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Life Factors

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Life Factors (PIES)
Life Factors (PIES)

Cystic fibrosis
Physical Effects
A hereditary disorder affecting the exocrine glands. It causes the production of abnormally thick mucus, leading to the blockage of the intestines, and bronchi and often resulting in respiratory infection. Cystic fibrosis affects the pancreas because a buildup of thick, sticky mucus blocks the ducts reducing the amount of insulin produced and stopping digestive enzymes from reaching the intestines for digestion. This can cause malnutrition, leading to poor growth, physical weakness and delayed puberty. Symptoms usually start in early childhood and include:
•persistent cough
•recurring chest and lung infections •poor weight gain.

An early sign is that an affected child’s sweat is unusually salty, which can be noticeable when you kiss your child. One in every ten babies born with cystic fibrosis develops a bowel obstruction called meconium ileus at birth or within the first few days of life. In these cases the meconium is so thick that it blocks the bowel instead of passing through. Babies with meconium ileus often need an urgent operation to relieve and bypass the blockage. Individuals with cystic fibrosis are prone to developing bone disease (thin, brittle bones) due to a lack of nutrition (which is lost through stools because of the damaged pancreas), and other complaints related to the disease. Adults with cystic fibrosis also have an increased risk of bone disease, which is a side effect of the steroids taken to control lung disease.
Intellectual Effects
Cystic fibrosis does not have a massive effect intellectually, however if an individual with this illness has become really ill they may have to miss lessons and that can put a strain on the education, results of exams and coursework for that individual, but other than that cystic fibrosis does not have intellectual effects.
Emotional Effects
The teen years can be tough whether or not you have cystic fibrosis. Your peer group is probably more important than ever, and it is normal for someone to want to fit in, and not stand out as “different.” Having CF, with all its challenges and time-consuming treatments can be a huge burden. CF patients can go through periods of depression. Teens with CF report being depressed for many reasons such as: feeling physically unwell, being frustrated by the challenges of endless daily treatments, experiencing negative side effects from medications, missing major life events (sports, parties, concerts, proms) due to hospitalizations, and feeling different from their peers. Teens with CF are more prone to anxiety and depression, and a lack of sleep can worsen the situation. Sleep may be regularly disrupted because of your medications and cough.
Adolescence is a time of experimentation, and this may include many things: new hair colours, body piercings, styles of dress, drug and alcohol use, and sexual activity. Having CF does not make an individual immune to the pressures. The physical and emotional impact of this experimentation can sometimes be much harder for teens with CF.

Social effects
This illness is associated with repeated lung infection so can cause people to become extremely ill frequently and unable to go out which may put strain on the amount of friends someone has and how much time can be spent out with friends. This may cause the individual to become sad or even depressed in worst case scenarios, effecting the mental health of the individual.

Foetal Alcohol Syndrome
Fatal alcohol spectrum disorders” (FASD) is a term describing the range of effects that can occur in an individual whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These effects may include physical, mental, behavioural, and/or learning disabilities with possible lifelong implications. The term FASD is not a clinical diagnosis. It refers to conditions such as foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), and alcohol related birth defects (ARBD).
Physical Effects
Due to the complications of drinking alcohol during pregnancy there are some obvious physical effects it can have on an infant such as; a small head, a smooth ridge between the upper lip and nose, small eyes, a very thin upper lip, or other abnormal facial features, below-average height and weight, poor coordination, delayed development and problems in thinking, speech, movement and social skills, problems seeing or hearing, heart problems and kidney defects and abnormalities
Intellectual Effects
Depending on the severity of the syndrome it can cause learning disabilities, delayed development and problems in thinking, speech, movement and social skills. An individual with FAS may struggle at school and in life with work and be unable to live a ‘normal’ life. People with FAS also suffer with memory loss and poor judgment skills and difficulty understanding consequences and choices which may put there life in danger when left alone to make a decision such as when to cross the road.
Emotional effect
Feeling towards themselves or mother may be negative and the feeling of loneliness is common in younger individuals with FAS as the feel left out and different, with all of the mental health issues as mentioned above it is hard for them to make friend. Depression and anxiety is commonly known for patients with FAS. However depending on the severity of the FAS they may be incapable of showing most emotions other than the simpler ones such as happy and sad rather than frustration and disappointment.
Social Effects
Some FAS patients are completely unable to hold relationships and friends ships as the concept of them are not clear. Choosing friends can be quite difficult due to the problems like delayed development and social skills. Going out may be a problem due to medication and capability which also may mean missing out on simple days out with friends, parties and sleep overs.

