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1 LEADERSHIP IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT: THE INFLUENCE OF FRATERNITY OR SORORITY MEMBERSHIP ON COLLEGE STUDENTS LEADERS

by

Kharla Mae D. Brillo Feleycyl Joy Cruzada

Angelo Jaiko Del Rosario Roevel Paul Quirao

Jett P. Pastrana

In partial fulfillment of the course requirements in Psychology 118 (Field Methods)

Submitted to

Mr. JOHNREV B. GUILARAN Division of Social Sciences College of Arts and Sciences University of the Philippines Visayas

October 9, 2012

2 Leadership Identity Development: The Influence of Fraternity or Sorority Membership on College Student Leaders Fraternities and sororities began more than a century ago as relationship building organizations in which leadership development could be cultivated (Cory, 2011) but until recently, research found that fraternity and sorority membership may hinder student development and negatively impact the wellbeing of college students (Maisel, 1990; Wechsler, 1996). According to Kelly (2008) benefits of membership are realized by fraternity and sorority student leaders but struggled to refocus on their espoused values and mission: scholarship, service, leadership and relationships over the last several decades (Cory, 2011). Conversely, incidents of hazing, alcohol abuse, sexual assault, and substandard performance in the classroom, often overshadow the benefits of membership (Cory, 2011) suggesting that fraternal organizations have strayed from their traditional and founding values (Garret, n.d.; Maisel, 1990) and even many advocates concur. As researchers we are not entirely convinced that membership in fraternal organizations only lead to negative influences, especially to students. Supporting our claim are researches that concluded otherwise, according to Astin (1993) the fraternity and sorority experience provides members with opportunities for development, promotes persistence, more interaction with peers, and is associated with higher levels of alumni involvement and giving. Fraternities provided a social alternative for college students, an outlet to the rigorous academic requirements of college (Anson & Marchesani, Jr., 1991). Even today, fraught with the complex issues of college fraternal organization culture, fraternities and sororities offer relationshipbuilding opportunities that contribute to leadership development (Kelly, 2008). In addition, much of the student development literature points to the influence of meaningful involvement in campus organizations as a contributor to student development, growth, and success (Cory, 2011). For many college students, fraternity or sorority membership provides such meaningful involvement and the main focus of this research is to find out how such involvement affects their leadership identity development. Despite the rich landscape of literature in leadership studies, there is little research about how leade ship de elops o ho o e s ide tit as a leade de elops o e ti e Ko i es, Lo ge ea , Owen, Mainella & Osteen, 2005) and that is what directed this study. The researchers took into account, the intersection of student development, particularly leadership identity development, and membership in a fraternity and so o it to add to k o ledge of ho o e s ide tit as a leade de elops. In particular, the researchers focused on leaders who operate within a relational leadership perspective, that which

3 places value on relationship building as critical to leadership (Komives, Lucas, & McMahon, 1998; UhlBien, 2006). The structure of this study utilizes three dimensions of understanding: 1) organizational cultures (Schein, 1993), 2) student development theory (Baxter Magolda, 2001 & 2008; Chickering & Reisser, 1993) and, 3) leadership identity development (Komives, et al., 2005, 2006). As a general objective the researchers examined how the culture within fraternal organizations influences the leadership identity development among fraternity and sorority student leaders. The specific objectives would be the following: 1.) To find out how the student leaders, who are fraternal members, perceive the leadership culture of fraternal organizations. 2.) To find out how the fraternal environment influences the formation of leadership identity development of its undergraduate members. 3.) To know how students utilize fraternity and sorority membership in order to develop an identity as a leader.

Definition of Terms Leadership. The present study describes leadership as a relational construction site in which it refers to those who holds formal or elected positions of power. In this study, this particular construct would pertain to the officership of the members of the selected fraternal organization.

Fraternity. The present study describes this as a social institution of male undergraduate students of the University.

Relational Leader. This term refers to undergraduate student who exhibits participatory leadership, recognizes leading as a process of involving others in decision-making, and is confident and comfortable in their role as a leader.

Sorority. This particular term is described in the present study as a social institution of female undergraduate student of the University.

4 Student Leaders. This term refer to undergraduate student leaders, specifically, those members who are currently elected as officers of the fraternal organization within the university.

