Free Essay

Legislation on the Elderly in the United States

In: Social Issues

Submitted By ann1095
Words 4268
Pages 18
Legislation On The Elderly In The United States

Final Paper

The Older American Act of 1965 was signed into law on July 14, 1965. This act established the Administration on Aging within the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and called for the creation of State Units on Aging. This act was considered one of the most important contributions on aging legislation enacted by congress. This report is a review of legislation regarding Older American Act.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction on the history of Legislation on the Elderly ……………………………………2
Background Early Acts Enacted to meet the needs of the Elderly……………………………2 Early Acts Enacted leading up to OAA of 1965 …………………………………………..3 Review of Older American Act…….. ………………………………………………………4
Older American Title Review…………..…………………………………………………….5
Amendments………………………………………………………………………………….9
Strength and Weakness of Older American Act……………………………………………..14
Recommendation…………………………………………………………………………….15
Conclusion … ………………………………………………………………………………16
References……………………………………………………………………………………17

Introduction
The new deal program of the 1930’s was enacted by congress to address economic issues during the Great Depression. The Social Security Act of 1935 was a response to criticism for the lack of aid to retired workers age 65 and older and who no longer worked (justfacts.com). This law created "a system of Federal old-age benefits" (justfacts.com). The new act provided pensions, unemployment insurance to nonagricultural` workers, commerce workers, aid to the blind, deaf, disabled and dependent children. Social security provided old age assistance and old age survivors insurance. Social security payment amounts were based on payroll tax contributions. President Roosevelt named this act as “a cornerstone in a structure which is being built but it is by no means complete.” The Social security act is known as one of the best known pieces of legislation enacted by congress.

Background
The newly enacted social security act first payment was to begin in 1942. Retroacted lump sum payments for 1937 to 1942 would be paid in full to retirees. The 1937 Railroad Retirement Act provided pension benefits for retired railroad employees and spouses. A bipartisan Social Security Board (SSB) was created to manage functions of social security or Title II of the Social Security Act and its responsibilities included: the maintenance of wage records; supervision of field offices; examination and approval of claims, including related claims functions (ssa.gov). The SSB was to provide employers, employees and the public with information on how earnings were to be reported, what benefits were available and how they were to be provided. The SSB had to enroll employer and employees by January 1, 1937 in order for credits toward old-age insurance benefits to begin for employees. Resources for SSB were not available to accomplish such a task, so the U.S. Postal Service was contracted to distribute forms in November 1936. The post offices collected the completed forms, typed the Social Security number (SSN) cards, and returned the cards to the applicants. Applications were forwarded to the SSB offices were social security numbers were registered and employment history was recorded. Between 1936 and 1937 over 35 million social security cards were issued through this beginning process (SSA).

These previous Acts lead to the first National Conference on Aging in 1950, which was led by the Federal Security Agency. The changing demographics of the United States population was growing, this was credited to the number of elderly people living longer lives. The 1950 conference was to assess the challenges posed by the changing population. In the 1950s and early 1960s, various acts and legislation was enacted which helped establish what is called the Older American Act of 1965.

Early Acts Enacted leading up to OAA of 1965

1952- First federal funds were appropriated for social services programs for older persons under the Social Security Act.

1956- A special staff on Aging was established within the office of Health, Education, and Welfare to coordinate responsibilities of the Aging. Disability Insurance was created, and expanded over the following years.

1958- Legislation was introduced to congress, calling for a White House Conference on Aging.

1961- The first White House Conference on Aging was held in Washington D.C. Social Security Amendments lowered the retirement age for men from 65 to 62, liberated the retirement test, and increased their minimum benefits and likewise increased benefits to aged widows. Payroll taxes were 6%.

1962-Legislation introduced to Congress, to establish an independent and permanent Commission on Aging. Statistics showed that there were more than 18 million Americans over 65. Most of them had low incomes and were threatened by illness and medical expenses they could not afford.

Review of Older American Act
The Older Americans Act (OAA) was passed by Congress in 1965 as a response to policymaker concerns about the lack of services available for older Americans (www.elderguru). The original act gave authority for grants to states for community planning, social services, research and development projects, and training on aging related issues (www.elderguru). The act established the Administration on Aging (AoA) to administer the grant programs and to serve as the federal agency to oversee matters that pertain to older Americans (www.elderguru).
The Older American Act of 1965 was signed into law on July 14, 1965. This act established the Administration on Aging within the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and called for the creation of State Units on Aging. This act was considered one of the most important contributions on aging legislation enacted by congress. Over the past two decades, many older Americans have benefited from programs and service under the “Older American Act”. The act has served economic as well as social needs, for older Americans. Under privilege elderly minority have greatly benefited from services offered by the act, that help assist in maintaining independence from being institutionalized because federal law established to serve older Americans.

