Premium Essay

Lexicology

In: Other Topics

Submitted By leshaken
Words 10055
Pages 41
|1. Lexicology as a branch of |3. Etymological survey of the |4. Types of word meaning. Word |5. Change of meaning in English. |№ 6 Polysemy in English. |№ 7 Homonymy in English. Polysemy vs|
|linguistics. Lexical units. |English lexicon. |meaning and motivation. |Word-meaning is liable to change in |1. The semantic structure of the |homonymy |
|Lexicology (from Gr lexis ‘word’ and|The term “etymology” comes from |Types of word meaning |the course of the historical |word does not present an indivisible|Homonyms are words that sound alike |
|logos ‘learning’) is the part of |Greek and it means the study of the |(classifications): |development of language. Causes of |unity, nor does it necessarily stand|but have different semantic |
|linguistics dealing with the |earlist forms of the word. Now |According to the aspect relation of |Semantic Change |for one concept. It is generally |structure. The problem of homonymy |
|vocabulary of the language and the |etymology studies both: the form and|a word to the components of the |extra-linguistic — various changes |known that most words possess a |is mainly the problem of |
|properties of words as the main |the meaning of borrowed and native |situation where it is used: |in the life of the speech community,|number of meanings. Polysemy – |differentiation between two |
|units of language. |words. As for English language many |Referential meaning — determined by |changes in economic and social |coexistence within one word several |different semantic structures of |
|Lexicology has an object of its |scientist consider the foreign |the relation of...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Lexycology

...ВЫСШЕЕ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЕ ОБРАЗОВ АНИЕ И. В. ЗЫКОВА ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС АНГЛИЙСКОЙ ЛЕКСИКОЛОГИИ A PRACTICAL COURSE IN ENGLISH LEXICOLOGY Рекомендовано Учебно методическим объединением по образованию в области лингвистики Министерства образования и науки Российской Федерации в качестве учебного пособия для студентов лингвистических вузов и факультетов иностранных языков 2 е издание, исправленное УДК 802.0:801.3(075.8) ББК 81.2Англ 3 я73 З 966 Р е ц е н з е н т ы: доктор филологических наук, профессор кафедры стилистики английского языка Московского государственного лингвистического университета Е. Г. Беляевская; доцент кафедры английского языка Московского государственного лингвистического университета Т. В. Тадевосян; кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры английского языка Московской государственной юридической академии А. В. Дорошенко Зыкова И.В. З 966 Практический курс английской лексикологии = A Practical Course in English Lexicology : учеб. пособие для студ. лингв. вузов и фак. ин. языков / Ирина Владимировна Зыкова. — 2 е изд., испр. — М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2007. — 288 c. ISBN 978 5 7695 4062 2 Учебное пособие охватывает всю программу курса лексикологии анг лийского языка. В нем рассматриваются важнейшие проблемы лексико логии в свете ведущих принципов современной лингвистики. Введение в теоретические проблемы курса осуществляется на фоне обобщающего описания основ лексического строя английского языка. Каждый раздел пособия снабжен......

Words: 3488 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Divergences in the Semantic Structure of Words

...Divergences in the semantic structure of words: Different Valency Content Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………… Chapter 1. The Problem of Polysemantic Words 1. Semantic Structure of Words……………………………………………………………… 2. Ways of analyzing Polysemy……………………………………………………………… Chapter 2. Polysemantic Words 1. Polysemantic and Monosemantic Words…………………………………………………….. 2. Semantic Structure of Polysemantic Words………………………………………………….. 3. Examples of Polysemantic Words……………………………………………………………. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………. References………………………………………………………………………………………….. Introduction The following paper is devoted to the theme “Divergences in the semantic structure of words”. The semantic structure of words presents a complicated problem .The only exceptions are some groups of monosemantic words. Divergences in the semantic structure of words of the Sourse and Target languages are one of the primary cases of lexical transformations. These divergences are connected with certain peculiar features of a word or a group of words. Even words which seem to have the same meaning in the two languages are not semantically identical. The primary meanings of correlated words often coincide while their derivative meanings do not. Thus there is only partial correspondence in the structures of polysemantic words as their lexical semantic variants do not cover one another. Semantic correlation is not to be interpreted as......