Conceptual and Theoretical Framework Th ee a eas of theo guide this stud . “ hei s 99 o ga izatio al ultu e, stude t

development (Baxter Magolda, 2001; Chickering & Reisser, 1993; Kegan, 1982 & 1994) and leadership identity development theories (Komives, et al., 1998; Komives, et al., 2005, 2006) frame the topic and provide an understanding of culture, college student development, and the leadership identity development process. The interview protocol and analysis also developed from a thorough review of the literature in these three areas as used by Cory (2011). In the present study, several theories frame and shape the understanding of the influence of fraternity a d so o it e e ship o ollege stude ts. The fi st theo is “ hei s 99 o ga izatio al

culture theory, particularly organizational culture model. Schein describes culture from the perspective of the observer and includes three cognitive levels. Fi st a e the o ga izatio s att i utes that a e

seen, felt, and heard by an observer. Schein refers to these attributes as artifacts and in that level, he includes physical space, group member mannerisms and dress, awards and recognition, as well as orga izatio al ottos, eeds, a d s olis . I the se o d le el of “ hei s odel, the espoused

values of the organization are typically made known when studied through interviews and questionnaires, but is not clearly seen by observers. Found in the third level of the model are the o ga izatio s basic underlying assumptions. Schein (1993) provides the following attributes associated with culture: (1) There are observed behavioral regularities when people interact (i.e. language use, evolution of customs and traditions, and rituals, (2) The group forms implicit standards and values that create norms, (3) There are espoused values that the organization uses publicly to state their focus, (4) There are formal policies and ideological principles that guide actions, ( The ules of the ga e a e fo ed fo getting along in the

organizations, (6) There is a feeling or climate that is conveyed by the way group members interact with one another, (7) Embedded skills (special competencies) are displayed by group members and the ability to pass down certain things from generation to generation is key, (8) Habits of thinking and communication paradigms shape the perceptions, thought, and language used by group members and is taught to new members early in the socialization process, (9) Organizations develop shared meaning

5 through interaction between group members, and (10) Symbols and metaphors are developed and shared with the organization that convey ideas and feelings about the group. The second theory that guides this study takes into account the development of college students. Many student development theories seek to understand the whole person, as well as provide description, explanation, and prediction as it relates to college students. Understanding identity development (Chickering & Reisser, 1993), engagement in educationally effective practices (Kuh, 2002), achievement of critical learning outcomes (Center for Learning Outcomes Assessment, 2009), involvement (Astin, 1993), and self-authorship (Baxter Magolda, 2001) are just a few of the strands in the literature regarding student learning and development. Chi ke i g s 9 9 stude t de elop e t theo o te ds i di iduals e ol e i a spe ifi , first

in a broad manner, and later in a more refined mode and views student growth as a series of tasks or stages dealing with thinking, feeling, believing, and relating to others. Revised by Chickering and Reisser 99 , o te po a esea h o i ed ith Chi ke i g s p e ious de elop e t studies ge e ated the

seven vectors that symbolize the ―direction and ―magnitude of college student development. The vectors include developing competence, managing emotions, moving through autonomy toward interdependence, developing mature interpersonal relationships, establishing identity, developing purpose, and developing integrity (Chickering and Reisser, 1993). Lastly, in terms of understanding leadership, the esea h utilized Ko i es ‘elatio al Leadership model. According to Cory (2011) a relational view of leadership asserts iterative processes, not persons, are at the core of leadership and that leaders are constructed through the social process of interacting with others in the organization. The relational leadership perspective considers leadership developing through a social influencing process in which values, attitudes, and behaviors are constructed and reproduced within the organization. The Relational Leadership Model (Komives, et al., 1998) includes five components (1) Empowering – encouraging members to actively engage and get involved; (2) Purposeful –committing to a common goal or activity; (3) Process-oriented – being aware of the a a g oup i te a ts a d the i pa t it has o the g oup s o k; (4) Inclusive – understanding, valuing, and engaging all aspects of diversity; (5) Ethical – being guided by a system of moral principles. The theoretical framework in this study provides three arenas from which to derive understanding about fraternity and sorority student leaders. In the fi st, “ hei s 99 theo of

6 organizational culture allows the researchers to appreciate and describe the unique culture of fraternities and sororities. In the second, student development theory broadly shapes the researchers perspectives that college stude ts atu e i spe ifi a s. Fi all , Ko i es et al s theo of

leadership identity development provides depth in understanding individual student leaders.

Scope and Limitation This research was limited to members of fraternal organizations that are student leaders. It o t necessarily generalize its findings to a larger population but to find out and describe the influence of fraternal membership in leadership identity development of its members.

Significance of the Study As these fraternal organizations and their members hold leadership positions in organizations within the university, the researchers find it beneficial for the constituents – especially non-fraternal members – to be knowledgeable of the leadership identity development of their student leaders.

Methodology The present study utilized a qualitative approach to better understand and describe the experiences of fraternity and sorority student leaders. The research particularly used interviews in collecting and analyzing data.

