Free Essay

Lifecycle of Stars

In: Science

Submitted By prathima
Words 4119
Pages 17
An Information & Activity Booklet

Grades K-8 1997-1998 StarChild - a Learning Center for Young Astronomers
EG-1997(09)-003-GSFC

presents...

Written by: Dr. Elizabeth Truelove & Ms. Joyce Dejoie Lakeside Middle School Evans, GA

This booklet, along with its matching poster, is meant to be used in conjunction with the StarChild website or CD-ROM. http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/

Index

Index ...........................................................................................................................i Association with National Standards .........................................................................ii Life Cycles of Stars....................................................................................................1 Level 1 Activities Star Life..........................................................................................................2 Star Sketches..................................................................................................3 Nebular Nonsense ..........................................................................................5 Space Spirals..................................................................................................6 Star Scrambles ...............................................................................................7 Space Connection...........................................................................................9 Level 2 Activities Space Squared..............................................................................................10 Deep Space Doublets ...................................................................................11 Space Spirals................................................................................................12 Star Signs .....................................................................................................13 Nebular Nonsense ........................................................................................14 Those A-MAZE-ING Stars ..........................................................................15 Solutions Level 1 Star Life............................................................................................16 Nebular Nonsense ............................................................................16 Space Spirals....................................................................................17 Star Scrambles .................................................................................17 Space Connection.............................................................................18 Level 2 Space Squared..................................................................................19 Deep Space Doublets .......................................................................19 Space Spirals....................................................................................20 Star Signs .........................................................................................20 Nebular Nonsense ............................................................................21 Those A-MAZE-ING Stars ..............................................................21 Resources .................................................................................................................22 About this Poster......................................................................................................22

i

National Mathematics and Science Standards For the Activities in this Booklet
Space Squared - NSES Content Standard D for Grades 5-8 NCTM Grades 5-8 Standards 1,2,3,4,5,7 Nebular Nonsense (level 1) - NSES Content Standard D for Grades K-4 NCTM Grades K-4 Standard 1 Star Scrambles - NSES Content Standard D for Grades K-4 NCTM Grades K-4 Standard 1 Those Amazing Stars - NSES Content Standard D for Grades 5-8 NCTM Grades 5-8 Standard 1 Nebular Nonsense (level 2) - NSES Content Standard D for Grades 5-8 NCTM Grades 5-8 Standard 1 Space Connection - NSES Content Standard D for Grades K-4 Deep Space Doublets - NSES Content Standard D for Grades 5-8 NCTM Grades 5-8 Standard 1 Space Spirals (level 2) - NSES Content Standard D for Grades 5-8 NCTM Grades 5-8 Standard 1 Space Spirals (level 1) - NSES Content Standard D for Grades K-4 NCTM Grades K-4 Standard 1 Star Life - NSES Content Standard D for Grades K-4 Star Signs - NSES Content Standard D for Grades 5-8 Star Sketches - NSES Content Standard D for Grades K-4 NCTM Grades K-4 Standard 9

