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Leukemia

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Running head: LEUKEMIA 1

Leukemia Maryam Kamber Eastern Illinois University

LEUKEMIA 2

Leukemia is a cancer of blood cells, specifically white blood cells that are responsible for fighting infection. However, the abnormal cells in leukemia do not function in the same way as normal white blood cells. Leukemia cells continue to grow and divide, eventually crowding out normal blood cells. The end result is that it becomes difficult for the body to fight infections, control bleeding and transport oxygen (Medicine Net, 2015). It is estimated that each year, approximately 30,800 individuals will be diagnosed with leukemia in the United States (National Library Medicine, 2016). With these statistics it is clear to see just how common it is and why its so important for us to continue studying it in hopes of finding new scientific advances for controlling or maybe even curing it. Though the direct cause of leukemia isn’t understood, scientists can say that it seems to develop from a combination of genetic and environmental factors (Mayo Clinic, 2016). Leukemia is thought to occur when some blood cells acquire mutations in their DNA. Certain abnormalities cause the cell to grow and divide more rapidly and to continue living when normal cells would die (Cancer Treatment Centers of America, 2015). Over time, these abnormal cells can crowd out healthy blood cells in the bone marrow, leading to fewer healthy white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets, causing the signs and symptoms of leukemia (Mayo Clinic, 2016). Environmental and lifestyle factors can also lead to leukemia such as childhood obesity. Factors that may increase your risk of developing some types of leukemia include: previous cancer treatments such as radiation therapy, genetic disorders or abnormalities such as Down syndrome or

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obesity, exposure to certain chemicals such as benzene, which is found in gasoline, family history of leukemia and most commonly smoking cigarettes (Mayo Clinic, 2016).
Leukemia is a group of cancers that usually begins in the bone marrow and results in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells (Medicine Net, 2015). There are over a dozen different types of leukemia, but four types occur most frequently. These classifications are based upon whether the leukemia is acute (AML or ALL) versus chronic (CLL or CML) and myelogenous versus lymphocytic (Medicine Net, 2015). "Acute" leukemia cells begin to replicate before any immune functions have developed whereas "chronic" leukemia cells do not mature all the way, so they are not as capable of defending against infections as normal lymphocytes (Medicine Net, 2015). Lymphocytic leukemia is caused by an increased number of lymphocytes and progresses very slowly. Myelogenous leukemia or acute myeloid leukemia is the most common form of acute leukemia and occurs when the bone marrow begins to make blast cells that have not yet completely matured (American Cancer Society, 2016).
Studies show that men are more likely to develop CLL, CML and AML than women (Cancer Treatment Centers of America, 2015). The risk of most leukemia’s increases with age with the exception of ALL that is primarily found in children between the ages of 10-16 (American Cancer Society, 2016). Most leukemia’s have no genetic link. However, primary relatives of CLL patients, or having an identical twin who has or had AML or ALL, may put you at an increased risk for developing the disease (American Cancer Society, 2016). Certain genetic abnormalities such as Down syndrome may also

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put someone at risk for developing leukemia (Medicine Net, 2015). Lifestyle factors such as drinking or smoking may also increase your risk at developing AML although they may not be a direct cause. In low-income areas where drinking and smoking are more common and accessible, the number of leukemia cases are more prevalent. Exposure to high levels of radiation or chemical exposures are considered risk factors for leukemia as well. Lifestyle has shown to play a role in many leukemia cases (ACS, 2016). In 2017, 54270 new cases of leukemia are expected to be diagnosed. In the United States, an estimated 54,270 adults and 4,884 children, adolescents and young adults under 20 were diagnosed with leukemia in 2015 (Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, 2015). The most common types of leukemia in adults are AML and CLL. ALL is very rare in adults, and is the most common type of leukemia in children (Medical News Today, 2015). Leukemia Incidences are more common in men and boys than girls and women, and also more likely to occur in white people than black. Although people of any age can get leukemia, it is most common in adults over 60 years of age. Leukemia rates peak between the ages of 2 and 5 at around 9 cases per 100,000 per year and fall to a low of around 3 per 100,000 for young adults (Health Hubs, 2016). (Health Hubs, 2016) LEUKEMIA 5