Words: 8025 - Pages: 33

Free Essay

Arnold Lexicology

...И. В. АРНОЛЬД Лексикология современного английского языка Издание третье, переработанное и дополненное Допущено Министерством высшего и среднего специального образования СССР в качестве учебника для студентов институтов и факультетов иностранных языков Сканирование, распознавание, проверка: Аркадий Куракин (ark # mksat. net), сен-2004. Орфография унифицирована к британской. Пропущены страницы: 50-53, 134-139, 152-161, 164-171, 201-202, 240-243 Москва «Высшая школа» 1986 Мультиязыковой проект Ильи Франка www.franklang.ru ББК 81.2 Англ-923 А 84 Рецензент: кафедра английской филологии Оренбургского государственного педагогического института им. В. П. Чкалова (зав. кафедрой д-р филол. наук Н. А. Шехтман) Арнольд И. В. А 84 Лексикология современного английского языка: Учеб. для ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз. — 3-е изд., перераб. и доп. — М.: Высш. шк., 1986. — 295 с., ил. — На англ. яз. Учебник посвящен слову как основной единице языка, его семантической и морфологической структуре, особенностям английского словообразования и фразеологии. Английская лексика рассматривается как непрерывно развивающаяся система. В 3-м издании (2-е—1973 г.) обновлен теоретический и иллюстративный материал, расширены главы, посвященные теории слова и семасиологии. А 4602010000—443 001(01)—86 215-86 ББК 81.2 Англ-923 4И (Англ) © Издательство «Высшая школа», 1973 © Издательство «Высшая школа», 1986, с изменениями Мультиязыковой проект Ильи Франка www.franklang.ru CONTENTS ...

Words: 10467 - Pages: 42

Premium Essay

Lexicology. Different Dialects and Accents of English.Doc

...Preface Every language allows different kinds of variations: geographical or territorial, perhaps the most obvious, stylistic, the difference between the written and the spoken form of the standard national language and others. It is the national language of England proper, the USA, Australia, New Zealand and some provinces of Canada. It is the official language of Wales, Scotland, in Gibraltar and on the island of Malta. Modern linguistics distinguishes territorial variants of a national language and local dialects. Variants of a language are regional varieties of a standard literary language characterized by some minor peculiarities in the sound system, vocabulary and grammar and by their own literary norms. Standard English – the official language of Great Britain taught at schools and universities, used by the press, the radio and the television and spoken by educated people may be defined as that form of English which is current and literary, substantially uniform and recognized as acceptable wherever English is spoken or understood. Its vocabulary is contrasted to dialect words or dialectisms belonging to various local dialects. Local dialects are varieties of the English language peculiar to some districts and having no normalized literary form. Regional varieties possessing a literary form are called variants. Dialects are said to undergo rapid changes under the pressure of Standard English taught at schools and the speech habits cultivated by radio,......

Words: 3803 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Lexycology

...1. The object of Lexicology. The main lexicological problems.  Lexicology is a branch of linguistics, the science of language. The term Lexicology is composed of two Greek morphemes: lexis meaning ‘word, phrase’ (hence lexicos ‘having to do with words’) and logos which denotes ‘learning, a department of knowledge’. Thus, the literal meaning of the term Lexiсolоgу is ‘the science of the word’. The literal meaning, however, gives only a general notion of the aims and the subject-matter of this branch of linguistic science. Lexicology as a branch of linguistics has its own aims and methods of scientific research, its basic task being a study and systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its origin, development and current use. Lexicology is concerned with words, variable word-groups, phraseological units, and with morphemes which make up words. Distinction is naturally made between General Lexicology and Special Lexicology. General Lexicology is part of General Linguistics; it is concerned with the study of vocabulary irrespective of the specific features of any particular language. Special Lexicology is the Lexicology of a particular language (e.g. English, Russian, etc.), i.e. the study and description of its vocabulary and vocabulary units, primarily words as the main units of language. Needless to say that every Special Lexicology is based on the principles worked out and laid down by General Lexicology, a general theory of vocabulary. There is also a close......