ii

The Life Cycles of Stars

A star’s life cycle is determined by its mass. The larger the mass, the shorter the life cycle. A star’s mass is determined by the amount of matter that is available in its nebula, the giant cloud of gas and dust in which it is born. Over time, gravity pulls the hydrogen gas in the nebula together and it begins to spin. As the gas spins faster and faster, it heats up and is known as a protostar. Eventually the temperature reaches 15,000,000 �C and nuclear fusion occurs in the cloud’s core. The cloud begins to glow brightly. At this stage, it contracts a little and becomes stable. It is now called a main sequence star and will remain in this stage, shining for millions or billions of years to come. As the main sequence star glows, hydrogen in the core is converted into helium by nuclear fusion. When the hydrogen supply in the core begins to run out, the core becomes unstable and contracts. The outer shell of the star, which is still mostly hydrogen, starts to expand. As it expands, it cools and glows red. The star has now reached the red giant phase. It is red because it is cooler than it was in the main sequence star stage and it is a giant because the outer shell has expanded outward. All stars evolve the same way up to the red giant phase. The amount of mass a star has determines which of the following life cycle paths it will take after the red giant phase. MEDIUM STARS Throughout the red giant phase, the hydrogen gas in the outer shell continues to burn and the temperature in the core continues to increase. At 200,000,000 �C the helium atoms in the core fuse to form carbon atoms. The last of the hydrogen gas in the outer shell is blown away to form a ring around the core. This ring is called a planetary nebula. When the last of the helium atoms in the core are fused into carbon atoms, the medium size star begins to die. Gravity causes the last of the star’s matter to collapse inward and compact. This is the white dwarf stage. At this stage, the star’s matter is extremely dense. White dwarfs shine with a white hot light. Once all of their energy is gone, they no longer emit light. The star has now reached the black dwarf phase in which it will forever remain. MASSIVE STARS Once massive stars reach the red giant phase, the core temperature increases as carbon atoms are formed from the fusion of helium atoms. Gravity continues to pull carbon atoms together as the temperature increases forming oxygen, nitrogen, and eventually iron. At this point, fusion stops and the iron atoms start to absorb energy. This energy is eventually released in a powerful explosion called a supernova. A supernova can light up the sky for weeks. The temperature in a supernova can reach 1,000,000,000 �C. The core of a massive star that is 1.5 to 4 times as massive as our Sun ends up as a neutron star after the supernova. Neutron stars spin rapidly giving off radio waves. If the radio waves are emitted in pulses (due to the star’s spin), these neutron stars are called pulsars. The core of a massive star that has 8 or more times the mass of our Sun remains massive after the supernova. No nuclear fusion is taking place to support the core, so it is swallowed by its own gravity. It has now become a black hole which readily attracts any matter and energy that comes near it. Black holes are not visible. They are detected by the X-rays which are given off as matter falls into the hole.
1

STAR LIFE - LEVEL 1

In the list below you will find the steps in the life cycle of a massive star. The steps are not in order. Carefully cut each step out with scissors. Using the information you have learned about massive stars, place the strips in the order in which they occur in a star’s life cycle.
1. A supernova occurs.

2. Nuclear fusion occurs which causes the star to glow.

3. If it is a massive star, a neutron star forms. If it is a super massive star, a

black hole forms.

4. Gravity pulls hydrogen gas together to form a cloud.

5. Iron, which acts as an energy sponge, forms within the star.

6. A red giant forms when the star’s hydrogen level drops.

7. A main sequence star, which can live for millions or even billions of years,

forms.

2

STAR SKETCHES - LEVEL 1 Long before the time of television, people told stories about the “pictures” they saw in the night sky. Many star groups were named for the people, animals, and objects our ancestors imagined when they looked at the stars. Use your imagination and other materials of your choice (crayons, stickers, glitter, etc.) to add to the star groups below. Create your own pictures using the stars as your guide.

CASSIOPEIA THE QUEEN

URSA MINOR THE LITTLE BEAR

CEPHEUS THE KING

DRACO THE DRAGON
3

STAR SKETCHES - LEVEL 1

CORONA BOREALIS THE NORTHERN CROWN

LEO THE LION

CANCER THE CRAB
4

SERPENS THE SNAKE

NEBULAR NONSENSE - LEVEL 1

How many star terms can you find hidden in the puzzle below? Words may be written horizontally, vertically, diagonally, left to right, or right to left. Circle each word as you find it. STAR TERMS: star gas heat galaxy fuel light dust atoms cloud

R Y D U O L C

F X A T O M S

U A L S L T F

E L T I H N D

L A G E G E U

R G A S U H S

A T I R U S T

5

SPACE SPIRALS - LEVEL 1

Complete the word spiral by filling in the star term described by each numbered clue. Write the first letter of the first answer in the box numbered 1. Fill in one letter per box moving clockwise around the spiral. The first letter of each answer should be written in a numbered box. Be careful! Each new word may overlap the word before it by one or more letters. EXAMPLE:
1. planet closest to Earth 2. name of the star in our solar