Participants The participants for this study refer to undergraduate student leaders. They were chosen under four conditions; 1) the participant is currently enrolled in college, 2) the student is affiliated with a fraternal organization, 3) are members who are currently elected as officers of the fraternal organization and 4) the student is perceived as a relational leader, within the university.

7 Sampling The research used convenience sampling in consideration of the conflict in schedules (given that these are students) and the availability of willing participants. The exclusivity of membership also limits the selection of sample for this study. The total number of participants was eleven. The participants were from four different fraternal organizations; seven females and four males.

Research Instruments The interview is the research instrument used for the data gathering process to obtain a qualitative data. The type of questions used in the interview guide is open-ended to encourage full, substantial a s e s f o pa ti ipa ts o k o ledge a d/o feeli gs and to enable the researchers to

d a out a d e pa d o the pa ti ipa ts point. The researchers opted to use this research method to obtain first hand data from the respondents so as to formulate rational and sound conclusions and recommendations for the study.During the interview process, recording devices such as camera and mobile phones were employed to aid the researchers for easier and valid transcriptions and coding of data for pronounced analysis.

Procedures
The preliminary procedure for this study was done by choosing the participants via convenience sampling. It was followed by a letter that included the i te ie s date, ti e, lo atio , des iptio of the study, and consent form. To supplement this, face-to-face conversations was conducted to allow the participants to further understand the nature of the study. For the study proper the interview conversations would range from 20-30 minutes for each interviewee. The data from the interview was analyzed afterwards. The interview sessions were audiorecorded given the permission from the participants. Post procedures included debriefing, giving out incentives, and providing a copy of results if requested by the participants.

8 Data Collection and Analysis In order to address these objectives the researchers utilized three theories used by Cory (2011) in understanding how fraternal membership influence leadership development, as a guide for this esea h. Fi st is “ hei s 99 o ga izatio al ultu e; se o d is the stude t de elop e t theo

(Baxter Magolda, 2008; Chickering & Reisser, 1993) and lastly, leadership identity development theories (Komives, et al., 1998; Komives, et al., 2005, 2006). Analysis of the data followed the methods of Cory (2011) which begun with the interview recordings and by taking key concepts, words, phrases, and ideas. The researcher determined what information was analyzed through our own understanding of culture, student development, and leadership identity development derived from the theoretical framework as a filter.

Results and Discussion The intent of this study is to understand how the culture of fraternal organizations influences student development and specifically leadership identity development among college students. Since the esea he ha e used Co s f a e o k the fi di gs a e uite si ila ith the esults. Through data

collection and analysis, the findings suggest; first, the culture of the fraternal organization influences and shapes the development of student leaders; second, certain values within the fraternal organization are embodied by fraternity and sorority leaders, and lastly, fraternity and sorority student leaders develop their identity as a leader through learning and meaning making within their respective fraternal organization. Fraternal organizations are imbued with values and opportunities that attract students who will participate in a culture that emphasizes relationships and leadership (Cory, 2011). The findings suggest the participants readily adapt to the framework of the espoused values of their fraternal organizations and incorporate them in their lives as leaders. As a student, James gives importance to the principles and values of his fraternity and says The p i iples of f ate it is so ethi g ga gi dala ko as a leade . O edie e sa la , ka

ga exist gid na para indi mag-fall ang society into chaos. Intellectual integrity, kung anu ang imo beliefs and values then you have to live up to that, and academic excellence—dapat ma-balance mo man ang things like excellence on the academes, but also to other aspects of society. A

9 fraternity is one of the organizations that can develop leaders, because may certain values and principles nga na gina-i still o its e e s. I teg it is i stilled espe iall sa aku f ate it ..

Also, the stude t leade s experiences in organizations may have a lasting impact on their development as an individual. In many ways, the fraternal organization, assumes a filial-like role in the lives of fraternity and sorority students. Anna, in particular plays a part of a big sister to other members, Mo e o a ig siste , ei g a se io , ka i aggaguide, ka i u g pi atata uga ku g a u u g gagawain, yung mga lower batch sa course namen regarding sa mga subjects nila. As a junior, kailingan ko makicope sa pinag-uusapan pakikisama sa kanila, kung may meeting or gathering, s o p e kahit a a f ie ds ako I still pe et ati g o the e g oup. Kasi lifeti e akisa a sa ka ila

it e t a u g pag joi

g so o it so kaila ga talaga a

Another finding suggests that fraternity and sorority leaders develop their identity as a leader through learning and meaning making within their respective fraternal organization. This finding implies that the culture of the fraternal organization serves as a shaping influence as the participants pursue leadership within the organization. Ale a de fi ds it e essa a d i po ta t to take i to a ou t his f ate it s i flue e o his

