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Legal and Ethical

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Legal and Ethical Issue

The growth and development of internet use has influenced considerable innovations globally. More than a few organizations rely on internet use to operate and to enhance their productivity among other aspects. However, organizational planning in most organizations has recognized that malicious attacks, threats, and vulnerabilities are the major factors affecting organizations. Over the years, Amazon organization has been leading in terms of online business for many years. As a result, there are a number of factors that have influenced its growth and development. One of the major factors that has influenced the growth and development of the organization is effective strategic management. However, despite the growth and development of the company, research shows that the company has faced legal and ethical issues. The two major legal and ethical issues related to Amazon Company include contempt to intellectual property and confidentiality. This paper will describe legal and ethical issue faced by Amazon Inc. Com.

Company Description

Amazon is one of the major online retailer and other computing services that are normally used in businesses for the benefit of clients. One of the contributing factors of Amazon performance is its globalization. The impact of globalization has effectively enhanced the growth and development of more than a few factors within and outside the organization. The effect or impact of globalization has influenced the organization to boost its management performance efficiently. Globalization has provided a framework for intensely incorporated information technology and the company’s business strategies by exploring the results on savings, venture architecture, and operating costs. Generally, globalization is major factor that has greatly influenced new reforms in the company management such as novel investments in nearly all Amazon branches worldwide (Donaldson, Werhane, & Van, 2008). Throughout organizational planning process, Amazon officials assessed both external and internal in order to determine the best strategies for successful future. However, the major threat to the organization is external factors. The major external factors that affect Amazon organization include security threats, competitive environment, and decline of American economy. In addition, there are a number of rapid changes in the external environment. However, information or data from external environment adds quick changes to crucial factors. Security is one of the major external factors facing Amazon. However, Based on the increased dangers in organizations, it is considerable to appropriately manage and protect data against unlawful disclosure of private information, loss of data reliability, and also make sure the accessibility of data and system. In IT based organizations, security requires an impartial approach that would guarantee data safety and progress of the organization (DeVries, 2003). Insecurity of data continues to be a major threat in IT based organizations. Amazon Company specifically deals with online retail and other aspects associated with the internet. Therefore, the chances of risks in the company are high because of increased number of threats such as malware, breach and access of data without permission. The organization is composed of different variety of systems that can easily be affected by risks associated with hackers and other unauthorized users. Today, one of the major factors affecting growth, progress, and development of business in more than a few organizations globally is ethical issues. For instance, bribing of government officials to obtain contract, deceptive advertising, or using insider information are examples of ethical issues affecting business (George, 2006).

Ethical issues are illegal because they intend to ruin an organization’s reputation and most cases the company may go out of business revenues or capital. Deceptive advertising is a major ethical issue that has affected Amazon Company over the 4 years or so. This ethical issue involves false advertisement that misleads customers into commercial transactions or advertisements that create false impression. Amazon organization was accused of systematically advertising its products in the year 2006 at low prices in order to get customers to their stores. However, the company failed to have the merchandise and was guilty of deceptive advertising and other legal and ethical issues (Mathieson, 2008).

Confidentiality

As the leading online retail organization globally, it is clear that Amazon has faced the risk of contempt to intellectual property and confidentiality. This has been a serious issue over the past 20 years or so. The management of the organization has come up with different measures in order to settle these issues. However, this has been a major challenge since the organization faces malicious attacks, threats, and vulnerabilities. Research shows that the organization has lost numerous items as a result of contempt to both intellectual property and confidentiality. However, implementation of information security within the organization has influenced considerable ideas of protecting private data (Holgate, Williams, Hardy, 2012). The main aim of information security in organizations is to prevent or protect confidential data. This is accomplished by reducing security risk of loss of private, integrity and accessibility of data to a suitable level. There are more than a few factors related information security such as security governance, security program management, and security requirements. In order for CIOs and IT leaders to effective run their organizations, it is considerable for them to manage risks. Risk management is one of the major issues that has become complex to manage because of increased number of computer threats. The major security threats in IT organizations include hacking, viruses, Trojan horse, Spoofing, Sniffing, and denial of service (Pasic, Rodriguez, Torres, 2001). Based on research, threats associated with the organization are influenced by unauthorized users or employees who try to access data or information hosted in the server. Threats identified in the organization are associated with individuals or people working within the organization. Through hacking, unauthorized users are able to crack in any system if security is not appropriate. Threats can have a great impact on any organization. For instance, in Amazon organization, threats have always been happening through loss of private information. It is clear that over the years unauthorized users have been in a position to change passwords and use them to send instant message to the main operating system. In an incident that occurred 2008, Amazon lost all data as a result of insecure network connections (Palmer, 2010).