1M 4H T

A O R

R T 0

2S U 3N

system 3. opposite of south 4. opposite of cold

1. name given a new star 2. balls of gas giving off heat and light 3. powerful star explosion 4. force which pulls gas atoms together 5. the largest stars end their lives as _______ holes

1 4

2

5 3

6

STAR SCRAMBLES - LEVEL 1

Words from the star text have been scrambled in the circles below. Your job is to unscramble the letters and write the correct word on the line under each circle.

T U S U

I

F S

D

N

O

G X A

L Y A R

D F

W

A

7

P T A T

S R O R O R

M

E T A

T

E G

Y E U

C O

N

R

L

D

S R E V

N A P U O T

G N

A

I

8

SPACE CONNECTION - LEVEL 1

Draw a line to connect each word to the group of words that best describes it.

1. Star

The medium size star in our solar system

2. Sun

To shine brightly

3. Core

A star that does not give off light

4. Glow

A glowing ball of gas

5. Red Giant

A giant explosion that took place in space a very long time ago

6. Expand

The middle

7. Black Dwarf

A large star that glows red

8. Big Bang

To grow larger

9

SPACE SQUARED - LEVEL 2

Joseph L. Lagrange was a French mathematician who lived from 1736 to 1813. He made many contributions to the field of mathematics, but the most notable were the calculus of variations and the development of the metric system. Lagrange was also an amateur astronomer. His two fields of interest, mathematics and astronomy, have been combined in this activity. Joseph Lagrange proved conclusively that the Four Square Theorem was indeed a valid theorem. This theorem states that every positive integer is expressible as a sum of four or fewer square numbers. A square number is attained when a number is multiplied times itself (example: 3 X 3 = 9; 9 is a square number). Below you will find the distances between selected space objects. Your mission is to take the underlined number and express it as a sum of four or fewer square numbers. There may be more than one right answer. The first one is done for you.

1. Earth to Barnard’s Star - 6 lightyears Solution: 1 + 1 + 4 = 6 (1x1 + 1x1 + 2x2) 2. Earth to Ursa Major - 7 lightyears 3. Sun to Earth (average) - 150 million kilometers 4. Venus to Earth (average) - 42 million kilometers 5. Mercury to Mars (average) - 170 million kilometers 6. Earth to Pleiades Star Cluster - 400 lightyears 7. Uranus to Neptune (average) - 1630 million kilometers 8. Earth to the star Vega - 27 lightyears 9. Earth to M51: Whirlpool Galaxy - 14 million lightyears 10. Center of the Milky Way Galaxy to the Sun - 30,000 lightyears

10

DEEP SPACE DOUBLETS - LEVEL 2

Charles Dodgson (1832-1898) was an English mathematician who also happened to be an excellent storyteller. Using the name of Lewis Carroll, he wrote children’s books that were full of whimsical nonsense. Among Dodgson’s literary creations are such works as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. He was also an excellent photographer. In response to the pleas of some young friends, Dodgson created word puzzles which came to be known as “doublets.” To solve a “doublet,” you must change one word into another by going through a series of steps. You may change only one letter at a time. Each change must result in the formation of a new word. The first starry word has been done for you. 1. Change mass to dust: mass mast must dust 2. Change gas to Sun 3. Change star to hole 4. Change core to X-ray 5. Change heat to glow 6. Change fuse to burn 7. Change mass to life 8. Change spin to glow 9. Change mass to cool 10. Change red to hot

11

SPACE SPIRALS - LEVEL 2

Complete the word spiral by filling in the star term described by each numbered clue. Write the first letter of the first answer in the box numbered 1. Fill in one letter per box moving clockwise around the spiral. The first letter of each answer should be written in a numbered box. Be careful! Each new word may overlap the word before it by one or more letters. EXAMPLE: 1. 2. 3. 4. planet closest to Earth name of the star in our solar system opposite of south opposite of cold

