Free Essay

Learning Disabilities

In: Other Topics

Submitted By Brandi
Words 1049
Pages 5
Brandi Smith
July 22, 2010
ENG 3U1
A learning disability is a condition that either prevents or significantly hinders somebody from learning basic skills or information at the same rate as most people of the same age. It is caused by a difference in the brain that affects information received, processed and communicated. A learning disability cannot be cured or fixed but it can be helped. Depending on the type of disability, interventions may be provided to help an individual learn strategies that will assist him/her for future success. Children with learning disabilities are usually diagnosed after they have started school around the age of eight or older. A child’s difficulties are usually noticed by educators such as teachers and parents. The earlier the child is diagnosed, the earlier an intervention program is implemented. Therefore, the better her/his future will be. Interventions significantly increase the possibility of a successful long term prognosis. Children and adults with learning disabilities have trouble processing sensory information because they see, hear, and understand things differently. Common types of learning disabilities are nonverbal learning disability (NLD), visual processing deficit and auditory processing deficit.
Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological condition that is considered to be a development disability. It affects every aspect of life and not just typical problems seen in classrooms. Nonverbal learning disability is considered a life learning disability. It affects males and females equally. NLD includes a cluster of skill deficits. This disorder is caused by damage to white matter in the brain. White matter is the brain tissue made up of nerve cells that connect various parts of the brain to each other. In other words, it is the brain’s wiring system. It is called white matter because the nerve fibers are coated with myelin, which is a coloured fatty substance that acts as insulation. If the myelin sheath is damaged, the child’s processing speed is reduced and the signal may not be sent accurately or arrive at proper destination. The information centers within the brain may not be damaged but the transmission of signals is not working properly. In other words, there is a short circuit somewhere in the child’s brain. There is an uneven amount of white matter in the right hemisphere of the brain compared to the left. Therefore, the right hemisphere is dysfunctional. The right hemisphere deals with spatial, abstract, intuitive and other nonverbal aspects which are impaired due to the fact that it isn’t working properly.
There are many signs and symptoms of nonverbal learning disability. Some characteristics which are commonly present in children who suffer from NLD are need for structure and guidance, motor skills, communication and social skills, behavior, and visual and organization skills. Children with NLD may need more assistance with self help skills such as putting on a jacket, zipping/buttoning a sweater, and tying shoe laces. The child will also have difficulties with art activities such as colouring, painting and cutting. He/She would have a hard time even holding a pencil, paint brush, and scissors correctly. Children with nonverbal learning disability are usually socially awkward. They prefer to talk to teachers rather than their own peer group. They feel more comfortable with adults rather than kids their own age. An NLD child will also be easily confused. He/she may look to see what other students are doing or look at the papers of the students sitting next to them in order to know how to proceed.
Another type of learning disabilities is processing deficit. They are problems with the processes of interpreting information taken in through the senses. Two processing deficits are visual processing deficits and auditory processing deficits. Visual processing deficit refers to a hinder ability to make sense of information taken in through eyes. It is different from problems involving sight or sharpness vision. Five main regions affected by visual processing disorder are object recognition, spatial relations, visual closure, visual discrimination and whole/part relationships. A person with visual processing disorder will have difficulties in reading and math because both subjects consist of accurate perception and understanding of spatial relationships. Both these subjects rely on the use of symbols such as letters, numbers, and punctuation. Many children are also unable to visually recognize objects which are familiar to them, or even objects which they can recognize through their other senses, such as touch or smell. Interventions need to be aimed at the specific needs of the child. Not all children are the same; they all have different strengths and weaknesses. Some common interventions are having enlarged print on books and papers for reading and having more structure on the paper for writing.
Auditory processing disorder interferes with an individual’s ability to analyze or make sense of information taken through ears. It is different than deafness and being hard of hearing. It interferes with speech and language, but can also affect areas of learning especially in reading and spelling. Five main regions affected by auditory processing deficit are phonological awareness, auditory discrimination, auditory memory, auditory sequencing, and auditory blending. Children with this disorder will have difficulty in recognizing different sounds which includes the ability to identify words and sounds that are similar and those which are different. They also have a difficult time with memory because they have a hard time storing and recalling information which was given verbally. Many children also struggle with instructions given verbally.
There are several strategies to help with auditory processing deficit. Some are environmental modifications, auditory memory enhancement, and auditory integration training. The most common one is auditory trainers. It is an electronic device to allow a person to focus on a speaker and reduce the interference of background noise. This device is usually used in classrooms where a teacher wears a microphone to transmit the sound and a child wears a headset to receive the sound.
Children with learning disabilities can be taught anything if identified early and appropriate interventions are provided. They are not dumb or stupid; they just have a different learning style. A child with disabilities doesn’t mean they cannot learn, graduate, receive postsecondary education, and lead a normal adult life. With the right interventions and academic support, students with learning disabilities can succeed in life.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Learning Disability