role as a leader in his fraternity and says One value na gintudlo sang akun frat na ginagamit ko gid is intellectual integrity. Every decision na naubra ko, ginapanindugan ko gid kay bal-an ko chakto na. Ako ang leader na indi lg puro wakal especially kung needed gid ko sang org ko. Wala ko gapagulpi-gulpi lang ubra decision kay every decision is well-thought gid dapat. According to the participants their personality has also improved in terms of being open to new experiences and confidence especially to personal, social and recreational aspects. Patricia emphasized that it is really necessary to improve o e s self i te confidence and being open to new experiences, Na develop gid kung panu ko magdeal sa peer pressure, na develop akun attitude towards time management, panu ko mag make decisions, and I think ang perception ko sa society is nagchange because of the principles and values nga gin instill sang fraternity sakun. Awareness s of gai i g

10 as well of surroundings we learn to interact with more people. Before I was silent, I keep thought to self he a ou d othe people pe o su o g I o e o fide t.

In addition, since the researchers are using a theoretical framework of organizational culture, student development and leadership identity development as mentioned in the objectives, the following are answers to those objectives.

Research Question 1: How the student leaders, who are fraternal members, perceive the leadership culture of fraternal organizations Generally, the participants perceive the leadership culture of their perspective fraternal organization as something that would provide the venue and opportunity of a leader. First, fraternal organization sponsors or organizes certain events that develop their sense of responsibility through interaction with co-fraternal members and being introduced to new experiences and people. As a leader who believes that she has improved in terms of relational skills, Patricia supports this by saying, We ha e se i es a gi a offe , the e ou a de elop elatio ship ith people ou a e helping, you lead others to follow you, gina tap other chapters and other agencies to increase o e tio , ka f o ti e to ti e ga o du t a ka i se i es to the o u it .

Another is that, the student leaders understand the fraternal organization as something that gives importance to the ties that bind the members together. For the participants the fraternal organization serves as a diverse pool of people strongly tied together by principles. It is an organization which creates an environment for psychosocial growth and integrity and leadership development. Alexander believes that being with different people with different personalities has improve these skills, Para sakon, ang frat mayo nga training ground for leaders kay tnan nga member required ang full commitment. Wala gagiho ang frat kung isa lang ang committed. Ang ubrahanay sa frat kapoy pero sadya kay pamilya kamo indi lang kamo basta basta orgmates. May ginashare kamo na principles na common sa inyo tanan muna hapos ang ubra kay may intsindihanay. Unlike iban na orgs na okay lg maglibakanay/away, sa frat every away ginaresolba daun para indi mao p o ise a g f at

11 Lastly, they perceived the trust given by the brotherhood and/or sisterhood as something that is valued greatly and would provide copious amounts of confidence to the individual. Student leaders consider the principles of the fraternity in every decision they make, which in turn gives them a sense of standard in terms of their leadership identity. Research Question 2: How the fraternal environment influences the formation of leadership identity development of its undergraduate members

The findings in this study suggest Komives et al. (2006) model is consistent with the process of leadership identity development cultivated within fraternity and sorority membership. First, fraternity and sorority student leaders are presented with opportunities that will let them engage, explore, follow, lead, and empower others and these develop their identity as a leader. These opportunities let the student leaders recognize the importance of the relational component and how important it is, in terms of the social interaction within the fraternal organization. Second, the fraternal organization gives importance to the sense of equality among the members in terms of gender; the stude t leade s do t e essa il thi k that the e is a diffe e e between male and female student leaders, and this influences them in a way that they see other gender as equal to them. Although there seem to be a difference in terms of leadership style—male student leaders are more stable and have stronger aura and conviction, while female student leaders are more sensitive to other constituents. Ja es does t ha e a biases towards female leaders and believes that females engage in but

emphasized that males have a different leadership style, Emphasis on the general notion that males have more stable decisions. Decisions are made with conviction which develops trust from members. In critical times, (males) are calm and can think of ways to solve problems. Easier to make friends. There are more activities made for males that can e a le the to ake o e tio s

Lastly, the sense of brotherhood and sisterhood gives the student leaders the chance to develop leadership and relational skill—the awareness of the fact that the fraternity has diverse and unique members provides a sense of understanding as to how to interact with other individuals, which is consistent with the Relational Leadership Model.

