pretty 똑똑한 → 똑똑한 거 같애 = I think he's clever 솔직한 → 솔직한 거 같애 = I think she's honest 좋았다 → 좋았던 거 같애 = I think it was good 맛있었다 → 맛있었던 거 같애 = I think it was delicious 재밌었다 → 재밌었던 거 같애 = I think it was fun 쉬웠다 → 쉬웠던 거 같애 = I think it was easy 많았다 → 많았던 거 같애 = I think there was a lot Example sentences 태국음식은 맛있는 거 같애 = I think Thai food is delicious 이 집은 굉장히 큰 거 같애 = I think this house is enormously big.

이번 수학시험은 정말 쉬웠던 거 같애 = I think the maths test was really easy. 내 기억에 저 들 위에는 꽃들이 많았던 거 같애 = According to my memory, I think there were a lot of flowers on that hill.

[Nouns] Written Form Positive Negative Present 고양이인 것 같 다 고양이가 아닌 것 같다 Past 고양이였던 것 같다 고양이가 아니었던 것 같다

Spoken Form Positive Negative

Present 고양이(인 거) 같 애 고양이(가) 아닌 거 같애

Past 고양이였던 거 같애 고양이(가) 아니었던 거 같애

Note: The object particle, 가/이, is usually omitted in spoken Korean. 인 거 is also usually omitted. 같다's original meaning is "look like." Therefore, 같애 phrases can have alternative translations but essentially they mean the same thing. 하는 거 같애 = I think they're doing. It looks like they're doing. 예쁜 거 같애 = I think it's pretty. It looks pretty. 치킨인거 같애 = I think it's a chicken. It looks like a chicken (food).

Rules Attach 인 것 같다 였던 것 같다 인 거 같애 였던 거 같애 to a noun. 같다/였던 같다/인 같애/였던 강아지(인 거) 같애 = I think it's a puppy (It looks like a puppy) 고양이(인 거) 같애 = I think it's a cat 뻐꾸기(인 거) 같애 = I think it's a cuckoo 나무(인 거) 같애 = I think it's a tree 사람(인 거) 같애 = I think it's a person 학교(인 거) 같애 = I think it's a school Example sentences

민희: 너 저 동물이 뭔지 알아? = Do you know what that animal is? 수영: 저건 사자 같애. = I think that is a lion. (That looks like a lion) 민희: 사자 아닌 거 같은데. 호랑이 같애. = I don't think that is a lion. I think it's a tiger. 수영: 그런가? 그럼 저 멀리 저건 뭐지? = Is it? Then what is that over there afar? 민희: 사람은 아닌 거 같애. 동물인 거 같애. = I don't think it's a human. I think it's an animal. 수영: 침팬지다. = It's a chimpanzee. 민희: 침팬지 같았어. = I thought that was a chimpanzee. (It looked like a chimpanzee) Note: 같다's past tense is 같았어 and so 고양이 같았어 = I thought it was a cat.

Formal Forms Rules Written Korean = Change 다 to 습니다 습니다. Spoken Korean = Attach 요 to the end of a sentence. eg. 태국음식은 맛있는 것 같습니다 = I think Thai food is delicious 이 집은 굉장히 큰 거 같애요 = I think this house is enormously big. 이번 수학시험은 정말 쉬웠던 거 같애요 = I think the maths test was really easy. 내 기억에 저 들 위에는 꽃들이 많았던 거 같애요 = According to my memory, I think there were a lot of flowers on that hill.

They/he/she think(s) = ~ 같대 같대 is a shortened form of 같다고 해 and it is used to express what they/he/she think(s). 같대 is usually used in spoken Korean. Attach 요 to 같대 to make it formal. 할머니가 이 개는 저 개집에서 살았던 거 같대 = Grandma thinks this dog lived in that kennel. = Grandma thinks this dog used to live in that kennel. 엄마가 저 방에는 아기가 자고 있는 거 같대 = Mum thinks a baby is sleeping in that room. 친구가 나는 밥을 빨리 먹는 거 같대요 = My friend thinks I eat (a meal) fast. 폴이 태국음식은 맛있는 거 같대 = Paul thinks Thai food is delicious 동생의 기억엔 저 들 위에는 꽃들이 많았던 거 같대요 = According to my younger (brother/sister)'s memory, He/she thinks there were a lot of flowers on that hill. 강아지(인 거) 같대 = They/he/she think(s) it's a puppy (It looks like a puppy) 고양이(인 거) 같대요 = They/he/she think(s) it's a cat

Are you doing? - ~는 거야 [Informal] 는 거야?
Are you doing? - ~는 거야 는 거야? 는 거야 is commonly used in situations where you see somebody doing something and you want to ask them what they are doing. Again, 는 거야 can only be used when you are actually watching somebody doing something, and you want to ask them what they are doing. ● Rule Take 다 off a plain verb and add 는 거야 거야? 하다 → 하는 거야? = Are you doing? 가다 → 가는 거야? = Are you going? 읽다 → 읽는 거야? = Are you reading? 보다 → 보는 거야? = Are you watching? 쓰다 → 쓰는 거야? = Are you writing? 먹다 → 먹는 거야? = Are you eating? 마시다 → 마시는 거야? = Are you drinking? 자다 → 자는 거야? = Are you sleeping? 보내다 → 보내는 거야? = Are you sending? Eg. 일 하는 거야? = Are you working? 학교 숙제 하는 거야? = Are you doing school homework? 점심 먹는 거야? = Are you having lunch? 집에 가는 거야? = Are you going home? 교회 가는 거야? = Are you going to church? 물 마시는 거야? = Are you drinking water? 영화 보는 거야? = Are you watching a movie? 에세이 쓰는 거야? = Are you writing an essay? 문자 메시지 보내는 거야? = Are you sending a txt message? 벌써 자는 거야? = Are you sleeping already? You can add 언제, 어디, 누가, 뭐, 어떻게 or 왜 [when, where, who, what, how or why] in front of ~는 거 야? to make these sentences. 뭐 하는 거야? = What are you doing? 뭐 읽는 거야? = What are you reading? 뭐 보는 거야? = What are you watching? 뭐 쓰는 거야? = What are you writing? 뭐 먹는 거야? = What are you eating? 뭐 마시는 거야? = What are you drinking? 뭐 보내는 거야? = What are you sending? 어디 가는 거야? = Where are you going? 누가 자는 거야? = Who is sleeping? 누가 하는 거야? = Who is doing? 어떻게 쓰는 거야? = How are you writing?

왜 하는 거야? = Why are you doing?