...Learning Disabilities A learning disability is a neurological disorder. A learning disability results from a difference in the way a person's brain is "wired." Children with learning disabilities are as smart or smarter than their peers, but they may have difficulty reading, writing, spelling, reasoning, recalling and/or organising information if left to figure things out by themselves or if taught in conventional ways. Two important facets of learning disabilities are: There is a discrepancy between achievement and intelligence of a learning disabled person. Learning disabilities do not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. A learning disability can't be cured or fixed; it is a lifelong issue. With the right support and intervention, however, children with learning disabilities can succeed in school and go on to successful, often distinguished careers later in life. Characteristics for identification of a child with LD: At the PreSchool Stage: Speaks later than most children Trouble learning numbers, alphabet, days of the week, colors, shapes Extremely restless and easily distracted Trouble interacting with peers Difficulty following directions or routines Fine motor skills slow to develop At the Primary and Middle School Stage: Slow to learn the......

Words: 322 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Learning Disability

...Learning Disabilities Learning Disabilities I choose an article about second and third grade students with a learning disability, specifically fluent oral reading. This study was large statewide study with 10,339 learning disability students. The study showed that most of the children with the learning disability were not up to grade level reading. Historically, most students with a learning disability struggle with reading. Students who struggle with reading will most likely struggle in all other classes because almost all classes have to do with reading. In the article it tells how most students with a reading disability struggle with not only reading fluently but, reading fluently out loud to a teacher or peers. This is a problem because with out being able to read fluently out loud it could become very hard to comprehend what the text is saying. To fix this problem the schools are trying to detect the reading problem as soon as possible, then get the student in a reading program and only focus on reading out loud. For the program they would need to set a standard but some people don’t think that there should be a stander set for disability children. I think that a early learning reading program would be a great idea over all just because of how important reading is for all of school and the rest of a persons life. I also think the their should be some sort of standard set but the standard should be set for each personal child....

Words: 252 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Learning Disability

...Abstract Learning Disabilities, a problem people are facing in today’s society, can be caused by a variety of factors. Learning Disabilities can be caused by factors such as genetic influences, brain development, and environmental impact. There are many methods used to determine a learning disability. Researchers have pinpointed risks that, if left untreated, can lead to future problems with the person. A history of disorders; behaviors such as pronunciation, cooperation such as turn taking, and keeping focus on a task, are some signs of a learning disability. Treatments are readily available to better these risks. These treatments include special education, speech and language therapy, and in some cases, medications can help to enhance the child’s strengths and weaknesses as well as enhancing their attention and concentration. Why are preschoolers not diagnosed with learning disabilities? Learning disabilities are faced by many people in the world today. Aram, Morris and Hall (1992) define learning disability as the impairment or deviant development of comprehension and/or use of a spoken, written, and/or other symbol system. Someone with a learning disability may have trouble with the form of language such as the use of the phonological, morphologic, and syntactic systems. One may have trouble with language content which includes the grammatical points of language, the sound system of the language, and new vocabulary one will learn. Learning......

Words: 1981 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Learning Disabilities

...Educational Psychology: Learning Disabilities Elizabeth Carr ABS 200 Introduction to Applied Behavioral Sciences Instructor Jeannie Jones January 25, 2016 Learning inabilities are disorders that influence one's capacity to comprehend or utilizes spoken or composed dialect, do scientific computations, coordinate developments or direct consideration. Albeit learning inabilities happen in exceptionally youthful kids, issue are normally not perceived until a child achieves school age. Examination demonstrates that 8 to 10 percent of American youngsters less than 18 years old have some sort of learning incapacity (Manfred, McLaughblin, Derby, & Everson, 2015). Learning inabilities influence one's capacity to translate what one sees and listens, or to connection data from diverse parts of the mind. These impediments can appear as particular troubles with talked and composed dialect, coordination, poise or consideration. Such challenges reach out to schoolwork and can obstruct figuring out how to peruse or compose, or to do math. Learning handicaps don't reflect IQ (Intelligence Quotient) or how shrewd an individual is (Manfred et al., 2015). Instructive brain research is the investigation of how diverse individuals take in, their disparities in taking in, their individual contrasts in adapting and in addition talented learners. Learning inabilities......