Words: 1822 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Curs

...of words and their senses 4.2. From word to concept: polysemy and Homonymy 4.3 Study questions and exercises 25 25 26 27 5. Sense relations (II): synonymy and antonymy 5.1. From concept to word: synonymy and antonymy 5.2. Study questions and exercises 31 31 34 6. Hierarchical sense relations: hyponymy and meronymy 6.1 Hyponymy 6.2 Meronymy 6.3 Study questions and exercises 39 39 40 42 7. Semantic organization 7.1. The lexicon 7.2. Semantic fields 7.3. Study questions and exercises 43 43 44 49 8. Semantic decomposition 8.1 Componential analysis 8.2 Universal semantic categories 8.3 Semantic primitives 8.4 Study questions and exercises 51 51 53 54 54 Revision exercises Contemporary English Language. Lexicology and Semantics 57 3 Unit 1 - Introduction Unit 1 - Introduction 1.1...

Words: 22150 - Pages: 89

Premium Essay

Stylistics

...Lecture Plan # 1 Stylistics as a Branch of General Linguistics Литература 1. Гальперин И.Р. Стилистика английского языка. Учебник. - 3-е изд. М: Высшая школа, 1981. - 334 стр. 2. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика современного английского языка (стилистика декодирования). Л., "Просвещение", 1981. 295 стр. 3. Кухаренко В.А. Seminars in Style. M., 1971. 4. Скребнев Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка. М. «Высшая школа», 1994. Stylistics can be defined as a branch of modern linguistics devoted to the detailed analysis of literary style, or of the linguistic choices made by speakers and writers in non-literary contexts. (Chris Baldick Oxford Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms, 1996) According to I.R. Galperin, stylistics is a branch of general linguistics, which deals with the investigation of two independent tasks: 1. Stylistics studies the special media of language which are called stylistic devices and expressive means. Expressive means and stylistic devices form three large groups of phonetic, lexical, syntactical means and devices. Each group is further subdivided according to the principle, purpose and function of a mean or a device in an utterance. 2. Stylistics studies the types of texts which are distinguished by the pragmatic aspect of the communication and are called functional styles of language. Expressive means of a language are those phonetic, morphological, word-building, lexical,......

Words: 1351 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Short Messages Service

...SMS Text Analysis: Language, Gender and Current Practices Muhammad Shaban Rafi1 Abstract This article tests the assumption that SMS language is like a pidgin in every speech community. The article also examines the assumption that a great motor of SMS lives among females whose lexical and morpho-syntactic choices are different from males. It further speculates influence of SMS language on language of media. One hundred messages were taken randomly from 20 cell phones and perceptions of 25 males and 25 females were recorded on an ordinal scale for analysis. The text was analyzed to look into lexicology, morphology and syntactic levels of texters, and influence of SMS on language of commercials. The results show that a novice intelligible language has evolved through SMS, which is influencing language of media. A significant difference is found between male and female texters’ linguistic properties. Introduction Short Message Service (SMS) language tends to create a novice language, which has become an integral part of the multilingual world. It pursues simple sentences structure for communication. It is assumed that SMS syntactic and lexical choices by the texters are not so different from a child language. A child expresses his feelings through simple present progressive tense e.g. mom eating for ‘Mom is eating’ and Eating for ‘I am eating’. The empirical data show that SMS language over-looks orthographic and syntactic rules of a language with a great......