Older American Act establishes certain programs that must be implemented by states and the federal government and provides the funds (or most of the funds) for these programs (senior-site). Each state establishes a Department of Aging to implement the provisions of the Older American Act and acts as a unifying force for services to seniors. States individually provide additional funds and other entitlement programs for senior citizens, along with local Area Agencies on Aging work together with other private nonprofit agencies to implement the desired programs.

Older American Act Title Review
1. Title I : Declaration of Objectives
a. Title I sets out broad social policy objectives oriented toward improving the lives of all older people, including adequate income in retirement, the best possible physical and mental health, opportunity for employment, and comprehensive long-term care services (Cohen, 1963).
2. Title II : Establishment of the AoA
a. Establishes AoA within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) as the chief federal agency advocate for older people and sets out the responsibilities of AoA and the Assistant Secretary for Aging.
b. Among other things, Title II requires AoA to create the National Eldercare Locator Service to provide nationwide information through a toll-free telephone number so that users can identify community resources for older people. It also establishes national resource centers for long-term care ombudsman services and elder abuse prevention activities ((Muramatsu, 2002).
3. Title III : Grants for State and Community Programs on Aging
a. Grants support the activities of 56 state agencies on aging and 655 area agencies on aging, which can be nonprofit or public agencies. These agencies act as advocates on behalf of, and coordinate social service programs for, older people (Cohen, 1963).
b. Authorizes funds for supportive and nutrition services, fam¬ily caregiver support, and disease prevention and health pro¬motion activities (Sharkey, 2002).
c. State agencies are required to pass all Title III funds to area agencies to administer within their state-defined planning and service areas (Gelfand, 2002).
d. Target population — Title III services are available to all people age 60 and over, but they are targeted to those with the greatest eco¬nomic or social need (Emlet, 2004).
I. Supportive services. The supportive services program funds a wide range of social services aimed at helping older people remain independent in their own homes and communities. States are required to devote some funding to access services (such as transportation, and information and assistance), home care, and legal assistance. This program also supports other services, such as case management, adult day care, and activities of senior centers (Straight, 2003).
II. Nutrition services. The elderly nutrition program, the oldest and perhaps most well-known Older Americans Act service, pro¬vides meals and socialization to older people in congregate set¬tings, such as senior centers and churches (the “congregate meals” program), and meals to frail older people in their own homes (the “home-delivered meals” program). The purposes of the program are to reduce hunger and food insecurity, promote socialization among older people, and provide meals to the homebound (Sharkey, 2002).
III. Family caregiver support. The National Family Caregiver Sup¬port Program provides grants to states to develop a variety of ser¬vices to assist family caregivers. These include information and assistance about available services, individual counseling, organi¬zation of support groups and caregiver training, respite services to provide families temporary relief from caregiving responsibilities, and supplemental services (such as home care and home adapta¬tions) on a limited basis to complement care provided by family and other informal caregivers (Kietzman, 2004).
IV. Disease prevention and health promotion. Programs to prevent or delay chronic conditions and promote health among older people receive the smallest amount of funding among Title III programs. The law provides “seed money” for these activities and intends that state and area agencies leverage other fund¬ing sources to complement Title III funds.
4. Title IV: Activities for Health, Independence, and Longevity (Research, Training, and Demonstration Programs)
a. Provides authority for training, research, and demonstra¬tion projects in the field of aging (Kietzman, 2004).
5. Title V: Community Service Senior Opportunities Act
a. Provides part-time jobs for unemployed low-income people age 55 and older who have poor employment prospects (Morris, 1995).
6. Title VI : Grants for Services for Native Americans
a. AoA awards Title VI grants to Indian tribal organizations, Native Alaskan organizations, and nonprofit groups representing Native Hawaiians. Grants are used to fund supportive and nutrition ser¬vices for older Native Americans.
7. Title VII : Vulnerable Elder Rights Protection Activities
a. Authorizes the long-term care ombudsman program as well as a program to prevent elder abuse, neglect, and exploita¬tion (Netting, 1995).
I. Long-term care ombudsman program. The purpose of the pro¬gram is to investigate and resolve complaints of residents of nurs¬ing facilities, board and care facilities, and other adult care homes. It is the only Older Americans Act program that focuses solely on the needs of institutionalized persons.
II. Prevention of elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Under this program, states are required to carry out activities to make the public aware of ways to identify and prevent abuse, neglect, and exploitation and to coordinate activities of area agencies on aging with state adult protective services programs, among other things.