Words: 2656 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Learning Disability

...Learning Disability 1 Running head: LEARNING DISABILITY Learning Disability 2 Abstract Learning disability is a term used to describe specific kinds of learning problems. A person can have problems with skills like reading, listening, speaking, math, writing, and reasoning. Learning disabilities constitutes over half of the special education services. The cause of learning disabilities deals with the dysfunction of the brain and how it processes information it may be related to medical or genetic. Having problems receiving and sending messages deals with communication disorder. Students with high achievement, intellectually has the capacity to retain, learn, and use an extreme amount of information is called gifted .In this paper I will discuss the characteristics, causes and definition of learning disabilities, communication disorders, and giftedness. Learning Disability 3 Learning Disability Learning disabilities or learning disorder affect how a person receives information, how they process it, and how they communicate. People with learning disabilities have problems processing sensory information. The art of learning is affected because a student cannot learn as quickly as his/her......

Words: 1421 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Learning Disabilities

...Running head: LEARNING DISABILITIES Learning Disabilities Yadira M. Cesena Grand Canyon University SPE 526- Educating Learners with Diverse Needs April 19, 2011 Abstract This paper was written with the intent to define, describe the characteristics and causes of learning disabilities, communication disorders and giftedness. The author discusses the curriculum that is necessary for the students with learning disabilities, communication disorders and giftedness. The author summarizes in a short concluding paragraph that brings the topics together. Learning Disabilities There is so much known about learning disabilities, but yet so little. As a teacher it is important to understand the various types of learning disabilities, communication disorders and giftedness. In reality what does that all mean? Teachers should be well informed about the definitions of these as well as what characteristics to look for and what causes them. It is estimated that approximately six to ten percent of school-aged children are learning disabled. Many times students are mistakenly diagnosed having a learning disability. That is the reason why it is important for teachers to understand the difference of having different learning styles or needs than having a disability. Teachers need to know what to include in the curriculum, or how to make accommodations, or modifications to cater to the needs of the individual student. The ultimate goal is to understand these students and to......

Words: 2073 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Learning Disabilities

...Running head: LEARNING DISABILITIES Learning Disabilities, Communication Disorders, and Giftedness Colby Adams Grand Canyon University             Dr. Jewell G. Winn RES 531: Research Methods March 12, 2012 Abstract Learning Disabilities, Communication Disorders, and Giftedness Basic introduction paragraph or two. Learning disabilities Definition. Learning disabilities are a general term that expresses certain variables of learning difficulties. A learning disability causes people to have trouble learning and acquiring knowledge. People in general are often most affected by criteria: reading, writing, listening, speaking, reasoning, and mathematics (National, 2012). When people have learning disabilities having L.D. is an umbrella term for other names, which include: * Dyslexia—which refers to difficulties in reading; * Dysgraphia—which refers to difficulties in writing; and * Dyscalcula—which refers to difficulties in math (National, 2012). The above terms are the formal definitions for people that have a learning disability but in a specific area. Certain individuals that study learning disabilities have found that the brain works differently by which it processes information entirely different from others. Children with various learning disabilities have often been coined as being stupid or lazy. They are in fact neither, they can be extremely high achievers and with the right help children with LD acquire knowledge over time with...