Security issues have affected several IT based companies in America and other states globally because unauthorized users have the access to the organizations easily. Unauthorized users are mainly linked with employees in IT organization, who feeds them with private data such as security codes. Therefore, IT code of ethics is considerable for the development of an organization. Code of Ethics is an internal factor that has contributed significantly to the growth and development of IT based organizations. For instance, Privileged access is a code of ethics that should be given to managers or authorized individuals in Amazon institute. Access to private information in Amazon should only be acceptable to managers only in order to avoid theft, and hacking (Palmer, 2010). In that context, the CIOs in partnership with IT leaders of Amazon should ensure that privileged access is only permitted managers. Privileged access is substantial because it will ensure employees appreciate the liability and obligation to utilize systems in ethical, legal manner, and professional way that is severely in their approved job functions. The rationale of internal and external factors is to enhance online business that will benefit the management of the entire organization. CIOs and IT leaders of the Amazon organization have efficiently advised employees on how to advance and correctly use Information technology recourses (Holgate, Williams, Hardy, 2012). It is evident that contempt to privacy in Amazon influenced by unauthorized users. Contempt to privacy is as a result of lack of authentication and access controls that the organization failed to implement. Clearly, contempt to privacy is associated with threats that are influenced by unauthorized users. It is clear that the discovery of contempt to privacy is a major factor that happens every day. Based on research, it is clear that vulnerabilities can influence or cause Denial of Service (DoS) and allow hackers to have access on data. Vulnerabilities are dangerous because they are the main aspects that have influenced massaging threat that has rapidly spread in the company. Therefore, contempt to privacy is dangerous because it gives unauthorized users the opportunity to gain access to organization’s privacy. This factor puts the company at risk because its confidential information is disclosed (Palmer, 2010).

Intellectual property and Deceptive Advertising

Copyright has been a major issue globally. Amazon has faced this issue of the past 20 years or so. It is clear that there are other organizations that produce similar materials to clients in the name of Amazon. Most clients have noted that most of these products are fake and short-lasting. Unauthorized users use information to mislead clients in order to purchase their goods convincing them that it is Amazon property. However, in the real sense, unauthorized users have used the opportunity to ruin the company’s reputation (Holgate, Williams, Hardy, 2012).

Network allows effective information sharing and this gives unauthorized or hackers the opportunity to access data without permission. Networks give hackers and unauthorized users the opportunity to affect the physical infrastructure of the company. This kind of physical attack in the organization results or can result to loss of service that can affect the normal operations within the company. Vulnerabilities can cause failures in security management and appropriate operations as well. Vulnerabilities can influence lack of trust within the organization. The identified vulnerabilities that will be identified in the documented network can have negative impact to the organization. One of the major potential impacts is that employees will lack trust from one another in fear of loss of data. Conversely, the relationship of the organization and other businesses might be affected (Holgate, Williams, Hardy, 2012). Contempt to intellectual property can take different other forms such as false promises, incomplete descriptions, false testimonials, or unsubstantiated claim that may harmfully affect an organization. As a matter of fact, clients of Amazon organization identified the situation and reported the matter to the law. Deceptive advertising is one of the major factors that are punishable by the law because unauthorized users use false information in order to increase their profits. Deceptive advertising includes any individual involved in manufacturing the products, the advertising agency, and visual distortions of products. The effort to boost Amazon sales contributed to several issues that affect the consumer and the company as well. In the year 2006, reports claim that unauthorized users hacked Amazon system without permission and made multiple advertisements on fake products (Mathieson, 2008). Today, the consequence of deceptive advertising by unauthorized users is not tolerated because it is a major factor that contributed to trademark infringement in Amazon. Following the case of Amazon in the year 2006, consumers are protected by the state of laws on descriptive practices. For instance, the United States of America laws define deceptive advertising by showing goods or services with intention of not selling them as advertised. This has contributed significantly to eliminate any descriptive practice associated with some organizations. The main effects of Deceptive advertising are damages. Deceptive advertising is unethical because it deceives customers by contributing false information that would later cause damages to the clients. Amazon salespersons’ hiked prices on products that they announced to have been reduced (Mathieson, 2008). This means that the sales people benefited from the products while on the other hand the business was at a greater risk of collapsing. Customers of Amazon realized that they were overcharged in on the products they purchased from the stalls The law enforcement agency of the United States took control over the matter and charged the organization of Deceptive advertising and contempt to intellectual property. Today, this ethical issue is prohibited and it is highly punishable. Such issues are influenced by the CEO who bribes the sales people to offer false details that would only benefit them. On the other hand, the customers are the only people who suffer the consequences of these ethical issues. In some case, the business may collapse completely because of the general effects of Deceptive advertising contempt to intellectual property (Holgate, Williams, Hardy, 2012). The purpose of Amazon organization is to create the most earth’s customer centric organization. This will ensure that the organization creates a place where individuals can purchase business items they require online. The use of Information Technology has been the basis of Amazon’s business since it was ever developed. Customers globally have transacted with Amazon because the use of its systems are efficient and fast. The size of the organization is rapidly growing globally. The conception of new branches in other states has significantly boosted the growth and development of Amazon. Culture in Amazon is one of the major factors that the CEO and the Board of Directors should consider in order to create considerable IT code of ethics. Employees of the organization need to be motivated about the significance of rules and regulations within the setting of the organization. This factor will reduce ethical issues such as breach of data, access of data, and hacking by unauthorized users (Mitchell, Marcella, Baxter, 1999).