Older Americans Act Amendments of 1967 In 1967 the Age Discrimination Act was signed into law. That year also saw the AoA moved into a newly created Social and Rehabilitative Service Agency within the Department. The Age Discrimination Employment Act (ADEA), prohibits employment discrimination nationwide based on age with respect to employees 40 years of age or older. The ADEA also addresses the difficulty older workers face in obtaining new employment after being displaced from their jobs, arbitrary age limits.
The purpose of this act was to prevent discrimination against employee 40 and older. This act is a part of Title VII of the 1964 Civil Right Act. Discrimination in employment based on race, color, sex, national origin, or religion is protected under the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Women and minorities, have face many barriers against gaining equal rights to vote, employment, and equal pay and so worth. Limited equal opportunities in the work place are recognized employers are adapting diversity throughout organizations.
This act was to prevent against age discrimination by employers pertaining to protection discrimination from promotion, training, advancement, hiring, salary compensation and termination.
In a 2005 case Smith V. City of Jackson, Mississippi the city attempt to revising pay scale among city police officer. “Officers with less than five years’ service received proportionately greater raises than those with more seniority, and most officers over 40 had more than five years of service. Petitioners, a group of older officers, filed suit under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA), claiming, inter alia, that they were adversely affected by the plan because of their age” (cornell.edu).

Older Americans Comprehensive Services Amendments of 1973
First time Federal law authorized the creation of local agencies whose purpose is to plan and coordinate services for older persons and to act as advocates for programs on their behalf.
Older Americans Act Comprehensive Services Amendments established Area Agencies on Aging. The amendments added a new Title V, which authorized grants to local community agencies for multi-purpose senior centers, and created the Community Service Employment grant program for low-income persons age 55 and older, administered by the Department of Labor. Comprehensive Employment and Training Act was enacted; included older persons.
This act was to strengthen and make improvements to the 1965 Older American Act, creation of programs and service to benefit older Americans. One program that was erected from this act was the Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP), it success lead to a national organization under the Older American Act of 1973. SCSEP had operation throughout counties in the nation.
The benefits of this program were measured through an independent national survey conducted by charter Oaks group for PY 2005 concluded; 89% percent of the participant of this program reported that the health was same or better while they were in the program and 69% of SCSEP participants surveyed reported that their outlook on life was a little more positive or a lot more positive while participating in the program;
Older Americans Act Amendments of 1981
Made modifications to give state and area agencies on aging more flexibility in the administration of their service programs. These amendments also emphasized the transition of participants to private sector employment under the community service employment program.
In 1990 a study found that Native American Indians age 45 experienced the same functional limitations in their activities of daily living as did non-Indian people at age 65 (Saravanabhavan, 1994). 51 percent out of 100 Native American Indians interviewed were ages 45 to 69 years old. On an average, those interviewed reported three disabling conditions each (Saravanabhavan, 1994). Due to the "early" aging of Native American Indians, the United States Congress amended the Older Americans Act in 1981 (Older Americans Act, Amendments of 1981, Title VI as cited in Gelfand, 1987) to allow Indian tribes to define elderly for their respective communities. Elderly can refer to persons ages 50 years or older, 55 years or older, and 60 years or older. Each tribe can set its own minimum age for eligibility for services. Of the tribes, 41% have set the minimum at age 55 (Gelfand, 1987).

Older Americans Act Amendments of 1987
Approved six additional distinct authorizations of appropriations for services: in-home services for the frail elderly; long-term care ombudsman services; assistance for special needs: health education and promotion services; services to prevent abuse, neglect and exploitation of older individuals; and outreach activities for persons who may be eligible for benefits under the supplemental security income (SSI), Medicaid and food stamp programs. The theory of community economy reveals the potential for positive interaction between care’s informal and formal sectors. Informal caregiving plays a significant role in health care delivery throughout the world, especially in relation to care of the elderly and chronically ill (Healy, 2008). The theory (and politics) of the community economy is the concept Gibson-Graham (2006) uses to define how the disparate elements of the diverse economy might be connected to one another (Healy, 2008). Theory of community economy in the context of an action research project to generate a new politics of health care reform (Healy, 2008).

Older Americans Act Amendments of 1992
A new title VII, Vulnerable Elder Rights Protection Activities, was created to consolidate and expand certain programs that focus on protection of the rights of older persons.
Adult protective services play an increasing role in elder-abuse prevention through professional and public information campaigns carried out on the local, state, and national levels. Along with forming community teams, local staff provides training to professionals, potential victims, and families. Statewide conferences and coalitions provide public information and professional education (Marlatt, 1997). The social-casework model used by APS is difficult to explain and defend to administrators and legislators. Building a trusting relationship with a fearful client takes time and skill. Meaningful measurement of protective-services outcomes has not yet been fully developed--a task further hampered by the wide variation among fifty state-specific programs and by the lack of uniform definitions and up-to-date data-management systems.
Older Americans Act Amendments of 2000
Authorized the National Family Caregiver Support Program under title III; required the Secretary of the Department of Labor (DoL) to establish performance measures for the senior community service employment program;
President Clinton signed into law, the Senior Citizens' Freedom To Work Act of 2000. This law eliminates the Social Security retirement earnings test in and after the month in which a person attains full retirement age--currently age 65. Elimination of the retirement test would be effective with respect to taxable years ending after December 31, 1999 (ssa.gov).