Are you doing? - ~시는 거예요 [Polite] 시는 거예요?
Are you doing? - ~시는 거예요 [Polite] 시는 거예요? 시는 거예요 is commonly used in situations where you want to ask somebody what they're doing. 시는 거예요 can only used when you're actually seeing somebody doing something, and you want to ask them what they are doing. ● Rule Take 다 off a plain verb and add 시는 거예요 거예요? 하다 → 하시는 거예요? = Are you doing? 가다 → 가시는 거예요? = Are you going? 읽다 → 읽으시는 거예요? = Are you reading? 보다 → 보시는 거예요? = Are you watching? 쓰다 → 쓰시는 거예요? = Are you writing? 먹다 → 드시는 거예요? = Are you eating? 마시다 → 마시는 거예요? = Are you drinking? 자다 → 주무시는 거예요? = Are you sleeping? 보내다 → 보내시는 거예요? = Are you sending? Note: Irregular verbs 읽다 → 읽으시는 거예요? NOT 읽시는 거예요? 자다 → 주무시는 거예요? NOT 자시는 거예요? 먹다 → 드시는 거예요? NOT 먹시는 거예요? Eg. 일 하시는 거예요? = Are you working? 점심 드시는 거예요? = Are you having lunch? 집에 가시는 거예요? = Are you going home? 교회 가시는 거예요? = Are you going to church? 물 마시는 거예요? = Are you drinking water? 영화 보시는 거예요? = Are you watching a movie? 에세이 쓰시는 거예요? = Are you writing an essay? 문자 메시지 보내시는 거예요? = Are you sending a txt message? 벌써 주무시는 거예요? = Are you sleeping already? You can add 언제, 어디, 누가, 뭐, 어떻게 or 왜 [when, where, who, what, how or why] in front of ~시는 거 예요? to make these sentences. 뭐 하시는 거예요? = What are you doing? 뭐 읽으시는 거예요? = What are you reading? 뭐 보시는 거예요? = What are you watching? 뭐 쓰시는 거예요? = What are you writing? 뭐 드시는 거예요? = What are you eating?

뭐 마시는 거예요? = What are you drinking? 뭐 보내시는 거예요? = What are you sending? 어디 가시는 거예요? = Where are you going? 누가 주무시는 거예요? = Who is sleeping? 누가 하시는 거예요? = Who is doing? 어떻게 쓰시는 거예요? = How are you writing? 왜 하시는 거예요? = Why are you doing?

Are we doing? - 하는 거야 / 거예요 거예요?
Are we doing? - 하는 거야 / 거예요 거예요? 하는 거야/ 거예요? is usually used when you want to ask someone what you (both singular and plural) are doing, or will be doing immediately. For example, when you are in a group of people who are doing things as a group, and you want to ask a leader of the group what you all will be doing. 우리 저기 가는 거야? = Are we going there? [Informal] 우리 저기 가는 거예요? = Are we going there? [Polite] Note: 하는 거야? = Are you/we doing? HOWEVER, the polite form of "Are you doing?" usually uses "시는 거예요?" whereas the polite form of "Are we doing?" uses "는 거예요?" See Are you doing? - ~는 거야? , Are you doing? - ~시는 거예요? ● Rule Take 다 off a plain verb and add 는 거야 / 거예요 거예요? 하다 → 하는 거야 / 거예요? = Are we doing? 가다 → 가는 거야 / 거예요? = Are we going? 읽다 → 읽는 거야 / 거예요? = Are we reading? 보다 → 보는 거야 / 거예요? = Are we watching? 쓰다 → 쓰는 거야 / 거예요? = Are we writing? 먹다 → 먹는 거야 / 거예요? = Are we eating? 마시다 → 마시는 거야 / 거예요? = Are we drinking? 자다 → 자는 거야 / 거예요? = Are we sleeping? 보내다 → 보내는 거야 / 거예요? = Are we sending? Example Sentences 운동 하는 거예요? = Are (we) exercising? 저기로 가는 거예요? = Are (we) going there? 이 차로 가는 거예요? = Are (we) going by this car? 이거 먹는 거예요? = Are (we) eating this? 이걸로 먹는 거예요? = Are (we) eating with this? 여기서 자는 거예요? = Are (we) sleeping here? 오늘 저 영화 보는 거예요? = Are (we) watching that movie today? 이걸로 보는 거예요? = Are (we) watching with this? You can add 언제, 어디, 누가, 뭐, 어떻게 or 왜 [when, where, who, what, how or why] in front of ~시는 거 예요? to make these sentences. 오늘 우리 뭐 하는 거예요? = What are we doing today? 뭐 읽는 거예요? = What are (we) reading? 뭐 보는 거예요? = What are (we) watching? 뭐 쓰는 거예요? = What are (we) writing?

뭐 먹는 거예요? = What are (we) eating? 뭐 마시는 거예요? = What are (we) drinking? 뭐 보내는 거예요? = What are (we) sending? 어디 가는 거예요? = Where are (we) going? 어디서 자는 거예요? = Where are (we) sleeping? 누가 하는 거예요? = Who is doing? 어떻게 쓰는 거예요? = How are (we) writing? 왜 하는 거예요? = Why are (we) doing? More Example Sentences 우리 어디 가는 거예요? = Where are we going? 아, 지금 시내에 가는 거예요. = Ah, we're going to the city. 이 차로 가는 거예요? = Are (we) going by this car? 네, 어서 타세요. = Yes, please get in. 뭐 먹을 거예요? = What will we eat? Verbs - Future [Will] 스파게티 먹을 거예요. 스파게티 좋아하세요? = We will eat spaghetti. Do you like it? 네, 좋아해요. = Yes, I like it.

To do something - ~기 위해 기
To do something - ~기 위해 기 This is the expression used to show that you purpose to do something. For example, 아브라함은 대학 가기 위해 열심히 공부를 했다 = To go to college, Abraham studied hard. In the sentence above, the reason why Abraham studied hard is because he's purposed to go to college. 점심 먹기 위해 레스토랑에 들어 갔다 = To eat lunch, we went into the restaurant. We went into the restaurant because we'd purposed to eat lunch. Therefore, the clause containing ~기 위해 is the reason for doing something revealed in the rest of the sentence. Rules ● Add 위해 to a nominalized verb. Also see (Nouns - Nominalizing Verbs) 읽기 위해 = To read 쓰기 위해 = To write 듣기 위해 = To listen 말하기 위해 = To speak 가기 위해 = To go 오기 위해 = To come 보기 위해 = To watch 먹기 위해 = To eat 자기 위해 = To sleep 달리기 위해 = To run 사기 위해 = To buy 팔기 위해 = To sell 서기 위해 = To stand 앉기 위해 = To sit 살기 위해 = To live 죽기 위해 = To die Eg. 한글을 읽기 위해 한국어를 공부했다. = To read Korean words, I studied Korean. 자유의 여신상을 보기 위해 뉴욕에 갔다. = To see the Statue of Liberty, we went to New York. 그녀는 필리핀에 가기 위해 비행기 티켓을 샀다. = To go to the Philippines, she bought a flight ticket. 유다에 도착한 룻은 시어머니를 돕기 위해 일을 했다 = Ruth, who arrived in Judah, to support her mother-in-law, she worked. (An excerpt from 룻 이야기) 한글 = Korean (writing) 한국어 = Korean (language) 자유의 여신상 = The Statue of Liberty

필리핀 = The Philippines 비행기 티켓 = flight ticket 유다 = Judah 룻 = Ruth 시어머니 = Mother-in-law 돕다 = support 돕기 위해 = To support