12 Research Question 3: How students utilize fraternity and sorority membership in order to develop an identity as a leader

Within their fraternal organization the student leaders were able to construct their values and/or improve their existing values. Most of the participants describe fulfilling and challenging situations they encountered as something that provides learning and growth in their development as leaders. The student leaders utilize their fraternity and sorority membership by learning to prioritize and manage their time amongst their respective organization but ultimately making the fraternity as a topmost priority. First, being members and/or leaders in other organization is one of the ways the student leaders can be able to live up to the principles of their respective fraternal organization, for instance, one of the participants said that in making decisions he also took into account the ideas of other members and he learned to be more open to new people and experiences. Second, fraternal connections within and outside the university are also utilized. Patricia says, Gi a tap othe o du t hapte s a d othe age ies to i u it . ease o e tio , ka f o ti e to ti e ga

a ka i se i es to the o

Most members seek advice and help from their alumni in personal, academic and fraternal matters. Lastly, the fraternity has certain goals it aspires to achieve, such as producing outstanding professionals in their chosen fields (e.g. doctors, lawyers), and the fraternity can be a training ground where the student leaders can hone their skills for the careers they wish to pursue in the future. Activities such as medical missions and feeding programs are some of the examples as to how the fraternity can develop such skills. All in all, engagement in highly organized activities over the collegiate lifespan seems to influence the overall growth, learning, and development of students engaged in those activities. In particular, engagement in ongoing and organized memberships such as fraternities and sororities impact student leaders in profound ways less likely to be experienced by other college students (The Center for Learning Outcomes Assessment, 2009).

13 Conclusions and Recommendations ‘esults of the stud sho o siste ith “ hei s 99 o ga izatio al ultu e theo .

Responses made by student leaders seem to be in line with the virtues and principles that the fraternity tries to embody. The interviews with the participants showed similarities between respondents within the same fraternities (e.g. favors academic excellence above all others). Other observations include the u if i g fa to of the f ate it /so o it s p i iples – these principles form a moral standard within the member, which he/she then tries to live by. It can also be observed that the principles and virtues of the fraternity or sorority is the standard for recruiting members – as to how well the student leaderss can accept and adapt with these principles are the basis for their membership. Chi ke i g 99 stude t de elop e t theo is also o siste t ith the pa ti ipa t s

responses. The seven vectors of development can be seen with how the student leaders described themselves as they entered the fraternity/sorority. The development of competence and confidence seems to be a constant trend with their responses. That events and activities that the organization holds hone their skills in interpersonal and intrapersonal relationships also is a trend with the results of the study. The five components described by Komives (2005) in the Relational Leadership Model are also o se a le i the pa ti ipa t s a s e s. Fi st, f ate al student leaders are actively encouraged to participate in the orga izatio s a ti ities. “e o d, o it e t is highl alued i e e f ate it a d

sorority. Understanding and awareness within the organization is also a steady trend with the pa ti ipa t s espo ses. This sho s that al ost all of the f ate ities appl a certain similar system of organizing its members and their activities to promote the fraternity and the individual, both at the same time. Ulti atel , the pa ti ipa ts espo ses sho that the theo eti al f a e o k fo the stud applicable with the current organizational membership of the fraternities/sororities here in the university. In conclusion the researchers can say that the fraternity has been indeed a training ground for the participants in this study. The student leaders live by the principles of their organization and they are groomed to become leaders. It is safe to say that fraternities want to develop responsible leaders and professionals that can help in upholding the reputation of the organization. a e

14 Studying more fraternities and sororities may be more beneficial to see if the trend is consistent with all the other fraternities here in the university. It is also recommended to get out of the university and study other fraternities to see if the theoretical framework also applies to them. Doing focus group discussions within the fraternities can also help in identifying interpersonal social interactions within the members to see how this affects the individual. This study can help in breaking negative stereotypes for fraternities and sororities and that there is something good that comes out of being inside a fraternity or a sorority.

15 References Anson, J. L., & Marchesani, R. F. Jr, eds. (1991). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities, 20th edition. Indianapolis, IN: Baird's Manual Foundation. Astin, A.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2001). Making their own way: Narratives for transforming higher education to promote self-development. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing. Baxter Magolda, M.B. (2008). Three elements of self-authorship. Journal of College Student Development, 49(4), 269-284. Bogdan, R.C. & Biklen, S.K. (2003). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods (4th Ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Chickering, A.W. & Reisser, L.W. (1993). Education and Identity (2nd ed.). Jossey Bass: San Francisco. Cory, A. J. (2011). The Influence of fraternity or sorority membership on the leadership identity development of college student leaders. Washington State University: College Of Education.