Older Americans Act Amendments of 2006
The Older Americans Act Amendments (OAA) of 2006 authorizes congress to fund programs for 5 more years through 2011 and it increases the emphasis on home and community-based services as well as community-directed care. As part of the 2006 reauthorization of the OAA, congress stated that although diet is the preferred source of nutrition, use of a single daily multivitamin-mineral supplement (MVM) may be an effective, safe, and inexpensive way of addressing nutritional gaps that exist among older adults, especially the poor, to help prevent common nutritional deficiencies (Marra, 2008). The OAA Nutrition Program is to reduce hunger and food insecurity, promote socialization, and promote the health and well-being of older adults (Marra, 2008). Each year the OAA Nutrition Program serves about 238 million meals to 2.6 million older adults, approximately 59% of whom are homebound. With an annual total expenditure of $1.23 billion, including a $735 million federal appropriation, the OAA Nutrition Program is the nation's largest food and nutrition assistance program targeting older adults (Marra, 2008).
Strengthens and weakness of Older American Act
Strengthens:
1. Reduction rate of threats to the health and well-being of Americans - 90%.
2. Enhance the ability of the Nation's health care system to effectively respond to terrorism and other public health challenges. The agency met their goal, serving 89,034 seniors.
3. Increase the percentage of the Nation's children's and adults who have access to regular health care services and expand consumer choices. 67% of the population targeted was served.
4. Enhance the capacity and productivity of the Nation's health science research enterprise. This encompasses goals such as establishing an Alaskan Native Stroke Registry, and beginning to enroll patients. They have met their goal.
Weakness:
1. Title III : Grants for State and Community Programs on Aging, this area the act still need a lot of improvement on providing care for older American in nursing homes. Today there are website to review state survey results pass or fail to present date. Violations are still enormous at a lot of Medicaid/Medicare facilities. This area of legislation needs the most attention the care for our seniors. Nursing home make billions of dollars benefiting from the old and fray, therefore better care and owners of facilities need to be held more accountability and not just a minor fine. Overworked, understaffed nurses and residents receiving very poor care as a result of poorly managed facilities.

2. Improvements on training individual working to care for older American such as nursing assistant who see clients more often than any other healthcare professional. Training for these individual to recognize symptoms such as depression, weakness, and so forth. By addressing symptoms early on, will help minimize issues down the road.

3. Social Worker need advance training to help with issues surround emotional and mental health issues among older American. Organizations such as National Association of Social Workers (NASW) have pushed for more funding for local community organization to offer these types of services. Positive Act of 2007 was reintroduced recently, NASW is recruiting additional sponsors to support such a bill in congress.

4. Creations of policies that enforce that leadership role on state agencies on aging help elimate institutions that provide care address all violation and just seek profits.

Recommendation:
Recommendation to future amendments on the Older American Act is that all new legislation should require that all nursing facilities that receive Medicare/Medicaid should be brought up to the same standards as private nursing facilities. There seems to be a level of discrimination when it comes to care whether you are rich or poor. It should not matter how a facilities get paid. After review website that listed nursing facilities that fail to meet certain standards repeating year after year, it seem that investor are still have a financial gain.
More funding need to be appropriated to educating social worker that works closely with care takers of older Americans. Diagnose and treatment is the fastest way to reduce minor mental, medical, psychological issues. Local community services are sometimes not available to easily accessible. The older American Act has made great stride in providing care and service as seen today, although continued work still has to been completed. What is seen today is just the other corner being built.
Conclusion
As of 1989 parents can automatically apply for social security card for new born babies. Policies and system structure that address the 21 century issues surrounding the growing number of elderly living in the United States. Short term and long legislation should address current economic times as we see today with growing number of mistreated and homeless elderly people. Policies have been developed most dramatically in areas affecting the basic needs of older people--income, housing, consumer issues, and health and protective arrangements (such as powers of attorney and guardianship), which still need much improvement.