Words: 1692 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Learning Disabilities

... Learning Disabilities and the Classroom Ionie Bailey Grand Canyon University: SPE 359 Professor: Lois Jackson August 10, 2014 Within each classroom the dynamic that is shared between students and their teachers should be easily seen by anyone. In order for a classroom to be effective and accessible for all students including those with learning disability, the teacher must implement various rules and regulations that is strong yet flexible.” Even though student’s with learning disabilities make up about fifty percent the student’s population who is receiving special education services in the United States. (Learning Disabilities)” I observed Mrs. Elam’s third grade class; students in her classroom had one or more disabilities which include ADHD, Downs, Autism, EBD and auditory processing which is can be associated with learning disabilities. Mrs. Elam has various methods to ensure that the students are learning and classroom rules are being followed. The method that I observed that was effective for classroom behavior is they yellow, red, green method also known as the stop light method. How it works, each student has a clothes pin with their name listed on it for individual reprimands. For those students with other behavioral disabilities such as EBD or ADHD, the teacher has implemented a behavioral and goals chart with day by day goals, Students with Downs and Autism and are assigned to a paraprofessionals who assist, maintain and keep tracks of their daily......

Words: 1091 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Learning Disabilities

...Learning Disabilities Assessment and Interventions Educ 205 Article 1: Evaluation: What does it mean for Your Child? By: PACER Center (2007) This article discusses the identification and importance of determining whether or not a student has a disability. The excerpt focuses on why an evaluation is essential when determining a child’s functional level and development. It also discusses the varying assessments that are possible when evaluating a student. Some of these assessments include group tests, individual tests, curriculum-based assessments, standardized tests, and more. This specific article was chosen simply because it plays a key role when measuring the educational needs for students. This article would more than likely be appealing to parents who suspect that their child may have a disability. An important factor mentioned in this article strongly reassures parents that they have a slew of information to submit when preparing to get their child evaluated. In order for a child to be eligible for special education services, the child needs to be evaluated through appropriate assessment. Some of this information from a parent may include: -medical information -comparing the child's progress to typical child development -observing how the child functions in school, at home, or in the community -interviews with parents and school staff (Pacer Center, 2007). As an educator, this......

Words: 1128 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Learning Disabilities

...the mentalities have evolved it is still hard to “normal people” to feel at ease with disabled people and treat them as equal. Sharon Vaughn, Jeanne Shay Schumm and James W. Forgan ( 2013) listed under disabilities: mobility, visual, or hearing impairments; speech impairments; chronic illnesses such as AIDS, diabetes, and lupus; seizure disorders; head injuries; painful conditions such as back injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome; psychological disabilities such as bipolar disorder and severe anxiety or depression; attention deficit disorder; and learning disabilities. Whether they are disabled or not, every child has the right to be educated and it is the duty of the society to make sure that every student has access to equal educational opportunities, and the duty of teachers to ensure that every student participate actively and freely in class. More important it is the teachers’ duty to meet the needs of disabled learners in their classrooms. Even if studying the needs of all the students who suffer from the disabilities listed above would have been great, in this learning reflection the focus will only be on the blind, deaf and epileptic disabled students and how their needs should be met in high education Brief definition of epilepsy, deafness and blindness disabilities Epilepsy: Gretchen Timmel (2006) defined it as a neurological condition, which affects the nervous system. Epilepsy is also known as a seizure disorder. It is usually diagnosed after a person has had......

Words: 2480 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Learning Disability Report

...head: LEARNING DISABILITY REPORT Learning Disability Report Tammie Johnson Grand Canyon University: SPE 226 April 28, 2012 Learning Disability Report Definition Chart | Learning Disabilities: Learning disabilities affect the ability to understand language that is spoken or written, it can relate to mathematics, and or direct attention. | Types | Dyslexia | Definition: Dyslexia is a learning disability where one has difficulty reading | | Characteristics & Causes: There are several different types of dyslexia and they can be caused by a brain trauma, hormonal development, and has been linked to the chromosome gene number 6 (Medicine Net.com, 1996-2012). | | Teaching Strategies: The best strategy is the use of multi-sensory to help students learn how to use their other senses such as hearing and sight (auditory sensation) to aide in their comprehension. | Examples: trouble pronouncing or writing words backwards | | | | | Dyscalculia | Definition: Dyscalculia is a learning disability where one has difficulty with mathematics | | Characteristics & Causes: To date there has been no information on what really causes this disability but think it could be caused due to alcohol exposure or the Fragile X Syndrome. | | Teaching Strategies: Best strategy is to provide one on one support to aide the student in the least restricted learning......