Dungy, G.J. (1999). Greek tragedies, Greek revivals. Trusteeship, 7(4), 23-27. Garrett, D. (n.d). The value of the Greek system: Should fraternities and sororities have a place on campus? Retrieved from www.uvm.edu/~vtconn/v19/garrett.htm Kelly, D. R. (2008). Leadership development through the fraternity experience and the relationship to career success after graduation. Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity Advisors, 3(1), 1-12.
Komives, S.R., Longerbeam, S., Owen, J.E., Mainella, F.C., & Osteen, L. (2005). Developing a leadership identity: A grounded theory. Journal of College Student Development.46, 593-611. Komives, S.R., Longerbeam, S., Owen, J.E., Mainella, F.C., & Osteen, L. (2006). A leadership identity development model: Applications from a grounded theory. Journal of College Student Development, 47, 401-420.

16 Maisel, J. M. (1990). Social fraternities and sororities are cont conducive to the educational process. NASPA Journal, 28(1), 8-12.

Molasso, W. R. (2005). A decade of research on the fraternity/sorority movement. Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity Advisors, 1(1), 1-12. Pascarella, E.T, & Terenzini, P.T. (2005). How college effects students: A third decade of research. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco. Pike, G. R. (2003). Membership in a fraternity or sorority, student engagement, and educational outcomes at AAU public research universities. Journal of College Student Development, 44(3), 369-382. Wechsler, H. (1996). Alcohol and the American college campus: A report from the Harvard school of public health. Change, 28, 20-25.
Schein, E.H. (1993). Organizational Culture and Leadership, 2nd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

17 Appendices Appendix A Interview Guide/Schedule To answer the research questions, the following methods will be used to gather data: 1. Interview Guide or schedule Background and Introduction: a. Tell me a little about yourself —about your background and what brought you to [institution] as well as about your involvement here at [institution]? b. Tell me about your family of origin - parents, siblings, living situation, etc.

c. Who served as significant role models for you before coming to college and why?

Involvement in Organization: a. What organizations are you involved in at (institution)? b. c. Tell me about your leadership roles on campus/in the community. Describe some of the fulfilling experiences you have had in your sorority/fraternity. Why do you think this is the case? Think back to a time when you had a challenging experience in your sorority/fraternity. What happened? How did you handle it? What have you learned about relating to other people from your sorority/fraternity experience? How have you changed since joining your chapter? Leadership: a. How would you define leadership? What is the role of a leader? b. What makes someone a leader? c. Do you consider yourself a leader? Why? When did you first perceive/believe you were a leader?

d.

e.

f.

18 d. e. f. What is the elatio ship et ee the ―offi ial‖ leader (officer) and members/followers? How do your values manifest in your practice as a leader? What do you believe is the role of F/S at (institution) in developing student leaders?

g. Tell me about a time when you had to face difficult decisions as a leader? What was that like? How did you handle it? Leadership Identity Development: a. What role do you believe your gender plays in your leadership style? b. What are the most important skills and/or attributes of a leader? Is this different in a f ate it /so o it ? i.e. the skills/att i utes…does it ―take‖ something different?) c. What do you believe has contributed to your identity as a leader at (institution).

Wrap up: a. Is the e a thi g else ou d like to tell leader? e a out ou e pe ie es as a f ate it a d so o it

b. Is the e a thi g that ou d like research study?

e to e plai a out the pu pose of this i te ie o

19 Appendix B

University of the Philippines Visayas College of Arts and Sciences Division of Social Sciences Miag-ao, Iloilo

(Date) (Name of Fraternal Organization) Dear Sir/Madam, This letter is an invitation to nominate fraternity and sorority student leaders for participation in a study that we are conducting for our course, Psych 118 – Field Methods in Psychology – in the Psychology Program of the University of the Philippines Visayas. Ou stud is e titled Leade ship Ide tit De elop e t: The I flue e of F ate it o “o o it Me e ship o College “tude t Leade s. The p oje t ill help us lea o e a out the i flue e of fraternity and sorority affiliation on leadership identity development for college student leaders. Participants will be asked to participate in an interview of approximately 20-30 minutes in length to take place at a mutually agreed upon location and time. With their permission, the interview will be audiorecorded to facilitate collection of information and later transcribed for analysis. All information provided by participants will be considered completely confidential. Would you consider nominating 2-3 fraternity and/or sorority affiliated student leaders at (institution) for us to invite to participate? Specifically, we are mostly interested in dialoguing with fraternity and sorority affiliated student leaders that practice their leadership in a relational orientation. By this, we mean the students who are officers within the organization and/or those who are officers in other organizations in the university. By participating in this study the researchers find it beneficial for the constituents – especially non-fraternal members – to be knowledgeable of the leadership identity development of their student leaders. Also, we would gladly give you a copy of our study if you intend to know its results. We will need only their name, email address, and phone number to invite them to be part of this research. If you have any questions regarding this study, please contact us by email at kharlamaebrillo@yahoo.com.We will follow up with you this weekend. Thank you in advance for your assistance in this project. Respectfully yours, KHARLA MAE D. BRILLO Group Representative