References:
Binstock, R. (1991). From The Great Society to The Aging Society--25 Years of The Older Americans Act. Generations, 15(3), 11-18. Retrieved from SocINDEX with Full Text database.
Cohen, E. (1963). What's Wrong with the Planning of Our Public Programs? Social Work, 8(2), 106-109. Retrieved from SocINDEX with Full Text database.
Emlet, C., & Poindexter, C. (2004). Unserved, Unseen, and Unheard: Integrating Programs for HIV-Infected and HIV-Affected Older Adults. Health & Social Work, 29(2), 86-96. Retrieved from SocINDEX with Full Text database. Gelfand, D., & Bechill, W. (1991). The Evolution of the older Americans Act: A 25-Year Review of The Legislative Changes. Generations, 15(3), 19-22. Retrieved from SocINDEX with Full Text database.
Gelfand, D. (1987). Older American Act. In G. L. Maddox (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Aging (pp. 499-502). New York: Springier Publishing Company.
Healy, S. (2008). Caring for ethics and the politics of health care reform in the United States. Gender, Place & Culture: A JOURNAL OF FEMINIST GEOGRAPHY, 15(3), 267-284. doi:10.1080/09663690801996270.
Kietzman, K., Scharlach, A., & Dal Santo, T. (2004). Local Needs Assessment and Planning Efforts for Family Caregivers: Findings and Recommendations. JOURNAL OF GERONOTOGICAL SOCIAL WORK, 42(3/4), 39-59. doi:I 0.1 300/J083v42n03_04.
Marra, M., & Wellman, N. (2008). Multivitamin--Mineral Supplements in the Older Americans Act Nutrition Program: Not a One-Size-Fits-All Quick Fix. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, 98(7), 1171-1176. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.122762.
Marlatt, J. 1997. Adult Protective Services: A Status Report to the Administration on Aging. Washington, D.C.: Administration on Aging.
Morris, R., & Caro, F. (1995). The young-old, productive aging, and public policy. Generations, 19(3), 32. Retrieved from SocINDEX with Full Text database.
Muramatsu, N., & Campbell, R. (2002). State Expenditures on Home and Communiventty Based Services and Use of Formal and Informal Personal Assistance: A Multilevel Analysis. JOURNAL OF HEALTH & SOCIAL BEHAVIOR, 43(1), 107-124. Retrieved from SocINDEX with Full Text database.
Netting, F., Huber, R., Paton, R., & Kautz III, J. (1995). Elder Rights and the Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program. Social Work, 40(3), 351-357. Retrieved from SocINDEX with Full Text database.
Otto, J. (2000). The Role of Adult Protective Services in Addressing Abuse. Generations, 24(2), 33. Retrieved from SocINDEX with Full Text database.
Saravanabhavan, R., & Marshall, C. (1994). The Older Native American Indian With Disabilities: Implications for Providers of Health Care and Human Services. JORNAL OF MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 22(3), 182-194. Retrieved from SocINDEX with Full Text database.
Sharkey, J., & Schoenberg, N. (2002). Variations in Nutritional Risk Among Black and White Women Who Receive Home-Delivered Meals. JOURNAL OF WOMEN & AGING, 14(3/4), 99. Retrieved from SocINDEX with Full Text database. http://www.elderguru.com/what-is-the-older-americans-act-oaa-a... http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/03-1160.ZS.html http://seniors-site.com/helpm/amer_act.html http://www.seniorserviceamerica.org/
http://www.ssa.gov/pubs/11000.html#part1

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Appendix I Version 7

...Appendix I ETH/125 April 8, 2012 University of Phoenix/Rosetta Kincaid Appendix I University of Phoenix Material Appendix I Part I Define the following terms: Term | Definition | Ageism | Ageism or age discrimination is stereotyping and discriminating against individuals or groups because of their age. * http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ageism | Baby boomer | A baby boomer is a person who was born during the demographic Post World War II baby boom between the years 1946 and 1964, according to the U.S. Census Bureau.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baby_Boomer | Americans with Disabilities Act | The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) is a law that was enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1990.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Americans_with_Disabilities_Act_of_1990 | Visitability | Visitability is an international movement to change home construction practices so that virtually all new homes, whether or not designated for residents who currently have mobility impairments, offer three specific accessibility features. Supporters ultimately want to require that all new homes be at least partly accessible to people with mobility impairments.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visitability | Accessibility | Accessibility is a general term used to describe the degree to which a product, device, service, or environment is available to as many people as possible.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accessibility | Disability | Disability is an umbrella term, covering......

Words: 1498 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Resume

...Ph.D. My topic, health care in the early 1960s, has a double set of meanings for me. I am a historian, and the 1960s are now "history," ripe for new interpretations. Yet I was also an immigrant to the United States in 1961, fresh from working as an administrator in the British National Health Service. The period immediately before the Medicare legislation in 1965 shines in my memory with the vividness of new impressions: those of a young health care student trying to make sense of the U. S. health care system, and indeed, of the United States. The health care system and the United States as a society stand, in many ways, as proxy for each other, now as then: The whole tells you much about the part, and the part about the whole. In the early 1960s, health care was already a massive enterprise. By the late 1950s, hospitals employed far more people than the steel industry, the automobile industry, and interstate railroads. One of every eight Americans was admitted annually as an inpatient (Somers and Somers, 1961). To study health care, with all its contradictions and complexities, in the 1960s as in the present, is to explore the character and ambiguities of the United States itself, that vast, brash, divided yet curiously hopeful Nation. On the face of it, the United States was a country blessed by plenty in the 1960s, with hospitals and professionals that were the envy of the world. Among the marvels of modern hospitals that provoked Rosemary A. Stevens is Professor of......

