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Lexical Borrowing

In: English and Literature

Submitted By faith298
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Lexical borrowing = slovní výpůjčky - adoption from another lg with the same meaning
English is tolerant to other lgs, nenasytný vypůjčovatel (70% non-anglosaxon origin), welcomes foreign words, not homogenous lg like French (majority of expressions was taken from F.) reasons: lg feels a need for a new word; to pre-denote a special concept (Sputnik, gradually disappeared from lg; certain lg has a kind of prestigious position (matter of fashion, but overuse of English words; matter of political force); distinction of functional style (matter of development) – three synonymical expressions of diff. origin (anglo-saxon origin: home, French words (additional meanings): resindence, Latin words: domicile, Greek origin, etc.) layers of three origins : hunt/chase/pursue rise/mount/ascend ask/question (certain amount of intensity)/interrogate high tolerance in English; in French and in German – used to avoid it; in Czech – had to defend its position to German, Linguists tried to set certain rules for using words=re-establishion of Czech lg
English changes pronunciation of borrowed words (E. is simply a germanic lg, but more Romans lg in vocabulary) the basic vocabulary=core vocabulary (be, have, do) is Anglo-Saxon, surrounding periphery of v. maybe borrowed (count a word each time that occurs) wave of new adoptions: swift adotion - in some periods in lg more words than usual are adopted, in the 13. century after the Norman conquest, natural mechanism!! self-regulated – if there are too many foreign words, number of them drops (závisí na lgs)
King Jame´s Bibel: team of scholars of Oxford University used Anglo-Saxon´s words in translation (typical feature:words are usually monosyllabic)
Conditions on which are words from other lgs (220 lgs – diff. number of the loan words; Czech: robot, pistol, dollar, howitzer je houfnice=husitská střelná zbraň) are borrowed:
- need for the word (only if it is necessary)
- there must be living contact with the other lg community (for military, political, geographical context) Angličané jsou Anglosasové, kt. přišli na britský poloostrov v 5. století. Anglo-saxon is origin lg.
Celtic lg is spoken before Anglo-Saxons arrived! Celts were romanised/latinised. C. lg did not produce a great number of long words → Anglo-Saxons vyhnali kelty z jejich teritorií, pravděpodobně ale spíše splynuli, nebo pracovali jako otroci anglosasů (jazykově však vývoj lg neovlivňovali, byli podřízeni Latin – influenced by continental borrowing; A.-S.s came into contact with Romans and they adopted into their Latin – celtic transmission; Celts were romanised=inluence by Roman cuture, et., and were christians Latin – through christianisation; brings christian teachings (Bibel, servants, prayers in Latin) Sir O´Gustin ?! Skandinavian – through the Viking invasion; 8. – 9. century = King Alfred the Great (Vikings), diff. from Latin and French, similar to Anglo-saxon lg in its original form, people could easy understand each other (Dánština a Angličtina=jako dnes Čeština a Slovenština) phonem combination sk skin, skirt – do not occur in Anglo-saxon lg; -eg leg Norman French – Normans were originally also Vikings, they at that time spoke French, invasion of William the Conqueror → two parts/halfs of society : lower level = anglo-saxon lg(=English), high positions of s. were occupied by people who spoke French; no written products of lg until G. Chaucer (literary production was written in Norman French) první sčítání lidu kvůli vybírání lidu but when E. came into use in literary lg, spisovný lg – jazykové společenství zapomnělo procesy, jak vytvářet slova ze staré angličtiny, a začalo vytvářet slova podle Norman French Latin – through Latin as a lingua franca(of scholarship)=univerzální jazyk, kt. se dorozumí mluvčí z různých jazyků; Latin was universal lg of all important documents, letters, scholars=učenec, vědec, etc. and international communication Latin – through Renaissance translations; discovery of old classical words gave rise of philosophy of R. → překlad do národních jazyků French – central French, by way of political, military, economic, cultural contacts; adoption of both ways Spanish, Italian same reasons. There was fashion that wealthy families traveled in Europe (contact of courts). Flemish, Dutch, Low German – mluví se jimi v Holandsku a Belgii; seafaring and economic Spanish, Portuguese – through contacts on the American continent (potato, tobacco) American Indian, Inuit (=jazyk eskymáků) – voyages of Exploration, everything was diff. for people from Europe, they had no names for plants, geographical places, etc. (states of America, rivers and towns have Indian names) Languages of the Middle and Far East African lg – development of British Empire(colonies), close contact of inhabitants European lgs – mobility of people and ideas, through media Classical Latin and Greek – English goes back to these classical lgs, words are used to denote new scientific and new developments, become technical terms (compounds, derivatives) television, supermarket, technology → neo-classical borrowing (new meaning is given)

Lexical borrowing - The main sources of English lexical borrowing are the following (in approximate historical chronological order):