Leukemia is a malignant disease or cancer of the bone marrow and blood. It is characterized by the uncontrolled accumulation of blood cells (American Cancer Society, 216). Leukemia is divided into four categories: myelogenous or lymphocytic, each of which can be acute or chronic (Medicine Net, 2015). The true cause is unknown but studies have shown things like exposure to high-energy radiation and harmful lifestyle choices such as drinking and smoking increase your chances of contracting leukemia (Mayo Clinic, 2016). There are a number of different medical approaches to the treatment of leukemia. Treatment will depend on the type of leukemia, and status of patient. Treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy and stem cell transplant (Medicine Net, 2015).
In conclusion, Leukemia can be fatal, but with early diagnosis, proper treatments, and a lot of luck, it can be put into remission. Healthier lifestyle choices such as eating less processed foods, not smoking or being exposed to any tobacco products and no previous radiation exposures are all risk factors that leukemia has on a population. Promoting exercise and healthy alternative habits by providing access to resources such as produce markets, gyms and hospitals and meeting any language or literacy barriers can also improve the impacts of this disease (American Cancer Society, 2016). With treatment options improving constantly, there may one day be a sure cure. Leukemia is a very demanding disease and very hard to treat (American Cancer Society, 2016). It can and has already affected many and will continue which is why it is important to keep up with the studies and research to defeat this silent killer.

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References

Medicine Net. (2015, June 5). Retrieved February 28, 2016, from http://www.medicinenet.com/leukemia/page2.htm

American Cancer Society: Leukemia Signs and Treatments. (2016). Retrieved February

28, 2016, from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/leukemia/

Cancer Treatment Centers of America. (2015). Leukemia: Risk Factors Retrieved

February 28, 2016, from

http://www.cancercenter.com/leukemia/risk-factors/

National Cancer Institute. (2015). Leukemia Statistics Retrieved February 29, 2016, from

http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/leuks.html

Mayo Clinic: Causes of Leukemia. (2016). Retrieved March 1, 2016, from

www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/leukemia/basics/causes/con- 20024914

Leukemia Research Foundation: Statistics. (2016). Retrieved January 27, 2016, from http://www.leukemia-research.org/statistics

National Library Medicine: Cancer. (2016). Retrieved January 27, 2016, from

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26742998

Health Hubs. (2016). Leukemia in the young. Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://healthhubs.net/cancer/leukemia-in-the-young-incidence-and-survival-stats

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Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. (2016). Leukemia. Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://www.lls.org/leukemia/types/of/leukemia

Medical News Today. (2015, January 3). Retrieved April 20, 2016, from

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/leukemia/page.htm

LEUKEMIA Abstract

Leukemia is a cancer of the white blood cells, which are responsible for fighting infection. There are over a dozen different types of leukemia, but four types occur most frequently. Leukemia Incidences are more common in men and boys than girls and women, and also more likely to occur in white people than black. Although people of any age can get leukemia, it is most common in adults over 60 years of age. The true cause is unknown but studies have shown things like exposure to high-energy radiation and harmful lifestyle choices such as drinking and smoking increase your chances of contracting leukemia. There are a number of different medical approaches to the treatment of leukemia. Treatment will depend on the type of leukemia, and status of patient. Treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy and stem cell transplant (Medicine Net, 2015). With treatment options improving constantly, there may one day be a sure cure but for now promoting healthier lifestyle choices such as eating less processed foods, not smoking or being exposed to any tobacco products and no previous radiation exposures are all ways to limit the impact that leukemia has on a population.

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Appendix B

...known risk factors for childhood leukemia” (American Cancer Society, 2013). According to the American Cancer Society (2013) states, “Genetic risk factors are those that are part of our DNA (the substance that makes up our genes)” (American Cancer Society, 2013). The genetic risk factor is what we get from our parents that is most of the time inherited (American Cancer Society, 2013). “Most cases of leukemia are not linked to any known genetic causes” (American Cancer Society, 2013). * Other risk factors of leukemia would be “inherited disorders, this can increase a child’s risk of developing leukemia” (American Cancer Society, 2013). Here is a listed of syndromes: “Down syndrome (trisomy 21), Klinefelter syndrome, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome” (American Cancer Society, 2013). According to the American Cancer Society (2013) states, “Certain inherited diseases cause children to be born with immune system problems” (American Cancer Society, 2013). “These include: Ataxia telangiectasia, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and Bloom syndrome” (American Cancer Society, 2013). * According to the American Cancer Society (2013) states, “Lifestyle-related risk factors are important in many adult cancers, but they are unlikely to play a role in most childhood cancers” (American Cancer Society, 2013). “Environmental risk factors are influences in our surroundings, such as radiation and certain chemicals that increase the risk of getting disease such as leukemias” (American Cancer Society,......

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