Words: 6904 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Aging and Disability Worksheet

...discrimination - Ageism 3. Face isolation – Elderly Abuse * What is ageism? How does ageism influence the presence of diversity in society? Ageism is the practice of prejudice of discrimination to the elderly. The way that ageism influences the presence of diversity in society is by robbing them of their choices, independence and treating them with disrespect. Also by treating them as if they are unable to handle things for themselves as if they have reverted back to an infantile stage. It should be noted that the elderly have a lot of knowledge and wisdom to bring to the table and are able to do the same if not more than society gives them credit for. Society also views elderly people as sickly, frail and unable to take care of themselves. * What is the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)? How does the ADA address issues for the aging population? The ADA is a civil rights law that was enacted in 1990 and that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities. This law addresses the issues for the aging population by protecting anyone that is 40+ from being fired or from employment discrimination. It is designed to protect the aging and/or elderly from being passed over for a promotion or raise, however, it is difficult. This law does in fact protect against being fired, however, it does not do anything for helping obtain employment because of your age. This law was definitely designed to protect the elderly or aging, and in short does......

Words: 1720 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Aarp

...Austin Braham The American Association of Retired Persons is a powerful special interest group that protects the interests of retirees across the US by lobbying politicians to pass legislation in the organization’s favor. Inside you will find detailed information outlining AARP’s mission, purpose, and scope. Austin Braham The American Association of Retired Persons is a powerful special interest group that protects the interests of retirees across the US by lobbying politicians to pass legislation in the organization’s favor. Inside you will find detailed information outlining AARP’s mission, purpose, and scope. Politicians are elected in part on the basis of the issues by which they stand, and these issues are either held up or weakened by numerous interest groups that exist today. Interest groups target both major and minor issues, using all of their resources to sponsor or overpower the groups' concern. Interest groups are composed of a limited range of the body of voters who have a great stake in the issues that their group supports. It is made clear and evident which issues their group supports. Resources are used in an attempt to make their interests public policy. Interest groups are persistent; they do not give up until they succeed and they lobby congress, take legal action, and attempt to influence election results in order to benefit their cause. One such political interest group is the AARP (American Association of Retired Persons). Founded......

Words: 1002 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Long Term Care

...market in the United States, increases revenues from a variety of new taxes, expands public insurance and it declines private insurance coverage, mandates that residents have health insurance, decreases and reorganizes spending under the nation’s largest health insurance plan which is Medicare. It has been said that if the Affordable Care Act is implemented to its full power that it can have a lead in different health choices for the United States in the future. I begin by providing a broad outline of the Affordable Care Act’s key features to help guide the discussion of the bill’s projected effects. History of the Affordable Health Care Act The Affordable Care Act is a long, complex piece of legislation that attempts to reform the healthcare system by providing more Americans with affordable quality health insurance and by curbing the growth in healthcare spending in the U.S.. Reforms include new benefits, rights and protections, rules for insurance companies, taxes, tax breaks, funding, spending, the creation of committees, education, new job creation and more. Democrats and Republicans have been working to create laws that reform the American health care system for decades. Almost every President over the last century has proposed healthcare reform unsuccessfully. The Affordable Care Act, modeled after health care reform in Massachusetts, was the first successful major national reform to healthcare since Medicare in 1965. (Obamacarefacts, 2013) The United States......

Words: 1804 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Food Stamps

...Food Stamps Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Abstract This article describes the benefits of the Medicare system while exploring the many challenges of the program. The United States Medicare program is the closest program to universal health care for one portion of the population. While providing some level of health care to most elderly citizens over 65 years of age, it sometimes is found to be highly confusing to its patients. Additional concerns explored by this paper relate to the costs, quality of care, and availability to all who need this insurance. When all of the pros and cons are explored, one final concern arises. Amid the rising costs of medical care, prescription drugs, and costs of program administration, will the funding of this program continue and will this be a program that the young families of today can depend upon for their retirement years? 1. Introduction: The rules and regulations of Medicare Simply stated, Medicare is the federally financed health insurance program for people aged 65 and over, certain individuals with disabilities, and individuals with end-stage renal disease. Medicare Part A covers hospital and other inpatient stays. Medicare Part B is optional insurance, and covers hospital outpatient, physician, and other services. Medicare Parts A and B are known as original Medicare or Medicare FFS. Medicare beneficiaries have the option of obtaining coverage for Medicare Part A and B......