Celtic (binn, dunn, torr, luh, clucge; Thames, Avon, Dover, London)
Latin – continental borrowing (pise, plante, win, cyse, cattel, candel)
Latin – through Celtic transmission (ancor, staer, cross)
Latin – through Christianisation (bishop, church, priest, school and very many others)
Skandinavian – as a result of the Viking invasions (dirt, egg, kid, leg, skin, sky, window)
Norman French – as a result of the Norman Conquest (sovereign, crown, parliament, army, battle, captain, abbey, divine, faith, beef, mutton, supper, dress, robe, wardrobe, art, beauty, garment, anatomy, calendar, surgeon, blanket, chimney, towel, action, adventure, lamp, brown, marriage, person, people, sure, usual, season, advise, allow, join, obey, save, serve, travel, wait and a large number of others)
Latin – through the use of Latin as a lingua franca during the Middle Ages (memorandum, history, library, memento, mediator, scripture, admit, interest, necessary)
Latin – originating in translations from Latin during the Renaissance (anonymous, chaos, climax, assassinate, crisis, critic, excursion, exist)
French – by way of political, military and cultural contacts (entrance, equip, explore, ticket, progress, shock)
Spanish - “ (armada, desperado, guitar)
Italian - “ (balcony, concerto, grotto, opera, solo, sonata)
Flemish, Dutch, Low German – through trade and seafaring contacts (cruise, keel, yacht)
Spanish and Portuguese – due to contacts on the American Continent (alligator, apricot, canoe, cockroach, cocoa, hammock, hurricane, maize, mosquito, mulatto, negro, potato, sombrero, tobacco)
American Indian and Inuit – following the colonisation of the American Continent (chipmunk, pow wow, skunk, totem, wigwam, anorak, igloo, kayak)
Languages of the Middle East (Turkish, Persian, Arabic) – through trade and other contacts accompanying the growth of the British Empire (bazaar, caravan, coffee, harem, kiosk, sheikh, shekel, turban, yoghurt)
Languages of the Far East (Chinese, Japanese, Hindi, Australian) - “ (guru, ketchup, pariah, sago, shogun, bungalow, tea, tycoon, boomerang, kangaroo)
African languages - “ (bongo, bwana, safari, voodoo, gnu, impala, tse-tse)
European languages – as a result of the mobility of people and ideas (polka, mazurka, sauna, kindergarten, kosher, schmuk, pistol, robot, goulash, perestroika, sputnik, mafia, easel, landscape)
Classical Latin and Greek – as ´neo-classical borrowing´, usually for technological and scientific concepts (television, supermarket, hypermarket, transplant, biotechnology, psychology, psychoanalysis, technophobia, micro-electronics)

Lexical innovation

One of the features of language is constant change and development, especially in the lexical component of a language.
There are a number of causes working together towards the need for lexical innovation: 1. the development of new objects of reality and processes 2. the development of new analyses of reality 3. the development of new concepts 4. the development of new attitudes and values 5. the need for variety and expresivity
On the other hand, when applying the purely synchronic approach to lexical innovation, we analyse the structure of existing lexemes in terms of a set of contrasts between: - simple and composite lexemes (speech/speechless; ) - free morphemes and bound morphemes (govern/ -ment) - lexical morphemes and root morphemes (danger/jeal-) - root morphemes and affixational morphemes (pleas-/-ant) - morphemes and allomorphs (pleas-[pli:z-]/[plez-]/[ple3-]: pleasing/pleasant/pleasure) - root and base (pol-/polar-: polarity)
Processes of lexical innovation: Components:
1. The use of linguistic material which is new to the language a) root-creation phonemes b) lexical borrowing lexemes (from other languages) c) borrowing of formatives bound morphemes (from other languages)
2. The use of linguistic material already existing in the language a) semantic change lexemes b) conversion lexemes c) internal borrowing lexemes d) abbreviation - clipping syllables - blending syllables/parts - initial abbreviation a) initial phonemes/letters - initial abbreviation b) initial phonemes/letters e) word-formation - derivation free + bound morphemes - back-derivation bound + free morphemes - compounding free morphemes - reduplication bound or free morphemes - post-position free morpheme
Results of lexical innovation: 1. Items which, so far, have not been part of the language a) neologisms (blurb) b) loan-words (journal) c) loan-formatives (-able) 2. Items which have already existed in the language or whose components have already existed in the language a) polysemes (flight) b) conversions (to bottle) c) internal loan-words (lad, apartment) d) abbreviations - clips (exam) - blends (motel) - a) alphabetisms (D.J.) - b) acronyms (VAT, BASIC, asap) e) products of word-formational processes - derivatives (foreword) - back-derivatives (to edit) - compounds (airtight) - reduplicatives: ablaut combinations or rhyme combinations (ping pong, honky tonky) - post-positives (phrasal and prepositional verbs) (look up, look after)

Word-formation: Derivation (Affixation); Back-derivation
Derivation (affixation) in English is defined as either putting a prefix before the base or putting a suffix after the base. The base is usually (not always) a free morpheme, affixes,
i.e. prefixes and suffixes, are bound morphemes, although some are homomorphs of free morphemes, usually prepositions. Both the base and the affix contribute to the meaning of the resulting lexeme.
Prefixes and suffixes are analysed in terms of the following aspects: a) Productivity: from the synchronic point of view, an affix is considered to be productive if it is used in present-day English to produce new lexemes. b) Origin: we distinguish between affixes of native origin and loan affixes. c) Hybridization: in relation to the origin of the affix and base, we observe whether the affix may freely combine with native bases and vice versa. d) Conversion: we distinguish between class-maintaining and class-changing affixes. An affix is class-maintaining if the resulting lexeme belongs to the same word-class as the original base; an affix is class-changing if the resulting lexeme belongs to a word-class different from that of the original base. e) Classification: affixes may be classified either on the basis of formal (grammatical) criteria, i.e. the word-class of the base to which the affix is added, or on the basis of semantic criteria, i.e. the kinds of meanings which are added to the meaning of the base.