Try doing - ~해 보다 해
Try doing - ~해 보다 해 보다 means "see" and ~해 보다 is a special expression which means "try doing". This expression is used very commonly in ordinary conversations. ● Rule Add 보다 to a spoken form of a verb. (Verbs - Present, Past) 해 보다 = try doing 가 보다 = try going 먹어 보다 = try eating 마셔 보다 = try drinking 읽어 보다 = try reading 들어 보다 = try listening 사 보다 = try buying 앉아 보다 = try sitting 봐 보다 = try seeing/looking/watching 올라가 보다 = try going up 쳐 보다 = try playing (the instrument) The tables below is showing the written and spoken forms, and their respective positive and negative forms. Remember that the plain form of verbs is the most basic from which many other forms of verbs derive and the plain form itself is rarely used in both written and spoken Korean. I have omitted the present negatives for both written and spoken forms because people never use it in this way. Instead of saying, "don't try eating", people would say, "don't eat" which is 먹지마. There are two ways of expressing past negatives and one is more common than the other. "안~" form is more commonly used. Factual/Declarative (Written) Positive Negative Plain Present 먹어 본다 Past 먹어 봤다 먹어 보지 않았다 안 먹어 봤 다

먹어 보다 먹어 보지 않다

Dialogue/Conversation (Spoken) Positive Negative

Plain

Present 먹어 봐

Past 먹어 봤어 먹어 보지 않았어 안 먹어 봤어

먹어 보다 먹어 보지 않다

Eg. 안나는 중국 음식을 먹어 봤다. = Anna tried eating Chinese food. 찰스는 조나단 에드워즈의 책을 읽어 봤다. = Charles tried reading Jonathan Edwards' book. 예전에 먹어 봐서 코코넛을 또 사 봤다 = Because I tried eating it before, I tried buying a coconut again. (Conjunctions - Because, So) 예전에 = in the past, before 또 = again 이 음악을 들어 봐! = Try listening to this music! 이 차를 마셔 봐! = Try drinking this tea! 이 언덕에 올라가 봐. 그리고 푸른하늘을 봐 봐. = Try going up this hill! And try looking at the blue sky! 독일 가 봤어? = Tried going to Germany? (= Have you been to Germany?) 이 오래된 소파에 앉아 봤어? = Tried sitting on this old sofa? 피아노 쳐 봤어? = Tried playing the piano?

Formal Form Refer to Verbs - Formal [Present, Past] Eg. Written Form 먹어 봅니다 = try eating 먹어 봤습니다 = tried eating 먹어 보지 않았습니다 = haven't tried eating 안 먹어 봤습니다 = haven't tried eating Spoken Form 먹어 봐요 = try eating 먹어 봤어요 = tried eating 먹어 보지 않았어요 = haven't tried eating 안 먹어 봤어요 = haven't tried eating

Of course, I've done it before - 해봤죠
(Of course), I've done it (before) - (당연히 (전에 해봤죠 당연히) 전에) 당연히 전에 당연히 = Of course 전에 = before 해봤죠 = I've done it Usually, when we use 해봤죠, 당연히 and 전에 are implied and omitted. So if I say, "축구 해봤죠 it 축구 해봤죠," means, "(Of course), I've played soccer (before)." When 축구 해봤죠 is used as a question like "축구 해봤죠 축구 해봤죠?", it means, "You have played soccer before, haven't you?" 해봤죠 is a formal form and 해봤지 is an informal form. 해봤죠 is a contracted form of 해봤지요. Eg. 축구 해봤지. = (Of course), I've played soccer (before). [Informal] 축구 해봤지? = You have played soccer (before), haven't you? [Informal] Usually, 봤죠 form is used as an answer to a question. Eg. 축구 해봤어요? = Have you played soccer (before)? 축구 해봤죠 = (Of course), I've played soccer (before). 축구 안해봤죠 = (Of course), I haven't played soccer (before). Alternative answers (예), 축구 해봤어요 = (Yea), I've played soccer (before). (아뇨), 축구 안해봤어요 = (No), I haven't played soccer (before). References: Try doing - 해 보다, It's cold, isn't it? - 춥지요?

Rule Informal present spoken form of verbs + 봤죠 Eg. 해봤죠 = (Of course), I've done it (before) 먹어봤죠 = (Of course), I've tried[eaten] it (before) 가봤죠 = (Of course), I've been[gone] there (before) 사봤죠 = (Of course), I've bought it (before)

입어봤죠 = (Of course), I've tried it on[worn it] (before) 살아봤죠 = (Of course), I've lived there (before) Example Sentences (전에) 김치 먹어봤어요? = Have you tried kimchi (before)? (당연히) 김치 먹어봤죠. = (Of course), I've tried kimchi (before). 서울 가봤어요? = Have you been to Seoul (before)? 서울 가봤죠. = (Of course), I've been to Seoul (before). 미국에서 살아봤죠. = (Of course), I've lived in the States (before). 파스타 만들어봤죠. = (Of course), I've made pasta (before). [Therefore, I know how to cook pasta.] 일본 가봤죠? = You've been to Japan, haven't you? 중국 안가봤죠? = You haven't been to China, have you? 카레 안먹어봤죠? = You haven't tried curry before, have you? 에콰도르에서 안 살아봤죠? = You've never lived in Ecuador before, have you? Note: Kimchi is traditional Korean food. It is a hot and spicy pickled cabbage dish.

Give the favour of ~ - ~주다 주다
Give the favour of ~ - ~주다 주다 This is an important lesson because ~주다 is very frequently used in ordinary conversations. First of all, 주다 주다 means "give" and when we attach the spoken form of a verb in front of 주다, it means someone "gives the favour of doing something for someone". For example, 도와 주다 means "give the favour of helping to somebody" which essentially means "I help someone". 민희는 엄마를 도와 주었다 = Min-hee gave the favour of helping to Mom. (Min-hee helped Mom) In the sentence above, Min-hee helped her Mom and this helping has been done to her and for her. The concept of giving is profound in the Korean language. In many occasions where somebody does something for somebody or to somebody, the sentences invariably includes ~주다 주다. 주다 ● Rule Attach the spoken form of verbs in front of 주다 주다. 해 주다 = give the favour of doing 가 주다 = give the favour of going 와 주다 = give the favour of coming 먹어 주다 = give the favour of eating 마셔 주다 = give the favour of drinking 읽어 주다 = give the favour of reading 써 주다 = give the favour of writing 봐 주다 = give the favour of seeing 들어 주다 = give the favour of listening 사 주다 = give the favour of buying 팔아 주다 = give the favour of selling 가르쳐 주다 = give the favour of teaching 도와 주다 = give the favour of helping Sentences 영호는 시내까지 같이 가 주었다 = Young-ho gave (me) the favour of going to town together (Young-ho went to town with me.) 시내 = town 같이 = together 엘리엇은 우리 집에 와 주었다 = Elliot gave (us) the favour of coming to our home. (Elliot came to our house.) 우리 = we 집 = house 나는 동생의 밥을 먹어 주었다 = I gave my little brother/sister the favour of eating his/her meal. (I ate my little brother's/sister's meal for them.) 동생 = little sibling (gender neutral)

밥 = meal, rice 파이퍼교수님은 우리에게 존 칼빈의 신학을 가르쳐 주었다 = Professor Piper gave the favour of teaching John Calvin's theology to us. (Professor Piper taught us John Calvin's theology.) 교수 = professor 님 = honorary suffix (usually attached to the name of professions which involve teaching) For eg. 선생님 = teacher, 목사님 = pastor, 교수님 = professor 신학 = theology 나에게 편지를 읽어 줬다 = (someone) gave the favour of reading a letter to me. [(someone) read a letter to me (for me)] 편지 = letter 에게 = Particles - 께/에게/한테 줬다 = the contracted form of 주었다 피터는 내 노래를 들어 줬어 = Peter gave the favour of listening to my song. [Peter listened to my song for me.] 노래 = song 줬어 = the contracted form of 주었어 (which is the spoken form of 주었다) 어떤 아저씨가 도와 줬어요 = Some middle-aged man gave the favour of helping to me (Some middle-aged man helped me.)