Words: 2472 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Learning Disabilities and Cognitive Development

...Learning disabilities and cognitive development Effects of learning disabilities on cognitive development Within our society today people are forced to realize that others learn in a variety of different methods. One aspect that many people do not take into account however is the impact of learning disabilities have on the cognitive development of an individual. According to the National Center for Learning Disabilities, there are around 2.4 million students that have diagnosed learning disabilities that are receiving special education services [ (Team, 2014) ]. This accounts for approximately 4-5% of the total number of students being taught in schools today. With such a significant amount of children in schools today with some form of learning disability, there is definitely an impact on their cognitive development as well. In order to better understand what types of cognitive developmental effects can be had on a person with a learning disability, it is first important to understand what cognitive development is. Jean Piaget developed a theory that cognitive development consisted of four key stages; sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operation. Piaget proposed that a person, or child more specifically, will progress through the first three stages earlier in life, then finally coming to rest in the fourth and final stage for much of the lifespan of that individual. According to Piaget, the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development......

Words: 1316 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Learning Disabilities and the Classroom

...Learning Disabilities and the Classroom Melissa C. Strange Grand Canyon University: Learning Disabilities and the Classroom Learning disabilities in the classroom is prevalent in many of our schools across The United States and the World. There has been much confusion and controversy over students with learning disabilities, some feeling that it is a disability and others feel that the students is classified or labeled as lazy and not wanting to learn. It is essential for there to be many support systems and individuals for a student that has disabilities. Such support systems can be called a Special Education Team. Some members of this team would be, Nicole DeMarco (Special Education), Lori Daily (Regular Education), Melissa Smith (Instructional Coach), Patti Hester (Counselor), and Betty Crawford (School Nurse). What are some necessary skills in organizing and planning strategies for classroom management including grouping, scheduling, lesson plans, homework strategies, record keeping, and selecting instructional materials? Also by observing a teacher what are some of her classroom management strategies and who are the members of the Special Education Team? Organization and planning strategies for classroom management are absolutely necessary for teachers and students alike. Successful classroom management is a vital part of a healthy classroom atmosphere. Detailed and well thought out organization and planning gives students structure, guidance, and for each...

Words: 1007 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Learning Disabilities and the Classroom

...student with EBD (Falk et al. 2003). Another issue that is not uncommon is the fact that teachers dealing with students with EBD are not certified in this area. How can teachers be expected to teach students with emotional and behavioral disorders if they are not properly trained? It is possible to increase the academic rate of success with students that are having trouble. This process is known as direct instruction. Direct instruction consists of proper pacing of instruction, structure, sequencing, and allowing time to practice new skills (Kauffman et al. 2003). Students with EBD have significantly lower academic scores that the typical developing peers. EBD students have some the same academic struggles as children with learning disabilities (LD). It is crucial for teacher to determine what they can do to help educate children that are at risk of academic failure. Kauffman et al. (2003) suggests that behavioral plans are not utilized in the correct way causing teachers to think that the plan was not successful and giving up on the plan too soon. There are two methods that can be used to teach the student to comply with the teacher and they include: precision requests and behavioral momentum. Precision requests involve giving directions in an order that is predictable. Behavioral momentum is when teachers use positive reinforcement and praise the wanted behaviors. Another method that decreases unwanted behaviors is known as punishment. Punishment is the......

Words: 985 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Understand the Context of Supporting Individuals with Learning Disabilities

...understand the context of supporting individuals with learning disabilities (LD 201) Unit 4222-245understand the context of supporting individuals with learning disabilities (LD 201) Unit 4222-245 outcome 1: understand the legislation and policies that support the human rights and inclusion of individuals with learning disabilities: Identify legislation and policies that are designed to promote the human rights, inclusion, equal life chances and citizenship of individuals with learning disabilities. The Mental Capacity Act 2005: This act was introduced in England and Wales in 2007 and aims to protect the rights of people whose mental capacity is in doubt and people who do not have mental capacity. It provides a framework for making decisions on behalf of the individual. It tells us what to do if we are involved in the care, treatment, support of people aged 16 and over who lack mental capacity to make decisions. The Act states that everyone is assumed to make decisions for themselves unless shown otherwise. If it is not clear whether someone has the capacity to make a decision concerning a specific issue and assessment of their capacity should be carried out. The Mental Health Act 1983: The court of protection exists to safeguard the interests of anyone who is incapable by reason of mental disorder of managing and administrating their property and affair. Anyone found on medical evidence to meet these criteria is known as a patient. The courts duties are normally...

Words: 13632 - Pages: 55