I. Prefixes

a) Productivity
In the following analysis we will only consider productive prefixes. When analysing the structure of an existing lexeme, it may be seen as consisting of a prefix and a base; however, some prefixes are no longer productive: e.g. with- as in withdraw, withhold. b) Origin
Most present-day English prefixes are of non-native origin. There are only very few productive native prefixes, e.g. un-, be-, over-, under-, for-, fore-, up-. c) Hybridization
Productive prefixes can generally combine with bases of any origin; that means that they can freely produce hybrids, e.g. mini-skirt, non-smoker, ex-husband d) Conversion
Most prefixes are class-maintaining. The class-changing prefixes are: a- which changes a noun or a verb into an adjective, e.g. ablaze, asleep, astir, awash be- which changes an adjective or a noun into a transitive verb, e.g. becalm, befriend, bewitch or into a participial adjective, e.g. bewigged, bespectacled, bedewed. en- which changes a noun into a transitive verb, e.g. entomb, ensnare, enslave. e) Classification - formal: 1. Prefixes typically combining with nouns, e.g. arch-, mini-, maxi-, mal-, pro-, sur-, fore-, super-. 1. Prefixes typically combining with verbs, e.g. dis-, un-, under-, trans-, re-. 2. Prefixes typically combining with adjectives, e.g. a-, in-, un-, hyper-, sub-, super-, ultra-.
However, since most prefixes usually combine with more than one word-class, this type of classification is not really useful. - semantic: 1. Negative prefixes: a-, dis-, in-(im-, il-, ir-), non-, un- add to the base the meaning of ´lack of´ or ´the converse of´ e.g. amoral, atheist, disobey, disorder, incomplete, improper, illegal, non-smoker, unfair, unexpected. 2. Reversative or privative prefixes: de-, dis-, un- add to the base the meaning of ´reversing the action or ´depriving of´, e.g. defrost, decentralize, disconnect, disposses, undo, unpack. 3. Pejorative prefixes: mal-, mis-, pseudo- add to the base the meaning of ´badly´, ´wrongly´, ´false´, e.g. maltreat, malnutrition, misleading, misunderstanding, pseudo-intellectual, pseudo-scientific. 4. Prefixes of degree or size: arch-, co-, hyper-, out-, over-, sub-, super-, sur-, ultra-, under- add to the base the meaning of ´supreme´, ´extreme´, ´jointly´, ´surpassing´, ´very special´, ´too much´, ´too little´, e. g. overestimate, subconscious, supernatural, surcharge, ultra-modern, underestimate. 5. Prefixes of orientation and attitude: anti-, contra-, counter-, pro- add to the base the meaning of ´against´, ´opposite´, ´for´, ´on behalf of´, e.g. anti-social, anti-clockwise, contradiction, contraindicate, counteract, counter-revolution, pro-American, pro-consul. 6. Locative prefixes: fore-, inter-, sub-, super-, trans- add to the base the meaning of ´front part of´, ´between´, ´under´, ´above´, ´across´, e.g. forearm, forefront, subsection, subdivide, superstructure, transatlantic, transplant. 7. Prefixes of time and order: ex-, extra-, fore-, post-, pre-, re- add to the base the meaning of ´former´, ´outside´, ´before´, ´after´, ´again´, e.g. ex-husband, ex-president, forewarn, fore-tell, extraordinary, extra-marital, post-war, postpone, pre-war, pre-school, recycle, renew. 8. Number prefixes: uni-, mono-, bi-, di-, tri-, semi-, demi-, poly-, multi- add to the base the meaning of ´one´, ´two´, ´three´, ´half´, ´many´, e.g. unisex, unilateral, monologue, monosyllabic, bicycle, bilateral, dichotomy, divalent, tricycle, tripartite, semicircle, semi-coonscious, hemisphere, polyglot, polysemy, multi-lateral, multiracial. 9. Prefixes of varied meanings a) Neo-classical prefixes: auto-, extra-, neo-, paleo-, pan-, proto-, tele-, vice- add to the base the meanings of ´self´, ´exceptionally´, ´new´, ´old´, ´all´, ´original´, ´distant´, ´deputy´, e.g. autosuggestion, autobiography, extra-mild, extra-special, neo-classicism, neo-Gothic, paleography, paleolithic, Pan-American, prototype, proto-Indo-European, television, telephone, vice-president, vice-chairman. b) Conversion prefixes: a-, be-, en- (em-) add to the base the meaning of ´progressivity´, ´act to change´, ´to provide with´, e.g. asleep, atremble, bewitch, befriend, endanger, enflame, empower, embitter.

II. Suffixes

a) Productivity
As with prefixes, we will consider only productive suffixes. In bishopric, for example, structural analysis shows the lexeme as consisting of the base bishop and the suffix –ric, which is no longer productive in present-day English. b) Origin
There are more native suffixes than native prefixes in present-day English, but many suffixes are non-native. Examples of native prefixes are: -y, -hood, -ship, -er, -dom, -ing, -ful, -less, -ish, -ed, -ly, -ward(s), -wise. c) Hybridization
Some of the originally foreign suffixes require originally foreign bases, and there has traditionally been some inhibition about forming hybrids. This has resulted in pairs of, for example, nouns and denominal adjectives that are formally distinct: mind – mental, nose – nasal, mouth – oral. d) Conversion
All suffixes are class- changing. In those cases where the word-class remains the same, there is a change in sub-class. E.g. official – officialdom, bake – bakery, employ – employer, employee, false – falsify; star – stardom (from concrete to abstract), mountain – mountaineer (from inanimate to animate), host – hostess (from masculine to feminine). e) Classification
Classes of suffixes: 1. Denominal noun suffixes: -age, -dom, - ery/-ry, -ful, -hood, -ing, -ism, -cracy, ship e.g. mileage, stardom, slavery, handful, brotherhood, farming, idealism, aristocracy, friendship; -eer, -er, -ess, -ette, -let, -ling, -stere.g. profiteer, villager, actress, kitchenette, booklet, duckling, trickster 2. Deverbal noun suffixes: -age, -al, -ation, -ing, -ment e.g. wastage, refusal, starvation, building, management -ant, -ee, -er/-or e.g. inhabitant, employee, writer, actor 3. De-adjectival noun suffixes: -ity, -ness e.g. diversity, happiness 4. Denominal/de-adjectival noun/adjective suffixes: -ese, -an/-ian, -ist, -ite e.g. Chinese, Elizabethan, Shakespearian, racialist, Luddite 5. Denominal adjective suffixes: -ed, -ful, -ish, -less, -like, -ly, -y, -al/-ial, -esque, -ic, -ous/ -ious/-eous e.g. wooded, useful, childish, careless, childlike, cowardly, wealthy, accidental, editorial, romanesque, heroic, grievous, ambitious, erroneous 6. Deverbal adjective suffixes: -able, -ible, -ive e.g. eatable, drinkable, manageable, collapsible, expansive, decorative, talkative 7. De-adjectival adverb suffix: -ly e.g. calmly, personally, publicly
8. Denominal/de-adverbial adverb suffixes: -ward(s), -wise, -ways e.g. eastwards, homewards, onwards, forwards, clockwise, likewise, sideways, lengthways
9. Verb suffixes with bases of different word-classes: -ate, -en, - ify/-fy, -ize/-ise, e.g. orchestrate, hyphenate, deafen, sadden, simplify, certify, modernize, symbolize.
Back-derivation (back-formation, de-affixation) is the reverse process: a word is created from another by removing rather than adding an element. The element that is removed is a suffix (with a resulting change in word-class, usually from noun to verb). Sometimes the base for back-derivation is a compound word.
Back-derivatives are often nonce words: they are coined for effect or because people think they exist or ought to exist in order to fill structural as well as semantic gaps.