어떤 ~ = some ~ (random, passer-by) 아저씨 = middle-aged man (a general term for every married men or men aged between approx. 27~55. On a side note, some men who are actually young get offended if some children call him 아저씨 because that means that young man looks older than he actually is.) 어떤 아줌마 = some middle-aged woman 아줌마 = a middle-aged woman (a general term for every married women or women aged between approx. 27~55. Again, almost all women who are actually young get offended or even hurt if some people call her 아 줌마 because that means that young lady looks old. Let us have some discernment.) 어떤 아이 = some child

Would you like to go? - 갈래요 갈래요?
Would you like to go? - 갈래요 갈래요? ~을(ㄹ)래요? is used when you express your desire to do something together with someone, or when you want someone to do something. So it is similar to "Would you like to do something?/Do you want to do something?" in English. ● Rule 1. For verbs without a final consonant, add ㄹ 래요 래요. 하다 = 할래요? = Would you like to do? 가다 = 갈래요? = Would you like to go? 사다 = 살래요? = Would you like to buy? 마시다 = 마실래요? = Would you like to drink? 2. For verbs with a final consonant, add 을래요 을래요. 먹다 = 먹을래요? = Would you like to eat? 앉다 = 앉을래요? = Would you like to sit? 읽다 = 읽을래요? = Would you like to read? Eg. 커피 마실래요? = Would you like to drink coffee? 점심 먹을래요? = Would you like to eat lunch? 극장에 같이 갈래요? = Would like to go to the cinema together? 극장 = cinema, theatre 점심 = lunch, noon 같이 = together Note: If you omit 요 off 을(ㄹ)래요, ie. 을(ㄹ)래 it becomes an informal form. 커피 마실래? = Would you like to drink coffee? 점심 먹을래? = Would you like to eat lunch? 극장에 같이 갈래? = Would like to go to the cinema together?

Shall we do something? - 우리 뭐 할까 할까?
Shall we do something? - 우리 뭐 할까 할까? Rules 1. For verbs without a final consonant, attach ㄹ as a final consonant and add 까 . eg. 사다 → 살까? = Shall we buy? 살까 을까. 2. For verbs with a final consonant, attach 을까 eg. 입다 → 입을까? = shall we wear? 입을까 Irregular eg. 듣다 → 들을까 들을까? 하다 → 할까? = Shall we do? 가다 → 갈까? = Shall we go? 먹다 → 먹을까? = Shall we eat? 마시다 → 마실까? = Shall we drink? 보다 → 볼까? = Shall we watch? 듣다 → 들을까? = Shall we listen to? 놀다 → 놀까? = Shall we hang out/muck around? Example Sentences 우리 놀이공원에 갈까? = Shall we go to a theme park? 우리 스타벅스에서 커피 마실까? = Shall we drink coffee at Starbucks? 우리 점심 먹으러 갈까? = Shall we go have lunch together? 해리포터 영화 보러 갈까? = Shall we go watch the Harry Potter movie? 우리 운동하러 헬스장 갈까? = Shall we go to a gym to exercise? Note: Attach 요 to ㄹ/을 까 to make it formal. 우리 놀이공원에 갈까요? = Shall we go to a theme park? 우리 스타벅스에서 커피 마실까요? = Shall we drink coffee at Starbucks? 우리 점심 먹으러 갈까요? = Shall we go have lunch together? 해리포터 영화 보러 갈까요? = Shall we go watch the Harry Potter movie? 우리 운동하러 헬스장 갈까요? = Shall we go to a gym to exercise?

It's cold, isn't it? - 춥지요 춥지요?
It's cold, isn't it? - 춥지요 춥지요? 지요 is used similarly to "isn't it?" of English. For example, 춥다 means "cold", and 춥지요 means "It's cold, isn't it? or It's cold, eh? or It's cold, right?" This is used when you want to chat up somebody or when you are looking for a confirmation. ● Rule Take 다 off an adjective and add 지요 to it. 춥다 → 춥지요 = It's cold, isn't it? 덥다 → 덥지요 = It's hot, isn't it? 많다 → 많지요 = There is a lot, isn't there? 적다 → 적지요 = There is little, isn't there? 높다 → 높지요 = It's high, isn't it? 낮다 → 낮지요 = It's low, isn't it? 크다 → 크지요 = It's large, isn't it? 작다 → 작지요 = It's small, isn't it? 좋다 → 좋지요 = It's good, isn't it? 나쁘다 → 나쁘지요 = It's bad, isn't it? 깊다 → 깊지요 = It's deep, isn't it? 맛있다 → 맛있지요 = It's delicious, isn't it? Note: 지요 is often contracted to 죠 in speech. Therefore 춥지요 → 춥죠. 춥죠 = It's cold, isn't it? 덥죠 = It's hot, isn't it? 많죠 = There is a lot, isn't there? 적죠 = There is little, isn't there? 높죠 = It's high, isn't it? 낮죠 = It's low, isn't it? 크죠 = It's large, isn't it? 작죠 = It's small, isn't it? 좋죠 = It's good, isn't it? 나쁘죠 = It's bad, isn't it? 깊죠 = It's very deep, isn't? 맛있죠 = It's delicious, isn't it? Sentences 날씨가 춥죠? = The weather is cold, isn't it? 태국 날씨가 되게 덥죠? = The weather in Thailand is very hot, isn't it? 한라산이 높죠? = Mount Halla is high, isn't it? 강물이 정말 깊죠? = The river water is very deep, right? 집이 작죠? = The house is small, eh? 김치가 맛있죠? = Kimchi is delicious, isn't it?

