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Expectancy Theory
The Expectancy Theory of Motivation includes three parts: Expectancy (Effort-Performance), Instrumentality (Performance-Reward), and Valence (Rewards-Personal Goals). The theory was developed on the basis of an argument that a person will be further motivated to improve if they believe that those efforts will result in better performance or perhaps they will be given better rewards for the work they may do.
Task A).
Expectancy (Effort-Performance)
The first part of this theory, expectancy, focuses on the effort-performance relationship. This is the perception that an employee will think about how much effort they should put into a project or work. They believe that in doing so that effort is going to result in them gaining that sought after performance. An example of this thought may be: “If I put my best effort into this job does that mean I can out-perform my fellow coworkers?”
Instrumentality (Performance-Reward)
The second part of this theory, instrumentality, focuses on the performance-reward relationship. In this part of the theory the person puts all of their effort into reaching or exceeding the performance expectations set for them in hopes that it will result in some type of reward. This generally tends to be a bigger raise, promotion, or bonus in the work place. An example of this may be: “If I go above and beyond the performance expectations will I be rewarded with a bigger raise then a fellow co-worker who has worse performance, but they have been here 15 years longer then me.”

Valence (Reward-Personal Goals) The last section of this theory discusses valence and its focus on the reward-personal goals relationship. Valence is the emphasis an individual will place on the rewards that they will receive due to the work they perform and how much effort they put into it. Valence is when a person may have goals such as a big...

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Let1 Task1

...Developed by Victor Vroom in 1964 the expectancy theory seeks to define employee and work motivation by using different criteria. According to Vroom’s theory, employees are motivated by three factors: Valence, Instrumentality, and Expectancy (Van Eerde, 1996). Each one of those factors has a causal relationship: effort-performance, performance-reward and reward-personal goals. I will seek to define the components for the model and their associated relationship (Robbins, 2007). Vroom conveyed valence as the emotional orientations which people hold with respect to outcomes (Van Eerde, 1996). Simply put it is how important it is for the individual to complete the task at hand and what the value of the task’s outcome to the individual performing it. The reward for completing the task can be extrinsic such as a bonus, a promotion or more time off or the reward can be intrinsic such as learning a new language because you simply enjoy learning. If the reward for being successful in the task such as completing your degree then it is worth more than not completing it, the valence is positive. If the person would rather avoid the outcome such as missing a project deadline, the valence is considered negative. Expectancy is presented by Vroom as the person’s internal belief or will that a person can complete a project or task (Van Eerde, 1996). This is highlighted clearly when a person does not believe they have the skills to complete a task. If they don’t believe they have the......

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