Word-formation: Compounding

A compound is a lexical unit consisting of more than one base and functioning both grammatically and semantically as a single word. In principle, any number of bases may be involved, but in English compounds usually comprise two bases only. Compounding can take place within any of the word classes, but in terms of productivity we shall consider compounds resulting in new nouns and adjectives in present-day English.

1. Lexicalisation conditions
Compounding associates bases drawn form the whole lexicon in a wide range of semantic relations. But this does not mean that a compound can be formed by placing any lexical item in front of another. The relations between items brought together in compounding must be such that it is reasonable and useful to classify the second element in terms of the first. The relations involved in compounding are frequently resemblance, function, or some other salient or defining characteristic. 2. Types of compounds glow-worm = The worm glows. i.e. verb + subject punch-card = X punches the card. i.e. verb + object
Similarly, daydreaming and sightseeing can be analysed in terms of their sentential analogues, thus capturing fundamental differences despite the superficial similarity: daydreaming = X dreams during the day. i.e. verb + adverbial sightseeing = X sees sights. i.e. verb + object 3. General classification of compounds
Another basis for classifying compounds is the semantic relationship existing between the constituents. From this point of view we may distinguish between a) endocentric (attributive) compounds, where one element (usually the second) is modified by the other (usually the first), e.g. cleaning woman, cooking apple b) exocentric (co-ordinating) compounds, where the relationship is one of addition, e.g. deaf-mute, blue-green c) appositional (copulative) compounds, where the relationship is one of equivalence, e.g. boyfriend, killer shark
A subtype of exocentric compounds are bahuvrihi (synecdochic) compounds, where the compound refers to the whole referent by denoting a significant part, e.g. skinhead, loudmouth. 4. Orthographic compounds
In writing and print there are three forms: a) solid compounds b) hyphenated compounds c) open compounds
The older and shorter noun or adjective compounds are usually solid; the newer and longer are more likely to be open. 5. The pronunciation of compounds:
Since compounds constitute a lexical unit, primary stress falls on the first element; the second element is unstressed or has secondary stress. This feature distinguishes compounds from collocations, where primary stress is on the second element. 6. Grammatico-semantic classification of compounds

Noun compounds

Subject and verb (noun + deverbal noun; verb + noun; verb-ing + noun) e.g. sunrise, rattlesnake, dancing girl
Verb and object (noun + deverbal noun; noun + verb-ing; noun + agential noun; verb + noun; verb-ing + noun) e.g. bloodtest, faultfinding, tax-payer, punchcard, cooking apple
Verb and adverbial (verb-ing + noun as adverbial; noun as adverbial + verb-ing; noun as adverbial + agential noun; noun as adverbial + deverbal noun; verb + noun as adverbial)
e.g. swimmingpool, daydreaming, baby-sitter, homework, plaything
Verbless: subject and object (noun + noun)
e.g. windmill, toy factory, bloodstain, doorknob, security officer
Verbless: subject and complement (noun + noun; adjective + noun)
e.g. girlfriend, frogman, snowflake, darkroom
Bahuvrihi compounds: (noun + noun; adjective + noun)
e.g. skinhead, paperback, loudmouth, paleface

Adjective compounds

Verb and object (object + verb-ing)e.g. man-eating, breathtaking
Verb and adverbial (noun as adverbial + verb-ing; adjective as adverbial + verb-ing; noun as adverbial + verb-ed; adjective as adverbial + verb-ed)e.g. mouth-watering, good-looking, handmade, new-laid
Verbless: (noun + adjective; adjective + adjective)e.g. duty-free, brick red, deaf-mute, bitter-sweet


2 Rhyme combinations e.g. walkie-talkie, honky-tonky, fuzzy-wuzzy, hanky-panky, helter-skelter, harum-scarum, hocus-pocusAblaut combinations

e.g. mishmash, pingpong, tick-tock, wishy-washy, shilly-shally, dilly-dally, zig-zag, riff-raff, tip-top

Compounds in other word-classes

There are compounds also in the word classes Pronoun, Adverb, Preposition and Conjunction, which are closed-class items (in these word-classes, however, compounding is not productive), e.g. someone, anything, another, downstairs, offside, into, onto, whenever, because, unless.

Word-formation: Conversion: Types of conversion – classification
Conversion to noun deverbal, with the meanings of ´state´, e.g. desire, doubt, love; ´event´, e.g. attempt, fall, laugh; ´object´, e.g. answer, catch, find; ´subject´, e.g. bore, cheat, coach; ´instrument´, e.g. paper, wrap, cover; ´manner´, e.g. walk, throw, kick; ´place´, e.g. divide, retreat, lay-by;

de-adjectival, with the meaning of ´possessor of quality´, e.g. bitter, natural, final

Conversion to verb denominal, with the meanings of ´to put in/on´, e.g. to bottle, to corner, to shelve; ´to provide with´, e.g. to butter, to grease, to mask; ´to deprive of´, e.g. to peel, to skin, to core; ´to use as instrument´, e.g. to brake, to elbow, to hand; ´to act as´, e.g. to nurse, to pilot, to referee; ´to make into´, e.g. to cash, to cripple, to group; ´to send/go by´, e.g. to ship, to telegraph, to bicycle, to motor

de-adjectival, with the meanings of ´to make/to make more´, e.g. to calm, to dry, to lower; ´to become´, e.g. to dry, to narrow, to weary;

Conversion to adjective denominal, with the meanings of ´material´, e.g. brick, cotton, stone; ´type´, e.g. reproduction, period, city