날씨 = weather 태국 = Thailand 한라산 = Mount Halla 강물 = river water 집 = house 김치 = kimchi (A traditional Korean fermented dish made of cabbages with spicy seasonings)

Let's do it - 하자
Let's do it - 하자 This should be easy to learn. Just replace 다 of a plain verb with 자 to make a phrase, "Let's (verb)". Note: This is an informal form. 하다 → 하자 = Let's do it 먹다 → 먹자 = Let's eat 마시다 → 마시자 = Let's drink 가다 → 가자 = Let's go 앉다 → 앉자 = Let's sit 보다 → 보자 = Let's see 읽다 → 읽자 = Let's read 쓰다 → 쓰자 = Let's write 듣다 → 듣자 = Let's listen 달리다 → 달리자 = Let's run 걷다 → 걷자 = Let's walk 사다 → 사자 = Let's buy 팔다 → 팔자 = Let's sell Example Sentences 우리 = we 같이 = together (우리) (같이) 농구 하자 = Let's do basketball. (Let's play basketball) (우리) (같이) 피자 먹자 = Let's eat a pizza (together) (우리) (같이) 커피 마시자 = Let's drink coffee (together) (우리) (같이) 바닷가 가자 = Let's go to beach (together) (우리) (같이) 벤치에 앉자 = Let's sit on the bench (together) (우리) (같이) 영화 보자 = Let's watch a movie (together) (우리) (같이) 교과서 읽자 = Let's read a textbook (together) (우리) (같이) 아이포드 듣자 = Let's listen to ipod (together) (우리) (같이) 새 신발 사자 = Let's buy new shoes (together) (우리) (같이) 저 냉장고 팔자 = Let's sell that fridge (together)

The formal form of "Let's (verb)" is exactly the same as that of the formal spoken present form. You may want to refer to Verbs - Formal [Present, Past] "Please" is implied in the phrase. 하다 → 해요 = (Please.) Let's do it 먹다 → 먹어요 = (Please.) Let's eat 마시다 → 마셔요 = (Please.) Let's drink 가다 → 가요 = (Please.) Let's go 앉다 → 앉아요 = (Please.) Let's sit 보다 → 봐요 = (Please.) Let's see

읽다 → 읽어요 = (Please.) Let's read 쓰다 → 써요 = (Please.) Let's write 듣다 → 들어요 = (Please.) Let's listen 달리다 → 달려요 = (Please.) Let's run 걷다 → 걸어요 = (Please.) Let's walk 사다 → 사요 = (Please.) Let's buy 팔다 → 팔아요 = (Please.) Let's sell Example Sentences 우리 = we 같이 = together (우리) (같이) 농구 해요 = [Please] Let's do basketball (Let's play basketball) (우리) (같이) 피자 먹어요 = [Please] Let's eat a pizza (together) (우리) (같이) 커피 마셔요 = [Please] Let's drink coffee (together) (우리) (같이) 바닷가 가요 = [Please] Let's go to beach (together) (우리) (같이) 벤치에 앉아요 = [Please] Let's sit on the bench (together) (우리) (같이) 영화 봐요 = [Please] Let's watch a movie (together) (우리) (같이) 교과서 읽어요 = [Please] Let's read a textbook (together) (우리) (같이) 아이포드 들어요 = [Please] Let's listen to ipod (together) (우리) (같이) 새 신발 사요 = [Please] Let's buy new shoes (together) (우리) (같이) 저 냉장고 팔아요 = [Please] Let's sell that fridge (together)

Easy to do / Difficult to do - ~기 쉽다 / ~기 어렵다 기 기
Easy to do / Difficult to do - ~기 쉽다 / ~기 어렵다 기 기 This one is easy to learn. All you need to do is attach a nominalized verb to 쉽다 or 어렵다 to say that something is easy or difficult. Written Forms 하기 쉽다 = easy to do 이해하기 쉽다 = easy to understand 풀기 쉽다 = easy to solve 보기 쉽다 = easy to see 듣기 쉽다 = easy to listen 말하기 쉽다 = easy to say 가기 쉽다 = easy to go Spoken Forms 하기 쉬워 = easy to do 이해하기 쉬워 = easy to understand 풀기 쉬워 = easy to solve 보기 쉬워 = easy to see 듣기 쉬워 = easy to listen 말하기 쉬워 = easy to say 가기 쉬워 = easy to go

Written Forms 하기 어렵다 = difficult to do 이해하기 어렵다 = difficult to understand 풀기 어렵다 = difficult to solve 보기 어렵다 = difficult to see 듣기 어렵다 = difficult to listen 말하기 어렵다 = difficult to say 가기 어렵다 = difficult to go Spoken Forms 하기 어려워 = difficult to do 이해하기 어려워 = difficult to understand 풀기 어려워 = difficult to solve 보기 어려워 = difficult to see 듣기 어려워 = difficult to listen 말하기 어려워 = difficult to say 가기 어려워 = difficult to go Eg.

이 문제 풀어봤어? = Have you tried solving this problem? [Try doing - 해 보다] 어. 이 문제는 정말 풀기 어려워. = Yes. This problem is really difficult to solve. 우리 서커스 보러 가자. = Let's go watch a circus. 사람들이 너무 많아서 보기 어려워 = Because of the crowd, it's difficult to see. 여자는 이해하기 어려워요 = It's difficult to understand woman. 아니에요. 남자가 더 이해하기 어려워요 = No. Man is more difficult to understand. 그렇게 생각해요? = Do you think so? 네. 정말 그렇게 생각해요. = Yes. I surely do. 제 말 들리세요? = Can you hear me? 아니요. 음악 소리 때문에 듣기 어려워요. = No. Because of the sound of music, it's difficult to hear. 낚시 가르쳐 주세요 = please teach me how to do fishing [Give the favour of doing - 해 주다] 그래요. 낚시는 하기 쉬워요. = Ok. Fishing is easy to do. 문제 = problem 풀다 = solve 풀어보다 = try solving 서커스 = circus 남자 = man 여자 = woman 생각하다 = think 그렇게 생각하다 = think so 정말 = really, very 너무 = very 음악 = music 소리 = sound 낚시 = fishing

I know how - 어떻게 하는지 알아
I (don't) know how - 어떻게 하는지 알아 몰라 알아/몰라 Written Form Informal Formal I know how to do I don't know how to do

어떻게 하는지 안 어떻게 하는지 모른다 다 어떻게 하는지 압 어떻게 하는지 모릅니 니다 다.

Spoken Form Informal Formal

I know how to do 어떻게 하는지 알 아

I don't know how to do 어떻게 하는지 몰라

어떻게 하는지 알 어떻게 하는지 몰라요 아요

Note: I include the written form of this expression for the sake of completeness. However, please focus on the spoken form as the expression is mainly used in conversations. Rules 1.Take 다 off a plain form/past tense of verbs and attach 는지 알아. 알아 (Exception: For those verbs which contain ㄹ as a final consonant, take it off. eg. 만들다 → 만드는지 알아) 알아 2. Attach 요 to 알아 몰라 to turn it into a formal form. 알아/몰라 어떻게 하는지 알아 = I know how to do 어떻게 먹는지 알아 = I know how to eat 어떻게 가는지 알아 = I know how to go 어떻게 보는지 알아 = I know how to see 어떻게 듣는지 알아 = I know how to listen 어떻게 사용하는지 알아 = I know how to use 어떻게 만드는지 알아 = I know how to make 어떻게 입는지 알아 = I know how to wear 어떻게 하는지 몰라 = I don't know how to do 어떻게 가는지 몰라 = I don't know how to go Example sentences

용준이는 김치찌게 어떻게 만드는지 알아요. = Yong-jun knows how to make(cook) kimchi stew. "줄리아! 라면 어떻게 끓이는지 알아?" = "Julia! Do you know how to boil(cook) noodle soup?" 내가 이 큰 물고기 어떻게 잡았는지 알아? 이 물고기가 힘이 좋아서 정말 힘들게 잡았어. = Do you know how I caught this big fish? This fish has good strength and so I caught it with a lot of effort. 저는 나무 어떻게 심는지 알아요. = I know how to plant a tree. 이 리모콘 어떻게 사용하는지 알아? = Do you know how to use this remote controller? 서울에 어떻게 가는지 아세요? = Do you know how to go(get) to Seoul? 부산에 어떻게 가는지 몰라. = I don't know how to go to Busan. 넥타이 어떻게 매는지 몰라요. = I don't know how to tie a necktie. 할아버지는 문자 어떻게 보내는지 모르세요. = Grandpa doesn't know how to send a text message. Note: 아세요 and 모르세요 are honorific forms of 알아 and 몰라 respectively. 아세요 and 모르세요 are only used for second- and third-persons. For eg, I know how to use the subway. 전 지하철 어떻게 이용하는지 아세요. 전 지하철 어떻게 이용하는지 알아요. Do you know how to use the subway? 지하철 어떻게 이용하는지 아세요? He/she already knows how to use the subway. 벌써 지하철 어떻게 이용하는지 아세요.