Words: 8425 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Morphology

...Lexis Special 1 : « Lexicology & Phonology / Lexicologie et phonologie » 15 A morphophonological approach to clipping in English Can the study of clipping be formalized?1 Denis Jamet2 Abstract In this paper, I will endeavor to define clipping, and see if there are any semantic differences between the multiplicity of terms: “shortening”, “clipping”, “truncations”, etc. I will examine the semantic role of clipping, and try to answer the following question: is clipping a wordformation device? I will mainly focus on the consequences and phonological realizations of clipping in English to show that the phonological regularities in the formation of clipping make it a potential word-formation device, by shedding new light on the tendencies formalizing the study of clipping. Key-words: clipping – truncation – clipping – phonology – lexicology – morphophonological realizations – linguistics *** Résumé Dans cet article, je reviens tout d’abord sur la définition de ce que l’on appelle troncation en français, mais shortening, clipping, truncation en anglais, afin de voir s’il y a des différences sémantiques entre les divers termes. J’examinerai le rôle sémantique de la troncation, puis tenterai de répondre à la question suivante : la troncation est-elle un procédé de création lexicale ? Principalement, je me pencherai sur les conséquences et les réalisations phonologiques de la troncation, en mettant au jour les tendances qui permettent de formaliser l’étude de la troncation,......

Words: 1056 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Language Essay

...Language Essay Ryan Butler Psychology 360 August 29, 2011 Professor Newlin LANGUAGE Have you ever wondered how we speak? How about why our communication is considered a language and other animal’s communication is not considered language? A wide range of beliefs exist on what defines language. Thus, by exploring the definition of language and lexicon, evaluating language’s key features, the four levels of language structure and processing, and the role of language in Cognitive Psychology, an understanding of what language is becomes clear. Let us begin by defining language and a term named lexicon. LANGUAGE AND LEXICON DEFINITION One big question, when the subject of language comes up, is exactly what language is. What constitutes something as a language? By explaining one definition of a language, and a term associated with language, called a lexicon, a definition of language transpires. Thus, the Willingham (2007) text mentions four certain characteristics communication must possess to, officially, be considered a language.  One of these characteristics is that language must be communicative, and thus be communication between individuals in some form or another.  Secondly, the symbols standing for words must be arbitrary, and thus have no reason for representing a word.  Third, a language must be structured, and not arbitrary.  For example, if I say a dog was walking on a sidewalk I cannot say a sidewalk was walking on a dog. etc.  Fourth, a language must......

Words: 1420 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Descriptivism

...advice on effective language use. Prescription and description are complementary, but have different priorities and sometimes are seen to be in conflict. Descriptivism is the belief that description is more significant or important to teach, study, and practice than prescription. I. Features Accurate description of real speech is a difficult problem, and linguists have often been reduced to approximations. Almost all linguistic theory has its origin in practical problems of descriptive linguistics. Phonology (and its theoretical developments, such as the phoneme) deals with the function and interpretation of sound in language. Syntax has developed to describe the rules concerning how words relate to each other in order to form sentences. Lexicology collects "words" and their derivations and transformations: it has not given rise to much generalized theory. A linguistic description is considered descriptively adequate if it achieves one or more of the following goals of descriptive linguistics: 1. A description of the phonology of the language in question. 2. A description of the morphology of words belonging to that language. 3. A description of the syntax of well-formed sentences of that language. 4. A description of lexical derivations. 5. A documentation of the vocabulary, including at least one thousand...

Words: 379 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

English

...English9(RJ) Morphology is the identification, analysis and description of the structure of a given language's morphemes and other linguistic units, such as root words, affixes, parts of speech, intonation/stress, or implied context (words in a lexicon are the subject matter of lexicology). Morphological typology represents a method for classifying languages according to the ways by which morphemes are used in a language—from the analytic that use only isolated morphemes, through the agglutinative ("stuck-together") and fusional languages that use bound morphemes (affixes), up to the polysynthetic, which compress many separate morphemes into single words.(One of the definitions for Morphology) While words are generally accepted as being (with clitics) the smallest units of syntax, it is clear that in most languages, if not all, words can be related to other words by rules (grammars). For example, English speakers recognize that the words dog and dogs are closely related—differentiated only by the plurality morpheme "-s", which is only found bound to nouns, and is never separate. Speakers of English (a fusional language) recognize these relations from their tacit knowledge of the rules of word formation in English. They infer intuitively that dog is to dogs as cat is to cats; similarly, dog is to dog catcher as dish is to dishwasher, in one sense. For example, English speakers recognize that the words dog, dogs and dog-catcher are closely related. English speakers recognize...