Anomalous types of conversion from closed-class words, e.g. ifs, buts, a must, to down, to off, to in

from phrases, e.g. an also-ran, a has-been, up-in-the-air, upper-class, down-to earth

from affixes, e.g. isms

Change of secondary word class from non-count to count nouns, e.g. coffees, paints, kindnesses

from count to non-count nouns (normally only with an expression of amount, e.g. an inch of pencil, a few square feet of floor

from proper to common nouns, e.g. a Jeremiah, a Rolls Royce, a Renoir

from stative to dynamic nouns (normally with the progressive of the verb ´be´), e.g. he´s being a fool, he´s being a nuisance

from intransitive to transitive verbs, e.g. run the water, walk the dog, march the prisoners

from transitive to intransitive verbs, e.g. the book reads well, the door closed, the material washes easily, we have eaten already

from intransitive to copular verbs, e.g. to stand motionless, to fall flat, to ride high

from monotransitive to complex transitive verbs, e.g. we catch them young, we buy them fresh, I wiped it clean

from nongradable to gradable adjectives, e.g. more English, most incredible, very legal

from stative to dynamic adjectives (normally with the progressive of the verb ´be´), e.g. he´s being friendly, he´s being awkward, she´s being kind

Conversion with formal modifications
In some cases, conversion is accompanied by changes affecting pronunciation, e.g. house – to house, mouth – to mouth, sometimes with accompanying changes in spelling, e.g. to believe – belief, to relieve – relief) or stress distribution, e.g. ´abstract – to ab´stract , ´decrease – to de´crease.

Lexicographic evidence: working practices established over 200 years ago – dramatic advances in the capacity of computers to store, access and process text.

The lexicographer´s citation bank – the computerized corpus providing concordanced samples of words in context.
The traditional use of citations – Johnson´s dictionary was the first English dictionary whose entire content was systematically informed by a process of inductions from authentic linguistic data. Dependence on the judgement and skill of an individual human reader.
When using corpus evidence, the lexicographer works with whatever comes up in the corpus rather than with individually and specially selected examples. If the corpus is to be the main source of evidence for a dictionary, it follows that the choice and range of text held in the corpus is of considerable importance.
Three issues: coverage, closed – open, size, balance, retrieval. - By coverage is meant the time span covered by the material in the corpus. - A closed corpus is one to which no more material is added; an open corpus is one which is continuously enlarged. - Size relates to the number of words of running text in the corpus. - Balance is understood as the proportion of texts of different modes, styles and genres. - Retrieval means the possibility, by means of soft-ware, of extracting linguistic information from the corpus.

Early English and American corpora:
The Survey of English Usage (1958) ed. by Prof. Randolph Quirk: one million words of running text – the texts transcribed manually and stored on index cards – later computerized.
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island Corpus (1963/64) ed. by Henry Kucera and W. Nelson Francis: one million words of running text, rigorous stylistic balance, strictly synchronic (texts from one single year), information about word frequency.
Birmingham University Corpus (1980s) ed. by Prof. John Sinclair: seven million words of running text, textual evidence for COBUILD dictionaries.
British National Corpus (1980 – 1993) 100 million words of running text, written and spoken English from a wide range of genres.

American National Corpus, Czech National Corpus


Lexicography is a purely descriptive linguistic discipline dealing with the registration of vocabulary. The English word Dictionary is an adaptation of the Medieval Latin ´dictionarium´ or ´dictionarius´, meaning a repertory of phrases or words - ´dictiones´. Dictionarius was first used by John Garland in about 1225 in the title of a collection of Latin phrases and words classified under subject headings for the use of beginners in Latin. In 1623, Henry Cockeram first used the word in the title of a dictionary of hard words. Since that time the word dictionary has been used in the titles of works explaining English words.
As contrasted with encyclopaedias, which summarize what is known in all branches of knowledge, dictionaries deal with the individual words of a language or with certain specified classes of them. Even the smallest dictionaries present information about the spelling, pronunciation, and meaning of their entry words in some systematic way, usually, for easy reference, in alphabetical order. Larger dictionaries offer additional items of information about synonyms, levels of usage, and etymologies, and often provide quotations, examples of usage and pictures, tables and graphs.
Dictionaries are always concerned with the way in which the words of a language are used; the meaning of words is dependent on the usage of the native speakers of a language. In essence, dictionaries are the sum of the individual vocabularies of the speakers and writers of a given language, and a dictionary is as authoritative as it is accurate in recording the facts of usage.
Some of the terms used in relation to lexicography are the following: vocabulary unit – a lexeme which functions as an independent lexical item dictionary entry – a vocabulary unit used as a separate entry in a dictionary vocabulary count – the number of a) entries in a dictionary b) words in a text c) words in a corpus d) words used by an individual speaker/writer headword – base for derivation and compounding quotation – instance of the vocabulary unit used in an authentic text example – illustration of use in a minimal context collocation – possible combination with other lexical items meaning – sense given by a) definition b) extended definition c) explanation d) synonym(s) e) second language equivalent f) second language explanation corpus (plural: corpora) – collection of texts
Applied lexicography results in dictionary-making. The principles of dictionary-making are always based on linguistic fundamentals, and each individual entry is made up in accordance with the current knowledge and findings of scholars in the various fields of language study. The compiler´s approach to various lexicological problems (such as homonymy, synonymy, phraseological units, word-formational processes, etc.) always finds reflection in the selection and arrangement of the material.

Vocabulary counts

Modern English explanatory dictionaries usually contain between 50,000 and 75,000 words; the passive vocabulary of a normally educated native English speaker is between 30,000 and 50,000 words, the active vocabulary is 20,000 – 30,000 words; the most frequently occurring words sufficient for the daily needs are about 4,000 – 5,000; learners´ dictionaries range from 3,000 – 20,000 words.