Made/compelled to - ~되면 ~게 돼요 되면 게
This phrase has two parts. The first part is ~게 되면, and the second part is ~게 돼요. The meaning of "~게 되면" is equivalent to "when(ever) or if," and that of "~게 돼요" is equivalent to "am made/compelled to" or "habitually(usually)." For example, 음식점에 가게 되면, 비빔밥을 주문하게 돼요 = When(ever) I go to a restaurant, I am made/compelled to order a bibimbap. (I habitually/usually order a bibimbap.) 음식점 = a restaurant 가다 = go 가게 되면 = When(if) I go 비빔밥 = a Korean dish (The dish consists of rice with various kinds of vegetables, beef(usually mince), fried egg, Korean red chili paste and sesame oil.) 주문 = order (n.) 주문하다 = order (v.) 주문하게 돼요 = I habitually order Note: The plain form of 되면 and 돼요 is '되다' which means 'to become.' Therefore, the literal translation of the sentence above is: 음식점에 가게 되면, 비빔밥을 주문하게 돼요 = When(ever) it becomes that I go to a restaurant, it becomes that I order bibimbap Also, in the first part when a noun is used instead of a verb, 이/가 되면 is used instead. For example, 아침이 되면, 신문을 보게 된다 = When it is morning, I habitually(usually) read a newspaper The literal translation of the sentence above is, "When it 'becomes' morning, I 'become' reading a newspaper." The sentence doesn't make sense grammatically in English but I hope the literal translation will help you get the nuance of the phrase. Conjugation rule Take 다 off a plain form of verbs and attach 게 되면 게 돼요 to it. 되면/게 하다(do) → 하게 되면 = When(ever) I do 하다(do) → 하게 돼요 = I habitually/usually do (or I am made/compelled to do) 하게 돼요 = I habitually do

가게 돼요 = I habitually go 오게 돼요 = I habitually come 먹게 돼요 = I habitually eat 자게 돼요 = I habitually sleep 말하게 돼요 = I habitually speak 듣게 돼요 = I habitually listen 보게 돼요 = I habitually watch Example Sentences 늦은 밤이 되면, 아이스크림을 먹게 돼요 = When(ever) it is late at night, I habitually eat an icecream 정오가 되면 졸려서 낮잠을 자게 돼요 = When(ever) it is noon, because I'm tired(sleepy), I habitually have a nap (Lit. sleep a nap). 컴퓨터만 키게 되면, 음악을 듣게 돼요 = When(ever) I turn on the computer, I habitually listen to music. 시내만 나가게 되면, 영화를 보게 돼요 = When(ever) I go to town, I habitually go to movies (Lit. watch movies). 운동만 하게 되면, 물을 많이 마시게 돼요 = When(ever) I exercise, I habitually drink a lot of water. Usually As a side note, when you would like express something that you "usually" do and not what you are "made/compelled to" do, "주로 is often used. 주로" 주로 For example, 음식점에 가면, "주로" 비빔밥을 주문해요 = When I go to a restaurant, I usually order a bibimbap. (There is no nuance of being "made/compelled to" order a bibimbap.) 운동하고 나서는 "주로" 물을 많이 마셔요 = After exercise, I usually drink a lot of water. (Some people may not drink a lot of water and other people may not drink water at all but as for me, I "usually"(whether "I'm made/compelled to" or not, we do not know) drink a lot of water.) 시내에 나가면 주로 영화를 봐요 = When I go to town, I usually go to movies. (Lit. watch movies) 학교에는 주로 걸어가요 = I usually walk to school. 회사에는 주로 차로 가요 = I usually go to work by car.

Addressing People
Addressing friend's name When a person is addressed 아/야 is attached to their name. If my name were 진우[Jin-u], my friend would call me, 진우야! [Jin-u-ya]. This is like "Hey 진우/Jin-u!" This colloquialism should only be used between close friends. This is an informal expression. At school, friends call each other this way, and teachers to students but not vice versa. Note that 야 is used for names without a final consonant and 아 for names with a final consonant. Eg. 진욱 → 진욱아! This is pronounced [지누가:Ji-nu-ga] since ㅇ has no sound when used as an initial consonant. 진우 → 진우야! It is pronounced [지누야:Ji-nu-ya] 영희 → 영희야! 철수 → 철수야! 경일 → 경일아! So when you call your Korean friend's name, just add 아/야 to their name.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Moving to a Different Country

...Steps to Moving to a new country Mayar Lampkin Everest University Ever wonder what it is like to move to a new country? Well wonder no more I will tell you. Moving to a new country can be fun and exciting adventure but it takes a lot of work and planning. Before you go and experience the new culture make sure you do research on the country. Another is to make sure you have the right paper work and documentation. The last step is to make sure you pack up essentials. It sounds like a lot and hard work but in the end it is all worth it. Doing research about the country you will live in is very important because you will be informed about the cultures and customs of the country. Also researching what cities are safe to live in and what cities are dangerous is good way of keeping yourself safe and out of trouble. Make sure to research living situations is it mostly apartment/condo living or is it houses? Knowing that information is good for when you are packing because you will know how much space you will have. A good way of research is finding a group on a social media website and asking them questions about the country and living situations. This step will be the most important step out of all three. Having the right paperwork and documentation is very important or you can get in serious trouble and or road blocks along the way. Making sure you know what you need is important. For example if you do not already have a passport make sure you apply for one......

Words: 629 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Ellen Moore

...hierarchical reporting structure within the project team, making it impossible for  the project to continue and limits communication and knowledge transfer. The main problem that the Systems Consulting Group faces is that they need to complete their consulting project that they are behind schedule on, and need to choose a course of action quickly. 2. Identify underlying causes to the problem at hand There are many problems that are halting the progress of the project. The team is clearly suffering from lack of communication, disorganized team structure, unclear leadership and constant disagreement over the decision-making process. Business: The Korean structure appears to be hierarchical which seems to impact the understanding of relationships between consultants and clients of both the Americans and Koreans. Management: In Korea, respect for position and status influences how a project is executed. It is evident that power authority is undefined. Jack and Ellen don’t have a specific role, so there is an overlapping of power. As a result, subordinates are often confused and find it a bit hard to follow the lead of their superiors. There seems to be a lack of trust between Ellen and Jack ever since she interrupted him during the market research report meeting. Culture: The cultural aspect also plays a major part of the problem. Women in Korea are often excluded from team bonding events - mainly dinners. Jack and the subordinates......