20 Appendix C Transcripts of Interviews Anna Mo e o a igge siste , ei g a se io , ka i agguguide, ka i u g pi atata uga ku g a u u g gaga ai , u g ga lo e at h sa ou se a e ega di g sa ga su je ts ila

As a ju io , kailingan ko makicope with sa pinag-uusapan pakikisama sa kanila, kung may eeti g o gathe i g, s p e kahit a a f ie ds ako I still pe et ati g o the e g oup. Kasi

lifetime commitment na yung pag join ng sorority so kailangan talaga na makisama sa ka ila Befo e I as asse ti e, ka a ag lea di a ag o p o ise a d i patie t di ako efo e, so

now mas humaba yung pasensya for the betterment of the decision that the sorority makes.. I was the kind na pag hindi kinakausap hindi din kita kakausapin so now mas nagging open ako, for my de elop e t, a d fo e uit e t as ell A leade is good follo e ; i o de to lead ou should also e a good follo e a d liste to ou members, someone that possesses initiative and patience, and has understanding. “i e if ou e a leader, hindi ka dapat mediocre, dapat mag initiate ka within the group to move towards a certain goal, one should be understanding to accommodate each members opinion and insights, as a leader, may time man nga matak-an ka pero you need to e patie t. It does t eut alize o a g ea ode ato a leade ka, as-angat ka sa ila [member] it only means that ikaw lang ma-

ithi the g oup. est fo that a ti it to e su essful, u g ag-iimprove yung relationship mo with

O e is a a ti it is assig ed, ou ha e to do ou especiall if it s so ethi g othe e Co es u i atio skills is e ajo fo the so o it , eto di

i po ta t, the diffe e e ku g a d a ka sa so o it is the le el

attachment, because of verbal and physical commitment of the process. Kasi may rules to follow and expectations to meet and you are more open to different personalities. More confidence is build up e ause ou a e e posed to o e oppo tu ities.

21 Patricia M othe , a g suppo t s ste ko is p ese t, wala pressure even when there are limitations, if

I a do it a d I elie e I a , u aho ko gid. Challe gi g ut at the e d of the da , it is still fulfilli g. We ha e se i es a gi a ooffe , the e you can develop relationship with people you are helping, you lead others to follow you, gina tap other chapters and other agencies to increase connection, kay from time to time ga conduct man kami se i es to the o u it . agdeal sa pee p essu e, a de elop akun

Be espo si le, a de elop gid ku g pa u ko

attitude towards time management, panu ko mag make decisions, and I think ang percerption ko sa society is nagchange because of the principles and values nga gin instill sang fraternity sakun. Awareness as well of surroundings we learn to interact with more people. Before I was silent, I keep thought to self he a ou d othe people pe o su o g I Leade ship ala a ase ku g o e o fide t a positio ka o ala. That is i stilled i ou, ithi ou self,

nagiging leader ka kung nakukuha mo ang respect sang iban nga tawo when you respect yourself. You a e a leade sa ga ga a ga aga , ou sta t ith that, ou sta t ith i itiati e. It s a doi g hat is ight a d hat is just. ade, ou go a lot of thi gs sa life o, a d that atte of

getti g the espe t a d t ust of othe people

I do t elie e that leade s a e o , the a e

where you know your weaknesses and strengths and you become aware of what matters to other people, you lead yourself first then you lead others. Kabalo ka na kung anu tsakto o indi, and when your u de goi g t ai i g, ou de elop ou leade ship skills as ell. E ual la g a g elatio ship sa g leade s a d e e . Leade s la g a g ga i itiate sa g oup,

kung anu ang dapat, they work hand in hand together after ma present sang leader kung anu ang final decision. In our fraternity we are all leaders, kami tanan may own nga initiative, wala pataasay, may balance lang dapat. As a leader kailangan ang word of honor and dignity, whatever happens, even if bayaan ka na, you have to live up to that position, sa mga responsibilities no matter what happens, do hat is ask Ho est is a othe , dapat a gai o a g t ust sa g i a so dapat sa i o self agi g ho est

ka man. Not for the sake nga mabal-an sang tanan but for self-i p o e e t

22 Gi e that e ha e p i iples ithi the f ate it a d p o ess itself, di a a-develop and

sense of leadership, a fraternity is a good support system, within the small group one can be able to p a ti e a d ho e the skills of a pe so . It s different because within the fraternity the bond is already there, because of the process, since there is a common denominator is already present. You carry the sa e p i iples a d so ou li e up the sa e a othe li e up to it James Bei g i a f ate nity would mean na there would be internal conflict, wala kaming seniority, equality, mabudlay mag mediate especially when that happens. Time management is another, damo gid ginaubra, I prioritize lang tanan, dapat ma understand mo man ang iban kung may ti e sila o ala U de sta d people, ou e essa il do t ge e alize, ka alo ka ag u se sta d a idst sa i a