Utilitarianism

Contempt to privacy is one of the major ethical issues in the current business. Contempt to privacy in occupation takes more than a few forms and can occur in every kind of work setting. The theory of utilitarianism significantly addresses the issues of Contempt to privacy at work. Utilitarianism states that most businesses are negatively affected by Contempt to privacy. Utilitarianism theory offers considerable solutions that can be used to eliminate ethical issues in the work place. In nearly all organizations globally, Contempt to privacy is the major factor that has negatively affected most organization. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that describes the locus of what is correct and incorrect within an organization. According to the theory, people at work place need to respect the values of an organization as employees (Kazemi, et al, 2012). Over the years, Contempt to privacy has been a major challenge in Amazon as a result of unfaithful employees. Contempt to privacy comes in many forms such as when an individual hacks into the system without permission and shares private information to non-authorized people. Utilitarianism theory does not approve contempt to privacy at the workplace because it is unethical (Mathieson, 2008). The theory argues that every individual has the right to keep the organizations data a secret. Information should not be shared to other people because this can put the organization at a great risk of losing important data. Utilitarianism offers more than a few solutions that can significantly boost the code of ethics in a workplace. Utilitarianism theory mainly supports factors which are ethically correct within an organization. Utilitarianism contains considerable solution for ethical issues such as contempt to privacy. Utilitarianism does not allow use of data to extend beyond what is allowed in the organization (Holgate, Williams, Hardy, 2012).
Deontology
Deontology is a theory that deals with duty and obligation within an organization. This theory governs employees from any kind of unethical behavior. It ensures that the role of employees is to carry out their task in the correct or required manner. Deontology has been embraced by many people because it seems to make good deal of sense and relatively simple to apply in business daily activities. Deontology focuses on morals rather than rules in business enhancing the rules of an organization eventually. There are more than a few reasons that made deontology popular. Generally, deontology is a relatively simple ethical system that can be applied anywhere especially in business. If people want to set rules, they have to identify good and bad rules and then choose the best one. For instance, goods are calculated on a net basis. However, no one is guaranteed happiness under deontology because loss can outfit its nets out appropriately. In business, to decide whether an act is ethical, employees need to execute their tasks without unethical behavior (Mitchell, Marcella, Baxter, 1999). Demonology ensures privacy and protection in e-business is done through the use security codes that are designed as entrance codes in accessing the business information. However, the privacy and protection of an e-business is quite expensive since it calls for the services of an expert to install protective programs on the data. The duty and obligation of employees in Amazon is to install security codes which bare unwanted users or hackers from retrieving or accessing the business information. Hackers who are caught hacking protected data are legally sued for interfering with intellectual property illegally. Ethics of e-business play a role in instilling privacy and security to the business data. E-businesses have made it ethical to protect the customer’s or consumer’s information by holding the information in high confidentiality (Kazemi, et al, 2012).
Intellectual Property Law As stated in the United States (U.S) constitution, employees should access protection of information in order to prevent confidentiality of data that can be breached by unauthorized users. In that context, it is evident that systems in organizations raise special issues for a number of reasons. Private property is a major concern that employees should effectively consider. It is unethical for employees in Amazon to share information with unauthorized users because this can influence breakdown of the organization. Therefore, Amazon management should formulate a considerable strategy such as new rules and regulations that would bind them to the law. Copyright laws are another IT code ethics that Amazon professionals should abide to. This law is considerable in Amazon because it is effective in protecting unauthorized users from accessing organizational data without consent (Kazemi, et al, 2012). Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution states that owners are granted the rights to own intangible assets such as trademarks, copyrights, industrial design rights and patents. The main objective of intellectual property rights is to promote progress in the company’s business. Many jurisdictions often provide protection to inventions and creative processes to different companies. Intellectual property help companies to have financial incentives thus help to create a healthy environment for investment. Some companies may set legal suits for the company’s products with a claim to piracy. The company will also prevent other companies from stealing their innovation skills and destruction of consumer trust (Mitchell, Marcella, Baxter, 1999). The Common Law Duty of Confidentiality Common law is mainly resolved by judges because it depends with the ethical issue facing a particular organization. Article (8) of the Human Rights Act (HRA) and Common Law Duty of Confidentiality states that, “everyone has the right to respect organization’s property”. Access, use, disclosure, modification, or destruction of information by unauthorized users is one major factor that has ruined most organizations over the past 20 years or so. The law has developed and progressed considerably over the years. Amazon uses this law to trade and progress financially globally. Destruction of information can put the company in great risks because there are mainly online traders (Mathieson, 2008). However, introduction of Common Law Duty of Confidentiality in IT companies such as Amazon, significantly secured more than a few aspect that keep these companies in progress. Common Law Duty of Confidentiality and IT strategy should have a connection with the organization’s deliberate plans and mission, which identifies the individual business and diligence. In essence, Common Law Duty of Confidentiality governs anonymity of their products and intellectual properties. Although types of privacy vary from personal, organizational to informational privacy, they are also extended to technological privacy (Westover, 2010).
Conclusion
In summation, the management of the company should always ensure that they have followed the right procedures as defined by individual constitutions thus help to reduce legal suits concerned with a breach of privacy laws. Moreover, the company should always endeavor to protect the consumers from breaching of privacy laws. Also, the management should set business principles in order to prevent the company from unethical issues and behavior. Employees should access protection of information in order to prevent confidentiality of data that can be breached by unauthorized users. In that context, it is evident that systems in organizations raise special issues for a number of reasons. Private property is a major concern that employees should effectively consider It is unethical for employees in Amazon to share information with unauthorized users because this can influence breakdown of the organization. Therefore, Amazon management should formulate a considerable strategy such as new rules and regulations that would bind them to the law Copyright laws are another IT code ethics that Amazon professionals should abide to. This law is considerable in Amazon because it is effective in protecting unauthorized users from accessing organizational data without consent.