Words: 1126 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Trident Mgt 501 Case 1

...different culture than she was used to how it went wrong and what she might have done better to try and better prepare herself for the journey that she thought she could handle. I’ll analyze the problem using Hofstede’s five dimensions of culture to compare Korean and American assumptions. I will also make recommendations to her management style that might have helped accommodate the Korean environment. Linda Myers journey started out with good intentions and she felt she had a good idea of what she was getting herself into since she had been consulting for Asian firms and thought that she understood the culture well enough to fit in. Her problem was also compounded by the fact that she would be a woman trying to trail blaze into a field and culture dominated by men. It definitely did not help that she didn’t speak the language and from the reading doesn’t appear to have tried to really learn it instead relying on her associates to speak to her in English or having to use an interpreter. She came into the job with big ambitions and plans to change her Korean associate’s way of doing business not understanding that they didn’t want to change. Now let’s look at Hofstede’s five dimensions of culture to compare Korean and American assumptions. First, Power Distance (P/D) According to Mind Tools: This refers to the degree of inequality that exists – and is accepted – among people with and without power. A high PD score indicates that society accepts an unequal......

Words: 1644 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Cross Cultural Dilemmas

...turned out as rationally different situation while Arun had conversations with the Korean company’s personnel. First of all, the Korean company and Arun, both parties failed to recognize the difference between them, (i.e. parochialism) hence the negotiation didn’t work. Secondly, both party assumed that their usual practices are best, (i.e. ethnocentrism) so there was a gap of communication and lack of understanding each other. Another perspective from Arun is that, he couldn’t distinguish the level of power distance between Mr Kim and Mr Lee (e.g. Korea has higher value of power distance than UK). Overall, both parties had lack of cultural intelligence that is why they couldn’t identity each other’s gestures, which led to an indefinite conversation. As a part of that, Arun failed to interpret the high context corporate culture of Korea. He was pretty much straight forward to his point and presented himself as an individual personality but Mr Lee and Mr Kim were more focused into team work and understanding the hierarchy (i.e. individualism vs. collectivism). After analysing the case it’s quite clear that, despite being a professional skilled employee, Arun couldn’t pinpoint the audience and their culture. And his negotiation had lack of encoding while dealt with the Korean company. 2. Question: What advice would you have given to Arun, before he began the negotiation process with the Korean company? I have several step-by-step suggestions for Arun that he should......

Words: 1126 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Sk Telecom Goes Egalitarian in a Hierarchical Society.

...Case Study 2.1 SK Telecom goes egalitarian in a hierarchical society. Facts of the Case Korea is one of the most homogeneous countries in the world, racially and linguistically. It has its own culture, language, dress and cuisine, separate and distinct from its neighboring countries. Hard work, filial piety and modesty are characteristics esteemed by Koreans. They are proud of their traditional culture and their modern economic success. This paper documents a company which has a hierarchical culture and is attempting to adapt and practice a more egalitarian values. Problem 1) SK Telecom is attempting to distance itself from which South Korean cultural value? What indicators of this value are identified in this case study? What other artifacts of this cultural value would you notice while visiting a South Korean company that upheld this national culture? 2) In your opinion, why is this hierarchical value so strong in South Korea? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this value in societies? 3) Do you think SK Telecom will be successful in integrating a more egalitarian culture, even though it contrasts with South Korea's culture? What are some of the issues that may complicate or support this transition Discussion In this paper, SK Telecom is attempting to distance itself from strong hierarchical culture in their company and want to support a more egalitarian values. Such culture may be identified by the extent of how low-hierarchy employees are empowered.......

Words: 927 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

None

...influenced by Korean entertainment media of teenager in Mueang District, Chiangmai Province By Ms. Chmanana Wonkboonma 491660009 Present to Assoc. Kunsuda Nimanussornkul This paper is partial fulfillment of the course 751409 Research Exercise in Economics Semester 2 Year 2009 Faculty of Economics, Chiang Mai University 2 Research Summary 1. Name and Surname Student code Chamanan Wonkboonma 491660009 2. Title Consumer behavior and factor as influenced by Korean entertainment of teenager in Mueang District, Chiangmai Province 3. Statement of the problem Korea has become a stream of new waves of cultural globalization era in addition to Japanese and Chinese culture. Cultural influences that have spread in the West mephitis characteristics unique to different cultures in Korea, this does not mean that in the past cultural prosperity but now means the world to manufacture a new culture (Modern society) to comply the current generation and also a mixture of old world with new world seamlessly, enabling the industry have begun a cultural growth and change and making new forms of culture. Currently the word "Korea" stands for fashionable and stylish in Asia, which is largely due to South Korea's close ties with Western culture, while maintaining Asian values and themes. Korean culture is currently influencing to consumers in Thailand, especially the Korea entertainment is very influential to the young consumer that considered a significant combined with the modern Korean......

Words: 10412 - Pages: 42

Free Essay

Jeju Island Tourism

...the source of beauty with the island being surrounded by beautiful ocean forming a coastal zone where travelers spend their time in the sunshine. Jeju is a rock volcanic island. Additionally, Jeju has beautiful waterfalls that travelers can visit on their stop in the island. . Unlike the other parts of Korea, Jeju experiences hot climate thus making it a perfect destination for visitors from within South Korea and outside. Visitors can find many holiday activities that keep their travel to Jeju unique. One can himself busy with rock climbing, bike riding, and skydiving while water lovers enjoy water sports activities in a sunny coastline. There are cultural festivals that the people of Jeju organization with the aim of celebrating the Korean culture. There are many attraction sites in Jeju. One can visit the teddy bear museum, Cheonjeyeon Waterfall, Sangumburi Crater, Yongduam Rock, Udo Maritime Park, Manjanggul Cave and Jungmun Resort. Many stakeholders of Jeju Island are individuals with an interest in the larger travel and tourism industry because the target market of Jeju Island is travelers and visitors. Hotel industries are largely invested in because visitors need a place to spend their time while on a visit in Korea. In this hotel one can book rooms depending on the number of their group or family. For example, in Jungmun resort one can get book single room or double with two beds fitted inside. Travelling to Jeju through is the easiest way,...

Words: 626 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Ellen Moore

...is high qualified, was sent to Korea to work as a manager of korean consultants. Ellen's advantage why she was elected for this position was her experience in project management and her international experience from work in Bahrein. As Ellen arrived in Korea, she takes every possibility to learn language and to understand local culture, lifestyle and values and soon she realized that there are remarkable differences from Western countries in the everyday live and also business environment, mainly based on historical evolution and impact of Confucianism which properties were affecting and reflecting in social and work environment: Complete loyalty to structure Duty to parents expressed in loyalty, love and gratitude Very strict rules of conduct (parents / children; old / young; male  / female ; teacher / student) In Western countries good manager and leader has  to express positive emotions public and some negative remarks are prefered to announce in private in order not to reduce person's public confidence. In Korea manager should express disappointment  about person’s performance public, compliments are not welcomed and they can indicate manager’s weakness. These cultural differences reflects on how team members react on Ellen’s instructions and her co-worker Jack’s instructions  - and therefore the project fall behind schedule. Ellen’s and Jack’s responsibilities overlapped   Another problem was that Korean consultants, as Ellen soon discovered, were not......