Types of dictionaries

Different types of dictionaries reflect a number of considerations resulting in different approaches in terms of a) size b) intended user c) linguistic method d) medium e) structure and ordering f) textual evidence
The various considerations overlap, resulting in the most frequent distinctions between a) encyclopaedic and linguistic dictionaries b) explanatory (monolingual) and translational (bilingual or multilingual) dictionaries c) synchronic and diachronic (historical) dictionaries d) general and specialised dictionaries specialisation: topical or linguistic e) dictionaries with formal ordering or semantic ordering f) dictionaries in book form and electronic dictionaries

Lexical innovation looking at way how words come into langure, lg isn´t constant → change in pronunciation, grammar and most in vocabulary
Reasons why lg changes so rapidly in the area of vocabulary:
1. CAUSES (why are new words needed) extralinguistic changes
a. ) new objects=vynálezy are invented, discovered by people, new processes associated with the objects (kolonizace, stěhování národů)
b. ) development of new analyses of reality snow – variety of the snow (types, kinds)
c. ) new abstract concepts, new attitudes/values applied by humus different religions, philosophy linguistic changes
d. ) need for variety and expresivity (origin of synonyms) boring, lg community creates new words=alternative expressions word „nice“ – human attitude loses its expresivity by using so often

Grammar: speaking in sentences, creating/completing new sentences
Lexis: sentences are constructed by strict rules, words are adopted by lg community → lg changes nonce words = words used only once (speaking of child), are not generally accepted, but everyone knows what they mean; sometimes there is a exception of lg community which starts to use the word, and the word gains institutional currency → into dictionaries
2. LEXICALISATION CONDITIONS (when do new words become lexical items)
a. ) actual words : exist in lg, mention in dictionaries
b. ) potential words : might exist in lg, but for some reasons haven´t existed yet must conform - phonotactic rules of lg : combinations of sounds which are acceptable (in English only 3 vowels in initial position are valid) strč prst skrz krk; Pfropf=not acceptable, such word or its form do not exist - combinatory rules : how elements as components of words may combine in lg (English combine only two words as a basis)

3. PRINCIPLE OF ANALOGY-words that already exist, ANALYSIS OF THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF EXISTING WORDS binary contrasts simple lexemes composite l. consists of one morpheme only two morphemes speech speech base/less suffix free morphemes bound m. can exist as an independent word exist only in combination with free m. govern/ment govern/ment lexical morphemes root m. = kořen slova free m. , are words in such basis themselves although don´t exist independent danger/ous jeal/ous root m. affixational m. = prefix+suffix pleas/ant pleas/ant morphemes allomorphs one morpheme variations of morphemes; jeden morfém se v různých kombinaích vyslovuje různě please pleas/ing, pleas/ure, pleas/ant root = kořen slova base = for derivation part of word not further derivable to co zůstane odpojením jednoho affixu pol/ar/ity 4. PROCESSES OF LEXICAL INNOVATION
a. ) new linguistic material - never exist in lg before
1. root creation - vytváření hlásek, které nikdy dřív nebyly použity seldom used (není tak produktivní) neologisms in literature: blurb promotion text na záložce knihy, smurf šmoula splňují fonotaktická pravidla, gramatická pravidla nepotřebují, ptž to nejsou slova odvozená
2. lexical borrowing
English welcomes new words from other lgs since William Conqueror (very popular, přes 50% slovní zásoby bez technických výrazů)
3. borrowing of formatives = výpůjčky prefixes + suffixes accept/able from French, read/able bylo přijaté celé slovo, a suffix se pak oddělil
b. ) linguistic material which already exist in the lg
1. semantic change → POLYSEMES
2. conversion : movement of word from one class to another, implies change of word → CONVERSIONS
3. abbreviation : abbreviated = shortened form
3. a. clipping : some syllabes are removed, some stay → CLIPS, exam/ination, tele/phone, in/flu/enza
3. b. blending : two words are clipped and than put together → BLENDS, PORTMANTEAU WORDS, smoke, brunch, sitcome, motel
3. c. initial abbreviation → ALPHABETISM result of this process is read as a letter of the alphabets → ACRONYM = zkratkové slovo, iniciálová zkratka, která se čte jakoby to bylo slovo; letters of the alphabets are read as word, SALT, BASIC, RADAR
4. word formation
4. a. derivation : when affix is added to base → DERIVATIVES
4. b. backderivation : primárně vznikala skládáním → BACKDERIVATIVES, baby-sitter → to babysit, house-keeper → to housekeep, editor → to edit, daydreamer → to daydream
4. c. compounding = skládání : combination of two free morphemes → COMPOUNDS
4. d. reduplication : form of compounding with rhyme application
→ RHYME COMBINATIONS, honky-tonky, hanky-panky
→ ABLAUT COMBINATIONS = hláskové posuny, ping-pong, shilly-shally = otálet, váhat
4. e. post-position : no longer productive (in a limited way), při- , ode- , za- JÍT → takhle fungovala stará angličtina, po normanském záboru to zapomněla, po vzoru francoužštiny začali dávat předložky za sloveso PHRASAL/PREPOSITIONAL VERBS
Word combinations
= combinations of meaning (collocations, idioms)
Limitations to free combinations:
- logical: to eat a stone (grammaticaly posible), blue gras, pregnant man surrealistická poezie (spojení odporující logice)
- grammatical:
I very like → verb can´t be premodified by adverb, a boy book → two nouns
- usage: the lg community decided not to use it - handsome girl, beautiful boy
Distinction between WORD GROUPS = free collocations AND COLLOCATIONS - fixed, occur frequently = frequently occuring combination of words, when one member is used, second member can be predicted combinations of words which occur ad hoc, any kind of stable combinations no strict borderline, but frequency of occurence is typical for collocations
Types of collocations (1, 2, 3 = lexical collocations)
1. restricted collocations: in meaning, in the sense that one element in the c. is used in its proper sense, and the second is figurative, metaphoric, according to what word is combined with to blow out a candle to blow a fuse = vyhodit pojistky/metafora=rozčílit se to blow a tyre = píchnout pneumatiku small house small bussiness = how much is being done small hours = early morning raise a hand = zvednout raise a ship = vyzvednout raise a question = ask a question raise a child = vychovat dítě
2. overlapping c. : overlap only in one case, related to the Synonymy, synonyms do not collocate with the same second elements extinguish = uhasit + fire quench = uhasit + thirst, fire exceptional = positive + rainfall, child = above a certant standard abnormal = negative + rainfall , child = below a certant standard
3. delexical c. , verb support constructions : some verbs which are extremely vágní in meaning, come only in a c. with a noun have, take, get, go, do, make, give
Angličtina ráda vyjadřuje pomocí jmenných tvarů. Slovanské jazyky vyjadřují děje pomocí sloves.
→ nominal to verbal collocation (soustředíme se na podstatné jméno) to have a bath, a meal; to make a mistake; to do sb a service; to take/have a look; to get a divorce; to give a sigh = povzdechnout si, a reply, an opinion
4. grammatical c. : depend on gramm. form
Prepositional phrases
Infinitive, Participle, Clause propose – collocates with an infitive : to propose suggest : suggest doing sth clever : he is clever at Mathematics intelligent Lexical valency seznam dalších slov, se kt. se to dané slovo může kombinovat and grammatical valency of the word – range of the gramm. forms which the word can be combined (rain begin, began raining; she seems to like it, she seems liking it)
it doesn´t have its own basic meaning are phraseological units which are lexically complex, but semantically simplex (consist of two, three, more words, lexical elements, but one meaning) to kick the bucket = to die unmotivated lexical units, resulting meaning of the whole unit does not correspont to the individual meaning of the words v té kombinaci figurative expression, must have been in the lg used once in the time = one semantic unit to let the cat out of the bag = to reveal, prozradit to be in a soap = být v „rejži“ in fiction, detective stories (tohle ad hoc výtvory autorů, jinak are used but in lg community as a whole, potom se stávají metaforami, jinak ne)
OPAQUE obscure, neprůhledný; zahalená metafora *
TRANSPARENT snadno odhadnutelné obsahy ♥
* red tape = paper work, byrokratické postupy, úřední šiml; red herring = false trail (svedení ze stopy)
♥ he fell between two stools = want to get two things together, but now have nothing; have an achilles heel = jediné zranitelné místo; take a chair = předsedat; show one´s teeth = hrozit
Phrasel verbs, prepositional groups (multiple words) are only idiomatic! to come/go up: original - to move in an elevated possition (non-idiomatic meaning), figurative - rise; find out; turn down
Frozenness, stability of idioms lexical = in an idiom words can´t be changed, taken away (to kick a blue bucket, pink spectacles ?) grammatical = usually can´t be changed grammatically (to spill a bean, the bucket was kicked), but we can change the sense