Poor Housing
Your housing can have a huge impact on your life and health weather you are poor or rich it will always have an impact.
Physical Effects
Living in poor housing can have a huge effect on your health. If the house has a lot of problems it can cause you to be seriously ill suck as no heating can have an effect on ur body as there is a larger chance you will catch a cold and spread it round the people you live with. Also if gas boilers and fires are not kept in the right way it can cause carbon monoxide poisoning and lead to death, pregnant women and children are at a higher risk of becoming seriously ill from this. Other risks are damp and mould which can cause respiratory problems, and vomiting. Damp and mould can be very deadly to new born baby’s and small children as it can Carry infections and cause major illness its self.
Intellectual effects
Poor housing can lead to illness. Most people who live in poor housing do not have a very high income which means food will not be of top quality. Eating a lot of processed food can heighten the chances of children becoming ill due to the lack of goodness in the food. This leads to a child missing out on school and valuable lessons which may put a child behind in class with a less chance of passing exams and SATS tests. Overcrowding in housing means that a child/teenager may not be able to focus on school work at home due to lack of space and distraction. More responsibility may be put on a child/teenager if they have to look after any younger sibling. Overcrowding may lead to stress causing the immune system to slow down and that individual become ill.
A young person may be bullied due to bad hygiene and poor housing which may lead to missing school as a fear of being hurt emotional and physically.
Emotional effects
Overcrowding in a home may mean that each child/ relative may not have the emotional support needed by the primary carer especially if there are a lot of children. An individual may feel like they do not get enough attention from mum, dad or anyone else who they may live with and this may lead to depression and/or cause the child to rebel against the primary carer. This all may lead to lifelong effects with making relationships and attachments in the future.
Social effects
Poor housing can lead to poor hygiene which may lead to bullying at school or in the community. Making friends can be a lot harder if you are bullied as no one will want to make themselves a target of the bulling and the individual may not want to take any friends home due to embarrassment so may put a strain on friendships when there is bad weather and going outside is not an option. When getting older into the teenage years the bulling can become a lot worse as this time period appearance and fitting in is a priority but the lack of money mean the individual may not be able to keep up with latest fashion and styles so will be an outcast to everyone else. Bulling can be very traumatic to some individuals and may lead to depression self-harming or at its worst suicide.

Peer Group
Peer groups can have a massive effect on the directions that we go in life. We all pick our friends and the people we interact with even if we don’t realise it. At a young age such as toddler age we just copy others actions and reactions even if we do not understand why and what will happen. From about the age of 3 onwards we start to build friendships and get attached to people who then can lead you or you can lead them to act a certain way. They learn from peers how to cooperate and socialize according to group norms and group behaviour. The peer group can influence what the child values, knows, wears, eats, and learns. If a group chooses not to listen in class and do work then it will affect how there exams are taken if failed it will affect the rest of the individual life’s such as what colleges or university’s they can go to and what courses can be taken if requirements are not met. If a child chooses to be a part of this group and wants to fit in they will naturally follow the group in the wrong direction this can have a negative effect on the rest of that child’s life. Another negative effect is depending on the people in the group, peer pressure and be used as a tool by the group leading to actions which an individual would never usual choose to do such as smoking, sex, alcohol, stealing and drugs etc. this can get someone in a lot of trouble by authorities and/or parents at home. Following a group of friends will affect the type of music listened to, clothes worn, hair style, piercings or tattoos and attitude towards primary carer. Emotions may not be taken into consideration by the group if an individual feels uncomfortable about something. Fear of not fitting in may lead to the individual not telling their friends how they feel and lead to being upset or at its worst depressed. Social class can determine who you are associated with, if you are in a higher class your parents will mingle with higher class friends which most of the time means you will become friends with their children. This may change if a child of higher class goes to a public school where he/she will be exposed to friends of all classes.

Alcohol
Physical effects
Drinking can cause a lot of problem for your body. A lot of people do not take in to account the amount of damage it can do due to the fact you cannot see it happening or feel it happening. Binge drinking can cause blackouts, memory loss and anxiety. Long-term drinking can result in permanent brain damage, serious mental health problems and alcohol dependence or alcoholism. Alcohol irritates the stomach, so heavy drinking can cause sickness and nausea and sometimes diarrhoea. Regularly drinking over the daily unit guidelines can increase your risk of developing liver disease and cause irreparable damage to this very important part of your body. Alcohol can affect women’s reproductive systems, and damage fertility. Even small amounts can affect a woman’s menstrual cycle and reduce the chance of conceiving. Alcohol can reduce a man’s testosterone levels, leading to loss of libido. It can also damage the quality, structure and movement of sperm by stopping the liver from properly metabolising vitamin A, which is needed for sperm development. Deformed sperm can lead to problems with a conceived child.
Intellectual effects
Excessive amounts of alcohol can lead to minor or major brain damage. This means that the brain may not be able to function at its normal rate.
Emotional Effect
People are known to drown out any bad emotions using alcohol however in the long term alcohol increases depression and a negative state of mind due to its negative effects on the body and the after the alcohol has worn off. This is called a hangover which may include headaches and vomiting, these side effects are enough to put anyone in a bad mood.
Social Effects
Alcohol is mostly seen as negative however socially it is positive, alcohol helps people to become more relaxed and not as shy as they usually would be, making new friends and meeting people become a lot easier when under the influence of alcohol. Drinking brings people together socially this may take place at a house party, nightclub or bar. However there are some negative side effects as not everyone has positive effects, someone individuals become more violent and aggressive which could lead to arguments and fights causing someone to get hurt.