nga tawo, there are certain things that are limited to other people. Mag co-courage ka to do things, since you know that you have a support system nga ga-maximize sang imo potential, getting out of your o fo t zo es. A leade that ala es t o thi gs, i a g ha d o ki g ka gid, ika a g li s a g gapahulag sa

progress, you have to maintain that indi ka mag ubra sang mag dissapointing nga bagay. You have to be efficient. Someone who can initiate change, especially positive ones, its better if the leader has support, imo nga pwede maubra have more potentiality.. kabalo mag influences tawo, kabalo mag relate sang change nga gusto niya. If there is something wrong with the system you have to initiate change at the sa e ti e gi a ela o a sa i a a ga ta o. a isa ka sta d sa ea ga ga de isio s,pe o ika a g as taas ka, ka pa eho a i itiate

Isa ka o ka g oup sa g people ga

sa mga bagay, but doing those kind of stuff deos t

a la g ka o

nga human being, pareho kamo may intellect. Ikaw ang ma sacrifice, you have to make the first move by olle ti g de isio s a d i sights f o The p i iples of the e es

f ate it is so ethi g ga gindala ko as a leader. Obedience sa law, kay

ga exist gid na para indi ma fall ang society into chaos. Intellectual integrity, kung anu ang imo beliefs and values then you have to live up to that and Academic excellence; dapat ma balance mo man ang thi gs, e elle e o the a ade es, ut also to othe aspe ts of so iet . F ate ities is o e of the o ga izatio s that a de elop leade s, e ause a e tai alues

and principles are instilled on its members. Integrity is instilled especially sa akun fraternity but basically

23 it s the sa e, the diffe e e is that the e is e ualit et ee sa leade a d o stitue ts. You a lea

how to initiate or maintain. Being on the right path, kung anu man nag mga bagay na ethically, legally, spiritually, morally correct you have to do it. Even if you go astray you have to accept and learn from that. Alexander Ha i g ualit e e s a d eati g a st o g o d a o g us othe s a d siste s. Also,

promoting the frat by making quality-wise activities.

This is ot o ly applicable to the frat, but to all organizations as well. For me, it is really difficult to instill commitments to your members. Initiative is what some of my members are lacking. Everything ould e eas fo a leade if the e e s ha e i itiati e. e ha e di e se i ds a d a e ot eas to

As a pe so , I e lea ed that the people a ou d

deal with. As a leader, thorough understanding to every member is needed. Kelangan inchindihon mo gid a g ugali sa g isa kag isa pa a hapos a d u aha a

I e a e more responsible as a person, doing work while having fun. Also, I became strong e ause of the p i iples e elie e i , ule of la , i telle tual i teg it , a ade i e elle e

Fo

e, leade ship is a oppo tu it . Bei g a leade is a ho o

e ause there are people who

trust you in behalf of the organization. Roles of a leader: take care of the organization and members, fulfill the o je ti es of the o g

O e alue a gi tudlo sa g f ate it ko a gi aga it ko gid is intellectual integrity. Every decision na naubra ko, ginapanindugan ko gid kay bal.an ko chakto na. ako ang leader na indi lg puro wakal especially kung needed gid ko sang org ko. Wala ko gapagulpi-gulpi lang ubra decision kay every decision is well-thought gid dapat

Pa a sako , a g f at

a o ga t ai i g g ou d fo leade s ka t a

ga

e

e e ui ed a g

full commitment. Wala gagiho ang frat kung isa lang ang committed. Ang ubrahanay sa frat kapoy pero saja kay pamilya kamo indi lang kamo basta basta orgmates. May ginashare kamo na principles na

24 common sa inyo tanan muna hapos ang ubra kay may inchindihanay. Unlike iban na orgs na okay lg maglibakanay/away, sa frat every away ginaresolba daun para indi ma- o p o ise a g f at

Bila g is ka lalaki, mas hapos kay daw ka strong sang aura mo. Kay diba gina view sang society ang women as emotionally unstable, mas ginatrust sang tawo ang lalaki nga leader. As a leader, dapat maging goal-oriented ka, strong and decisive, loyal ka towards your members, and committed ka sa kung ano ang responsibility na ginhatag simo. Ga-believe na ko ni daan sa mga muni na skills pero ginstrengthen lang sang nagsulod ko,.. kag muna man ang rason na nagsulod ko kay name ang p i iples kag da aka elate gid ko

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