Words: 3863 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Healthcare

...President George Bush signed a controversial law that had been passed into by the United States Congress. The new legislation made changes to Medicare that was necessary in order to make Medicare better for elderly and the disabled. Some felt like the changes was for the better, and some felt like the changes made Medicare worst. The paper that I will be presenting today is about the new Medicare plan that the U.S. Congress passed in November of 2003. This paper will be answering a couple of important question, that will farther help one to understand what Medicare was like from when it was first established in 1965, until the new changes came into effect November 2003. And the question will be answered in the following order. 1. Why was it deemed necessary to change Medicare? The reason why changes were deemed necessary in Medicare was because seniors began to notice that the medication that they needed for their health was becoming too costly for them to buy from the pharmacy. And this made the legislation wanting to change Medicare in order to make health care plans for the elderly more affordable, and the second reason was to cut the overall spending of Medicare, because it is said that the way it look if Medicare don’t reduce its spending, it will come to an end in the year of 2026(www.medicalnewtoday.com). 2. What was the main provision of the New Legislation? The new legislation main provision is to make it so that the seniors can afford their medicine that......

Words: 986 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ageism in America

...Ageism in America: The Elderly Tommy Brooks SOCW 230 Social Welfare History October 5, 2012 Ageism in America: The Elderly In this paper I will look at the concept of old age. I will take a brief look back through history at how society viewed the elderly. Starting in the 1500’s in England, here I will look at the life expectances and the way it fluctuated. I will take a brief look at the life expectancy of women in France in the 1700’s. This will show how age accounted for a significant minority of the populations across the world. The elderly have been categorized throughout history. By the early modern periods the concept of old age was accompanied by a long list of expectations. These included: experience, social, and cultural signals, within which consisted socially constructed markers: gender, social class, and individual life experiences. Other signs were physical: hunched back, lameness, deafness, toothlessness, balding or graying hair, and just plan grumpy and frail. I will give a brief look at how the elderly were perceived at times negative and even vicious. Back to where the elderly women were viewed as wise and nurturing elderly mothers. Here we will see where the age of sixty was widely associated with the onset of old age. Then we will move into the time of the first settlers in America. It’s true at this time as it was in Europe, the elderly men and women constituted a miniscule proportion of the white population. Then I will begin a journey......

Words: 4512 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Aging and Disability Worksheet

...person or group with regards to their age. Ageism influences the presence of diversity in society by assuming that the elderly are incapable of doing things. Employers tend not to hire the elderly because they assume and stereotype the elderly as being too slow and they don’t think they will be able to perform the job. The elderly are commonly stereotyped as fragile, ill, or having physical limitations or restrictions. In my opinion, I don’t find this to be true at all. Now, there are some disabled elderly but I believe they should be given a chance just like any other person. I worked with an 80 year old elderly lady at Goodwill Industries who was always on time and at work everyday. She always performed more production than any other of us had done. For example, she put out over 100 pieces of clothes per hour while we did about 80 pieces per hour. • What is the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)? How does the ADA address issues for the aging population? The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) helps people with disabilities and became a civil right law in 1990 (www.u-s-history.com). These laws prohibit discrimination and ensure equal opportunity for people with disabilities in employment, state and local government services, public accommodations, commercial facilities and transportation. It is illegal for employers to deny the elderly because of their age. People with...

Words: 1456 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Aabuse Paper

...Abuse Paper BSHS/407 KATISHA EVERETT 08/31/15 Abuse Paper Abuse is something that can happen to anyone regardless of age, gender, or economic status. This is an issue that many people have suffered in their lives. There have been changes in the handling of abuse in recent years. With new laws in place perpetrators of abuse are facing different consequences from before. The two different types of abuse that will be discussed further are intimate partner abuse, and elderly abuse. There can be many different issues that are associated with intimate partner abuse. First it is important to know the different types of Intimate Partner Abuse. The four main types are physical abuse, stalking, sexual abuse, and psychological aggression. The issues that can be associated with physical abuse start with the obvious broken bones, or injuries, but it can go further to long term effects on the brain or body. The issues that come from sexual abuse can cause unwanted pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted diseases. This can also lead to abortions, or unwanted children in the picture, which can cause more abuse in the future. Psychological issues that happen because of abuse are sometimes the worst. This can result in feelings of fear and anxiety and cause post-traumatic stress disorder. This is something that causes panic attacks and depression, and sometimes it can result in suicide. Stalking can be a scary thing to deal with because you never know when the person is there or......

Words: 1277 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Budgetary Analysis

...Budgetary Analysis Angel Lowe HCS/550 March 2, 2015 John Dean Budgetary Analysis Medicaid counts as one of the largest sources of public health insurance in the United States, and also in the whole world. It provides essential medical cover to vulnerable population within the United States. This population includes elderly individuals, expectant mothers, children, low income families and individuals with different physical disabilities and the disadvantaged in the American society. In 1965 President Johnson signed into law under the Social Security Act to improve the health care of the elderly with Medicare. Medicaid would provide improved health care for the poor, unwed mothers, children, and the disabled. The program involves a joint initiative between the states government and the federal government hence the two governments jointly fund the program and ensuring its success through putting up laws to guide its implementation. President Obama’s legacy will be protecting the health of the individual American. The health care policy rules, regulations, and legislations are the consequence of the policy procedure which involves legislators, all the decision-making branch leaders, and public also. The budget for Illinois starts when the Governor submits a bill each January to the House of Representatives. After the bill has been submitted by the Governor then the house is responsible for ways and means review then they budget and develop their own......