Words: 619 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Facing Poverty with a Rich Girl's Habit

...was growing up there. Her father was a millionaire from having a shipping company, a mining business and hotels. Then one day they lost all of their money and had to flee to America. Bankruptcy in Korea had jail time behind it, something that her father didn’t want to go through or put his family through. So they left Korea in the ‘80’s and moved to Woodside, Queens in New York. To what Suki says was an “ugly house” that a Korean family owned that ran a dry cleaners. Their sons, Billy and Andy became her playmates. Suki was picked on from the other Korean children both at home and in school. She felt out of place. Therefore the other students didn’t want anything to do with her kind. They were Koreans, but not Korean American. They would call her FOB, “fresh out the boat,” or “yellow.” Funny because they didn’t arrive in a boat, they flew here in an airplane. Even the rich Koreans that left there and came here moved to Manhattan or Westchester. The children were ashamed of her and her kind. In order for her to learn English, she would watch reruns of “Three’s Company.” “Immigration is meant to be the great equalizer, yet it is not easy to eradicate the class divisions of the old country.” (para. 7 pg. 63) Suki says that, “more brutal than learning English was facing poverty with a rich girl’s habits and memory.”...

Words: 614 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Hfhgvytfcyvh

...) Is the Global theme park industry is an interesting industry to be in? Yes. The five forces analysis supports as below. | |Strength of |Explanation | | |Force | | |Rivalry between |Medium |High industry concentration | |established competitors| |Competitors are more specialized than diversified | | | |Significant brand identities and product differences | | | |Industry is growing rapidly but no excess capacity | | | |High exit barriers | | | |Fixed costs are relatively low | | | |Low switching costs for customers | |Threat of entry |High |Strict capital requirement with large-scale initial investment and high upgrading | | | |cost ...

Words: 708 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Assignment 1

...you have gained working with other similar situations. South Korean business would be the choice of a new client. In order to effectively adhere to their needs the choice of approach would be the regiocentric staffing approach. This approach will allow us to have an understanding of HRM policies that are given across all the subsidiaries. “This approach considers the needs of the entire region and managers from the host country are often selected for managerial positions in their own country and some may be promoted to regional positions” (McGraw-Hill, 2011). This lets our client know that we are all about finding the best person for the job. This is somewhat the same of what is done in the military in South Korea. The SOFA agreement prevents the United States Government from hiring mostly Americans for the jobs. The agreement is that the Korean Nationals are to hold at least 75% of the jobs on base. That has proven to be true. Every store and restaurant on every base in South Korea is operated by Koreans. It is not easy for any American to get a simple part time job. This is why regiocentic staffing would prove to work effectively. That way jobs are filled based on their nationality in order to keep the confidence of having a new client relationship with the United States. 2. Identify the areas of overlap in the new client organization with others that you have had as clients. Areas of overlap are that Koreans Nationals do business differently. In the United States it may...

Words: 1208 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Minjaelee

...basis. Through the videos on it, parents today can easily learn a lot of things relating to raising children such as how to make healthful foods for their young babies. 한국의 특수성 In particular, Korea, where I was born and live now, was an extremely poor country at the time of the Korean War that broke out in 1950. But it has rapidly developed over the last few decades. In the process, competition has become fiercer so most students want to get a better education abroad. 1) in the process, competition has become fiercer so the number of working couples has continued to grow. 2) in the process, competition has become fiercer so young people spend most of the day sitting at a desk doing schoolwork. 3) in the process, people’s living standards in the country has improved considerably so most Koreans including me are very interested in art. 4) in the process, the environment has been seriously damaged so it is very dangerous to pollute the environment to increase food production. 5) in the process, science and technology has greatly improved. 6) in the process, the income gap between the rich and poor has widened. 7) in the process, people who have(=with) different religions, customs, and ways of life have come to Korea so it is necessary to understand other countries’ cultures. 8) in the process, people have come to value money (the) most so those who earn a lot of money are admired. Especially, these days Korean women like men who work for large companies and earn much......

Words: 582 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Summary

...ones life as apposed to their whole life. That said event to Kim was when she was 13, when her father lost everything. Growing up rich she was driven to school by a chauffeur, now it poverty she had to ride public transportation for the first time. Being rich the first part of her life and all of a sudden facing poverty there was a lot that she had to become accustomed to. Audience Her audience seemed as if it was more so for Koreans or others from different nationalities that are in a different place for the first time in life. Not necessarily just other nationalities, but just anyone who was in a different place in life and for some reason or other had to relocate without notice. Tone Although she may have understood the reason for the move, Kim seemed ashamed. Like when she said “Each week, I found it humiliating to wheel our dirty clothes to a bleak place called Laundromat” (2004, p. 62). Being in North America for awhile Kim begin to come accustomed to American things. She likes to dance to Usher, watched Three’s Company to try to learn English....

Words: 470 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Essay

...she was growing up there. Her father was a millionaire from having a shipping company, a mining business and hotels. Then one day they lost all of their money and had to flee to America. Bankruptcy in Korea had jail time behind it, something that her father didn’t want to go through or put his family through. So they left Korea in the ‘80’s and moved to Woodside, Queens in New York. To what Suki says was an “ugly house” that a Korean family owned that ran a dry cleaners. Their sons, Billy and Andy became her playmates. Suki was picked on from the other Korean children both at home and in school. She felt out of place. Therefore the other students didn’t want anything to do with her kind. They were Koreans, but not Korean American. They would call her FOB, “fresh out the boat,” or “yellow.” Funny because they didn’t arrive in a boat, they flew here in an airplane. Even the rich Koreans that left there and came here moved to Manhattan or Westchester. The children were ashamed of her and her kind. In order for her to learn English, she would watch reruns of “Three’s Company.” “Immigration is meant to be the great equalizer, yet it is not easy to eradicate the class divisions of the old country.” (para. 7 pg. 63) Suki says that, “more brutal than learning English was facing poverty with a rich girl’s habits and memory.” (para. 11, pg. 63) Summary of Facing Poverty with a Rich Girls Habits Assignment 1.1 Summary and Personal Response – Draft......

Words: 1360 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Intercultural Experience

... The U.S. is made of diverse cultures, which in turn labeled us the "melting pot". One of the largest minority groups within the United States is the Asian American culture. One out of every five Asian American individuals is positively identified as Korean.  I have had the pleasure of attending a Baptist Korean church service, and dining with Korean Americans thereafter. I found an immense number of cultural differences between myself and Korean Americans. My hour-long experience, developed into a two and half hour experience at the local Baptist Korean church. I found upon arrival, a Korean female usher formally greeted me. I was then greeted by male Korean members of the church and given a Korean Hymn book and a Korean Bible, with English parallel text. It appeared that the parallel text was an international interpretation of the Bible. As members of the congregation were ushered in, I took special note of the ethnicity of the members. Of approximately 50-70 members, the majority of the congregation appeared to be Korean. I did take note of two interracial couples. One African American male was married to a Korean woman, and the other couple was a Hispanic looking male and Korean female. As the members of the church were ushered in and seated, minimal talking took place. The women rarely made eye contact with other men, and give a slight bow to male members as sign of respect. The men of the family would normally seat......

Words: 1188 - Pages: 5