PROVERBS (many comes from the Bibel, Milton, Shakespeare), QUOTATIONS, SAYINGS literal meaning is diff. from intended mening, are not lexical units, complete sentences, make text more vivid (commentary of the content on the text)
Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Better save and sorry. Don´t cross the bridges before you get to them. Necessity is the mother of invention. Carrying the coal to the New Castle.
Sense relations=významové vztahy scale: same - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - different sameness and difference can aplly a sense from meaning:
1. SYNONYMY jev, pojem sameness of meaning, difference of form
2. ANTONYMY opposition of meaning, difference of form
3. HOMONYMY difference of meaning, sameness of form slova: synonyms =different lexemes having the same meaning, words that share the same denotation, but are dif. in connotation which leads to difference in usage antonyms =different lexemes having opposite meanings homonyms =dif. lexemes having dif. meanings but accidentaly the same form

Synonyms - language economy! they are not absolute ( are not freely interchangeable, limitations: some meaning are closer to each other, partial synonyms ) synonyms in the language differences between synonyms in usage:
IN VARIETIES AND DIALECTS autumn (GB) – fall (US), furze=hlodaž (Northern England) – gorse (Southern E.) usage in the british or american writing some of american varieties including british terms
IN STYLE AND REGISTER by style-function of the text : newspaper article, official documents, lectures by register-level formality (formal, informal, neutral), také funkční styl gentleman (formal) – man (neutral) – chap (informal) die (neutral) – pass away (formal) – kick the bucket (informal, very i.) coming (neutral, informal) – enter (formal)
IN EMOTIVE CONNOTATIONS emotive response: neutral, negative, positive
IN INTENSITY like, love – same meaning, positive attitude to sth, sb, but love is more intensive than like terrible, horrible – more intensive level of intensity – origin of word, frequensy of use (when word is overused, lose its intensity)
IN COLLOCABILITY matter of development in combinig with other words beautiful (associated with female character quality) – handsome (man ch. quality) dříve handsome woman Chaucer popisoval krásnou ženu, dnes masculin beauty deep (concrete and abstract objects : river, emotions) – profound (combined only with abstracts: thoughts)
IN SEMANTIC ANALYSES in the meaning of understand (neutral) you can also use : catch (fast, povrchní?) or grasp (by your own) look – podnět vnímání od pozorovatele k předmětu seem – od předmětu k pozorovateli appear – něco hodnotícího méně dobře, sice to tak vypadá, ale nemusí tomu tak být (zdá se) vypadat IN TIME relates to the levels of the vocabulary wireless (opsolete) – radio (usual=curent) gramofone – recordplayer : tend to become opsolete (předmět se již nevyskytuje, už se vytrácí)

Antonyms dif. kinds of opposition: dif. contrasting lexemes
ABSOLUTE ANTONYMS, COMPLEMENTARIES absoluteness of opposition=one meaning excludes the other meaning (either/or), mutualy exclusive dead – alive, married – single, shut – opened
GRADABLE ANTONYMS meaning contains certant grades which are determined by context small elephant – big mouse, hot – cold are gradable, meaning is relative to the situation in which they are apllied, the value of the antonym is given by the context in which it is used
RELATIONAL A. relation between two antonyms: one meaning implies the other, in the sense that belong to each other borrow – lend, give – take
a.) KINSHIP TERMS slova vyjadřující příbuzenské vztahy grandfather – father – son (vertical) father – mother – brother – sister (horizontal)
DIRECTIONAL A. up – down, backward – forward, come – go, rise – fall, raise – drop
North – South, East – West, top – bottom, black – white (nic není jen bílé nebo černé, metaforické užití)
one of the a. causes the existence of the other river – valley, ridge=hřeben brázdy – groove=brázda, mount – depression
to reverse=obrátit směr, created by negative prefixes appear – disappear, tie – untie, dress – undress, freeze – difreeze