Words: 1986 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Healthcare

...have chosen is the United States healthcare system. There are about twenty percent of all Americans that lack any form of healthcare insurance, and then we have the ones that are underinsured. Consequently, a great number of Americans, many of these people are women and children; receive little or no healthcare at all. Many of those uninsured are actually working families who are not offered insurance through their employer, they cannot afford coverage, or earn too much to be eligible for Medicaid, the state's healthcare provider. The United States healthcare system should be just as good as or better than any other country because of the money we invest.   Every industrialized nation has some kind of basic healthcare system for all of their citizens (McIntosh, Michael 2002).   In a country like ours, it is a shame that we do not provide something that should be a basic human right to every citizen. The quality and amount of healthcare should not be a privilege to some while making others go without it. The amount of money you have or do not have should not dictate how you are treated when going to the doctor or hospital. The lack of healthcare in our country is one of the greatest social injustices of our society. Whether everyone has an ethically justifiable right to healthcare is debated in the United States, yet Medicare legislation confers a legal right to healthcare on the country’s elderly people. (Kilner, John F. 2004). The United States has one of the......

Words: 1932 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Economic Terms and Health Care History

...Economic Terms and Health Care History Economic Terms and Health Care History Over the time of history, the economics of the United States has overcome many of transformations. Formerly, the economic alterations in health care may be due to the evolutionary changes in the United States. The main contributing causes for economic health care changes are the development of technology and how medical treatment is presented. The late 1800’s is when America started to realize the establishment of medical profession. The education practices for physician became official and preparations for hospital organizations started. By early 1900’s America became known as the biggest population to have many hospitals. On the other hand during this time the United States came across an economic failure that complicated a stock market crash; this occurrence is known today as the Great Depression. The results of this event had made it much harder for Americans to compensate for their medical care ("Humana", 2014). Before the year of 1920, many of doctors did not know a lot about illnesses to really arrange for much valuable care towards those individuals that are sick and thus there were no charges as far as for the services ("Humana", 2014). Many of fewer large employers had opened health insurance rather to the smaller businesses that did not provide insurance; everybody else had to pay from out of their own pockets many of which they did not have. Most patients had been......

Words: 662 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Road Tests for the Elderly

...an elementary school into a cafeteria. That incident claimed the life of 2nd grader Ryan Wesling. As we age our hand-eye coordination ages with us becoming lagged and not as sharp. There are hundreds of cases across the nation of elderly drivers causing car accidents and deaths. Insurance statistics show that after the age of 75, the risk of being the responsible party of a car accident both fatal and non-fatal greatly increases (highway). Illinois and New Hampshire are currently the only two states in the Union that require road tests for people over the age of 75. I believe that there needs to be a national road test that all citizens over the age of 75 must be required to take and pass in order to continue driving. There are concerns that if the elderly are required to take another road test and do not pass, that they will be out of means of transportation. Elderly citizens who have retired like to feel that they have a certain amount of control over their lives as their ability to do physical tasks deteriorates. The ability to drive wherever and whenever gives them a sense of independence and freedom. Taking that privilege away from them may seem unfair but for the sake of their safety and public safety it should be a priority. There are both state and federal programs available to provide the...

Words: 1484 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Healthcare Reform Research Paper

...long is it going to take for the world’s most powerful country to create a sustainable healthcare system? We have spent too many years with small reforms, ; we need big changes, and we need them soon. Healthcare has a long and detailed history in the United States. Since the beginning of the 20th century, it has been a major source of political debate. Both federal and state governments have made efforts in trying to take steps toward a universal health care system. Early reform poured the foundation for today’s government healthcare programs. The United States witnessed social movements that demanded access to the American dream. People who were viewed as second-class citizens banded together and demanded reform on their behalves. The largest of these movements was a demand for universal healthcare. American’s greatest issue was sickness and missing work. When working individuals missed work due to “sickness” they lost their wages. The loss of income made sickness the leading cause of poverty. Reformists saw a need for national healthcare and the campaign began. Health insurance that would protect the worker against wage loss and expenses incurred from medical treatment. In 1906, the American Association of Labor Legislation (AALL) became active in the push for national health care. They created a committee that concentrated on healthcare insurance, and in 1915 drafted a bill that gave limited coverage to the working class and to anyone that earned less than $1200 a......

Words: 1391 - Pages: 6