Words: 739 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Aboul Scientific Style

...Scientific Style Functions - provides information - presents exact and relatively complete scientific knowledge - addresses a relatively small group of professionals well acquainted with the subject Forms - primarily written: essays, articles, textbooks, scientific studies - spoken: presentations, discussions, conferences - monologue: no feedback, no situational context, no paralinguistic features Substyles - the style of exact science: more impersonal - the style of humanities: closer to the publicistic style, also shares features with the literary style General Characteristics - matter-of-fact, clear, explicit; unambiguous, precise; concise, brevet - stereotypical in terms of both lexicology and syntax - impersonal, objective, suppresses the personality of the author - logical hierarchy within the text: introduction, argument, conclusion and résumé - quotations and references to other texts - highly nominal character - diagrams, charts, sketches, illustrations Morphological Features - present tense: timeless validity of the proposition Syntactical Features - neutral word-order, no marked word-order - mostly declarative sentences - sentence condensers /participles, infinitives, gerunds/ and semi-clausal structures - no ellipsis, no omission of ‘that’ and ‘which’ in relative clauses - impersonal passive constructions /‘it should be pointed out that…; it has been found out that…; it has previously been shown that…’/ - active construction with the......

Words: 624 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Analysis of Lexical Characteristics of English Sports News

...1 Introduction In nowadays, a lot of people like sports games, and the sports news also become important news to people. In modern society, a lot of people read sports news every day. It is useful for us to discuss some lexical features of English sports news. 2 The lexical characteristics of English Sports News 2.1 Using brief and expressive vocabulary One of the distinguishing features of English sports news is using brief and expressive vocabulary (powerful word). Contrary to the long, complex words, the sports news prefers to use short, specific vocabulary. Especially, the headlines of the news are much more prefer the brief and the expressive vocabulary. Following is a sports news from Xinhua English website: . Here, we see a China Daily from the English website: Chinas Gao wins women's pole vault title(Xinhua)Updated:2006-12-13 09:01 Chinese Gao Shuying excelled to bag the women's pole vault crown at the Asian Games athletics finals here on Tuesday.The Asian record holder,27,beat the first two heights of 3.80 and 4.00 meters and then cleared 4.30 meters on her first attempt of the height for the title,while the eventual silver medalist Samsu Roslinda of Malaysia followed to failthe 4.40 height.Japan’s Ikuko Nishikori and Chinese ZhaoYingying shared the bronze medal in 4.15 meters. We could calculate that there are totally 104 words and most of them are very short and have specific meaning. Using this vocabulary helps to quickly access and understand......

Words: 858 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Further Oral Activity

...Further Oral Activity: Barack Obama 2012 Victory Speech Task: Analyze the rhetoric used in the speech. This is a Special News report on the 7th of November - President Obama has won second term the elections for president of the USA - we are now live in Chicago at the McCormick Centre , where President Obama just held his victory speech, and I am going to do a quick analysis of what the newly re-elected President said. It is an absolute pandemonium after Barack Obama has just delivered a 20 minute speech, during which he expressed his gratitude towards his family, his friends, his supporters, and laid out his vision of what America has already achieved, what it can achieve and what it will achieve after he has been re-elected President of the United States to Mitt Romney with 281 electoral votes to 191. Through the use of various rhetorical tools like Anaphora, rhetorical term for the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or verses, President Barack Obama delivers a speech through which he fully expresses ideas like the American dream and the future. Similarly to other speeches of his from the past, as for example the 2008 speech at the Democratic Convention, this one contains different forms of repetition and "between the line political views" - for example in the first paragraphs he purposely begins his sentences with the same couple of words - "You'll hear", "We want...", "That's ", followed by his ideas for the future......

Words: 908 - Pages: 4