Homonyms origin is either a CONVERGENT SOUND DEVELOPMENT konvergentní vývoj výslovnosti, splynutí do jednoho or ADOPTION OF FOREIGN WORDS ear: původem i tvarem dvě různá slova, kt. hláskovým vývojem splynuly v jedno
1. UCHO part of the human body
2. KLAS date: 1. number of the day in the month, DATUM
2. a fruit, DATLE seal: 1. sign, PEČEŤ
2. animal, TULEŇ bark: 1. sound of dog, ŠTĚKAT
2. outside layer of the tree, KŮRA STROMU


1.) Homographs = spelling is the same, pronunciation is different lead [li:d] vést - [led] olovo bow [boʊ] luk - [baʊ] uklonit se, sklonit se row [roʊ] - [raʊ] tear [taə] a drop from the eye, slza - [tɛə] roztrhat
2.) Homophones: spelling is dif. , pronunciation is the same rite=rituál, right, write straight, strait=mořská úžina fare=jízdné, jízda, fair=trh, tržiště; fér there, their, they´re !!!! polysemantic words – result of semantic change
Semantic classification

natural phenomenon, human tendency of organising, ordering items of the reality belongs more to Logic (deals with this kind of ordering of the reality) than to Linguistic classification of the reality that underlines our classification of the words, items etc. one of the most difficult area of teaching language is Vocabulary teaching (pokud je slovní zásoba klasifikovaná, lépe a trvaleji se zapamatovala)
Types of classification:
1. Semantic fields dva významy: jedno slovo kolem sebe vytvoří semantické pole, but! the lexical items which belong to s. field have one concept common, which belong to a particular topic replaced by Topical field
s. field – school: class, classroom, teacher, book, write, read, study (expressions that relate to the topic School)
Nucleus – lexical items which most typicaly belong to particular topic
course books are organised in units with Vocabulary teaching´s part grammatical words, used in any kind of text – be, have, modal v., auxiliary v., pronouns – it is pointless to include them in any semantic field individual lex. items are not limited not only to the one semantic field, inclusion of the one semantic field depends on context
a.) Semantic fields of colours
b.) Natural phenomena (of the weather)
c.) Different institutions (School, Government, Banking)
d.) Diff. human activities, professions
e.) Music
f.) Politics
Feature of terminology
The kind of the logical relationship:
HYPONYMY, H. (-IES) → seznamy slov

2. Hyponomies are a higher artical arrangement of the vocabulary

down: specific lexical items that belong to the Hyponomy at the top of pyramida: living organism branches: animals – mammals, reptiles, birds plants – trees, grasses, flowers = tulips, roses, daffodils the lexical item on the higher level (superordinate element)= Hyperonym items on the same level = (Co - ) Hyponyms
!! feature of Entailment=zahrnutí: all the meanings of the lower level items, m. of the higher level items are automaticaly included depends on the c. of the extralingual reality ( of the items of the world): biologické a chemické systémy can be constructed only if there exist a system of organising of the reality
3. Taxonomies=vyjmenovávání anumeration of kinds, of the superordinated items general term: Taxonomic general term (is on the top) represented by the anumeration of the items of – an X is na item of Y kinds of – an X is a kind of Y ways of – an X-ing is a way of Y-ing

skirt, trousers, jacket, etc. – items of clothing family houses, office blocks, cinemas, churches, hotels, etc. – kinds of the building bowling, roasting, stewing, etc. (processes) – ways of cooking

is related to the Vocabulary teaching (furniture, flowers, animals, jumping (a way of moving), killing, wispering (a way of speaking))

4. Metonomies anumerations of parts of a whole, vyjmenovávání částí celku superordinate element: Meronomic whole, an X is a part of a Y relationship between part(s) and whole is a Meronomy in terms of logic it is necessary that parts should come together ! Is a door - part of the wall - really part of a house ?? posoudíme pohledem z venku, ptž nábytek jsme tam nastěhovali (It is removeable, was put in) human body, plants, machines, etc. teaching of the small children, easy usage of the pictures

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...|1. Lexicology as a branch of |3. Etymological survey of the |4. Types of word meaning. Word |5. Change of meaning in English. |№ 6 Polysemy in English. |№ 7 Homonymy in English. Polysemy vs| |linguistics. Lexical units. |English lexicon. |meaning and motivation. |Word-meaning is liable to change in |1. The semantic structure of the |homonymy | |Lexicology (from Gr lexis ‘word’ and|The term “etymology” comes from |Types of word meaning |the course of the historical |word does not present an indivisible|Homonyms are words that sound alike | |logos ‘learning’) is the part of |Greek and it means the study of the |(classifications): |development of language. Causes of |unity, nor does it necessarily stand|but have different semantic | |linguistics dealing with the |earlist forms of the word. Now |According to the aspect relation of |Semantic Change |for one concept. It is generally |structure. The problem of homonymy | |vocabulary of the language and the |etymology studies both: the form and|a word to the components of the |extra-linguistic — various changes |known that most words possess a |is mainly the problem of | |properties of words as the main |the meaning of borrowed and native |situation where it is used: |in the life of the speech......

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The Processes of Nomination and Their Role in Language Organization

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Lexical Problems of Translation

...LEXICAL PROBLEMS OF TRANSLATION   The study of the language is arguably the most hotly contested property in the academic realm. It becomes a tangle begetting multiple language discrepancies. That is why linguistics compares languages and explores their histories, in order to find and to account for its development and origins to give the answers to this or that language point.  Due to the semantic features of language the meanings of words, their ability to combine with other words, their usage, the “place” they hold in the lexical system of a language do not concur for the most part. All the same “ideas” expressed by words coincide in most cases, though the means of expression differ.       The principal types of lexical correspondences between two languages are as follows: 1) Complete correspondences; 2) Partial correspondences; 3) The absence of correspondences Let’s deal with them more exactly.      1) Complete lexical correspondences.      Complete correspondence of lexical units of two languages can rarely be found. As a rule they belong to the following lexical groups:      -  proper names and geographical denominations:      -  the months and days of the week, numerals.      - scientific and technical terms (with the exception of terminological polysemy).      2) Partial lexical correspondences.      While translating the lexical units partial correspondences mostly occur. That happens when a word in the language of the original conforms to......

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A Level English Language

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