Predictable
Pregnancy
Physical Effects
When a woman is pregnant her body will change in hundreds of different ways, such as size. A woman will gain a huge amount of weight due to the weight of the baby and the build-up of fluids around the body. Some women get a bad case of acne due the chemical change in the body as well as hair loss, tongue inflammation, morning sickness. A woman can become very sore around the ankles and spine because of the new weight and the position of the baby.
Emotional Effects
Some women become very happy and enjoy the idea of being pregnant while others fine it a very traumatic experience if it is unexpected. Depression and stress is very common in first time mums who find out they are pregnant and it can cause harm to the child or themselves if it is not dealt with in the right way. Whether the pregnancy was planned or unplanned, it’s normal to have mixed emotions about it. A woman’s mood may swing from excited to worried or happy to sad and back again. Pregnancy hormones such as oestrogen and progesterone may contribute to giving someone this mix of emotional highs and lows, especially in the first three months.
Social effects This involves the new mother trying to balance her role as partner, friend, parent and co-worker. Pregnancy can be extremely socially challenging as an individual’s former life changes drastically with the arrival of the child. Most women wish to become a positive role model for the child and try to change their social and economic life drastically. Lack of social support constitutes an important risk factor for maternal well-being during pregnancy and has negative effects on pregnancy. It is very vital that pregnant women get full social support from their family and partner during pregnancy otherwise it leads to pre-natal and post-natal depression. Not everything can be seen as negative with pregnancy; most women make new friends at the hospital and at mother and baby clubs because of the similarities in there life’s.
Marriage
Physical effects
A couple will get engaged to prepare for the processes of marriage, one of these processes may be to change their appearance such as weight , hair , skin colour and facial features such as Botox etc. Some women and men feel the need to look there absolute best for their wedding day. This means changing their lifestyle for the better by doing things such as, going to the gym , quitting bad habits like smoking and drinking and doing more activities like swimming , bike riding and running. They may also dye their hair to cover any grey or faded hair, go to a salon for a haircut or even have a spray tan or sun bed time. Some people will go to many lengths to look their best on their wedding day and spend a lot of money doing so.

Intellectual effects
There are not a lot for this section of the pies you are not really affected intellectually other than learning to new things to do with weddings and a whole new lingo.
Emotional Effects
Marriage can be very stressful especially planning the wedding, there is so much to remember and do to prepare for a wedding for both people in the relationship. Money can cause a lot of stress as wedding are not cheap , however closer to the wedding and on the wedding day the couple will experience a huge variety of emotions such as overwhelming happiness and nervousness .

Social Effects
When getting married you ca becomes more social with friends, family and new people. Some people go to wedding conventions and fairs to get ideas for their wedding which they meet new couples and share ideas of wedding which may blossom into a friendship. Getting married is a happy celebration where the family and friends can all get together; it is a very special occasion so long distant family may come together. The bride and groom may go out on their hen and stage party’s which a very social event is.
Unpredictable
Losing your sight
Physical Effects
When losing your sight there are not many physical effects do going blind other than the eyes may have a white-ish layer form over the eye. However the way you present yourself everyday may change due to lack of sight for stuff such as makeup and hair styles and possibly how you assemble your clothing.
Intellectual Effects
When sight is lost, individuals can lose a sense of where they are, and of who or what is around them. Although sound can be helpful, it moves and echoes off objects and is not as localizing or specific as vision. Loss of vision results in a loss of independence and in the ability to negotiate the environment. Newly blinded persons may be afraid to move around their homes on their own and even forget what the layout of their own home is like. The confusion of what has happened can rarely cause people to go into such shock they forget who they are.
Emotional Effects The person with vision loss may struggle between the desire to remain independent and hold onto the freedom it allows and the desire to remain dependent in order to take advantage of the protection it provides. When blindness occurs, it is no longer possible for them their “former self” does not exist due to some or all of the losses above. People experiencing vision loss may alter their expectations of making contributions in the future and be affected by how they are perceived by others. This can create depression for the person suffering with going blind.
Social Effects
For someone who has gone blind they will go through a lot of shock and fear. A lot of people who experience this hide themselves away in their home and try to avoid going out. However there are special groups of people that support you when going blind this is where friends can be made and new partnerships can happen. You can become either more active or less active when becoming blind dependant on the type of way an individual will react.
Winning the lottery
Physical Effects
Depending on the individual everyone will react differently to winning the lottery, some people such as myself, i would go out and buy a load of clothes and maybe get plastic surgery to get rid of anything seen as not right. This would be changing appearance to feel better however some people would see this as a waste and would not change anything psychically about them.
Intellectual Effects
When winning a large amount of money the actual effects intellectually may be a bigger gain in realising who true friends are and who are the fake ones due to the amount of money won hoping to benefit.

Emotional Effects
Winning the lottery does not always guarantee happiness although someone may be very very happy at first in the long run money does not always solve anything and emotions will be torn. Not knowing who your real friend is and who is with your hoping to gain from your financial status, relationships may become harder to trust and a prenuptial agreement may be involved.
Social Effects
You may become really social after winning the lottery as people tend to join country clubs and spa resorts where there will be a lot of people who have a very high financial status. People tend to go to a lot more parties and charity events, so winning the lottery maybe be a positive life event for your social life however not so good for the emotions.

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