References

DeVries, W. (2003). Protecting Privacy in the Digital Age. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 18(1), 283.
Donaldson, T., Werhane, P. H., & Van, Z. J. D. (2008). Ethical issues in business: A philosophical approach. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

George, R. D. (2006). Information technology, globalization and ethics. Ethics and Information Technology, 8(1), 29-40. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10676-006-9104-4
Holgate, J., Williams, P., S., Hardy, A., C., (2012). Information Security Governance: Investigating Diversity in Critical Infrastructure Organizations. Bled, Slovenia: Retrieved from https://domino.fov.unimb.si/proceedings.nsf/0/2247dd9b6fb9504ec1257a2a0030cb05/$FILE/P27_Holgate_8-p.pdf

Kazemi, M et al (2012). Evaluation of information security management system success factors:

Case study of Municipal organization African Journal of Business Management Vol. 6(14), pp. 4982-4989.
Mathieson, (2008). "Making Ethics Easier," IT System perspectives, volume 41, issue 7, pages 91–93.
Mitchell R, Marcella R, Baxter C (1999). Corporate information security management. New Lib. World, pp. 213-227.
Palmer, D. E. (2010). Ethical issues in e-business: Models and frameworks. Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference.

Pasic, A., Rodriguez, S., P., Torres, C., J. (2001). Information Security Governance: Atos Research and Innovation. Spain. Retrieved from http://es.atos.net/NR/rdonlyres/677B74A9-77F8-492F-9510-570E198EBF80/0/Security_ALP_030308_Pisa_ICSTISGIGConference.pdf

Westover, J. H. (2010). Managing organizational change: Change agent strategies and techniques to successfully managing the dynamics of stability and change in organizations. International Journal of Management and Innovation, 2(1), 45-50.

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...Job Behaviors & Moral Yasmin Rodgers 4341 Lakefield Mews Drive Richmond, Va. 23231 Rodgers_Yasmin@yahoo.com 678-472-1088 GM591 Leadership and Organizational Behavior Professor Joseph Plumley October 9, 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Executive Summary…………………………………………………………..3 II. Background of Branch Banking & Trust Company ……………….………..3-5 III. Discussion of Current Business Issues…………………………………….....5-8 IV. Proposed Solution…………………………………………………………….9-11 V. Recommendations For The Executive Committee……………………………11-13 VI. References……………………………………………………………….…..14 Executive Summary Thru my research and writing, my plan is to create the preliminary steps and outline for BB&T to become one of the companies admired by others and to work on a long-term goal of making BB&T into company with a low turnover rate. The TCO A objective that I will be utilizing within my study of BB&T is as follows: Given that people make the difference in how well organizations perform, assess how an understanding of organizational behavior concepts and theories is a useful knowledge base for career success and for improving an organization's effectiveness. Background Of Branch Banking & Trust Company “BB&T Corporation, headquartered in Winston-Salem, N.C., is among the nation's top financial-holding companies with $157 billion in assets and market capitalization of $19.1 billion, as of March 31, 2011. Its bank subsidiaries operate......

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