1M 4H T

A O R

R T 0

2S U 3N

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

takes place at 15,000,000 �C rapidly spinning stars which emit radio waves glowing balls of gas ring around the core of a star clouds of dust and gases in a galaxy form of energy coming from black holes nuclear fusion converts hydrogen into this element the fusion of helium atoms form these they give off pulses of radio waves area of the cloud in which nuclear fusion takes place

1 5

8

10 2 9 6

4

7 3

12

STAR SIGNS - LEVEL 2

Long before the time of television, movie theaters or video games our ancestors amused themselves by studying the night sky and telling stories about the pictures they saw there. The zodiac names we use today are actually the names our ancestors gave to special star groups known as constellations. How many of the ancient constellation names can you correctly identify? Place the constellation’s letter on the line next to its description. A. Gemini B. Cancer C. Aries D. Libra E. Ursa Major F. Capricornus G. Leo H. Draco I. Pegasus J. Taurus K. Pisces L. Aquarius M. Sagittarius N. Scorpius O. Orion _____ The Water Carrier _____ The Crab _____ The Goat _____ The Twins _____ The Dragon _____ The Winged Horse _____ The Scorpion _____ The Bull _____ The Archer _____ The Fish _____ The Hunter _____ The Lion _____ The Scales _____ The Ram _____ The Great Bear

13

NEBULAR NONSENSE - LEVEL 2

How many star terms can you find hidden in the puzzle below? Words may be written horizontally, vertically, diagonally, left to right or right to left. Circle each word as you find it. Star Terms: hot, atoms, nebula, supernova, neutron, red giant, cycle, sphere, energy, fusion, core, galaxy, hydrogen, evolve, gas, cloud, glow, x-ray

N E B U L E L C Y C A

G N O R T U E N A T A

F T N A I G D E R O V

C U A I G A L A X Y O

E L S H Y D R O G E N

L S S I E T O R A N R

S D P M O V E D S A E

I W E H O N L U Y I P

U C O R E T W O L G U

A I G D E R A L V X S

A L U B E N E C U E N

14

THOSE A-MAZE-ING STARS - LEVEL 2
Use what you have learned about stars to find your way through the maze below. Begin at the start box, carefully read the statement in each box and decide if it is true or false. You will move from box to box by following the directional arrows (T = TRUE, F = FALSE). Continue to follow the arrows until you reach the true end of the maze (END E). All other exits are incorrect. If you exit at A, B, C, or D, retrace your steps to find where you got off track.
START HERE: A new star is called a protostar. Heat produced by nuclear fusion causes stars to glow.

T

F

Stars give off both light and heat energy.

F

T

F

T END A

A protostar can shine for more than 1 million years.

T F

Medium size stars become black holes.

F
A pulsar is a white dwarf.

T

F

T

A supernova is a giant explosion of energy.

T

Black dwarf stars do not produce light.

F

Pulsars emit pulses of Xrays.

F END C F
Only massive stars become black holes.

T

T

F END B

F

Nuclear fusion occurs as stars cool down.

T F

The Sun will eventually become a neutron star.

T END D T
Nuclear fusion occurs at 15,000,000 °C. A white dwarf star is larger than a main sequence star.

T

F

T

A star's energy is produced by nuclear fusion.

F

F F F
Black holes are detected by the X-rays they emit.

T END E T T F
Neutron stars emit radio waves.

T

All stars become red giants.

15

Solutions

STAR LIFE ANSWER KEY - LEVEL 1
1. Gravity pulls hydrogen gas together to form a cloud. (4) 2. Nuclear fusion occurs which causes the star to glow. (2) 3. A main sequence star, which can live for millions or even billions of years, forms. (7) 4. A red giant forms when the star’s hydrogen level drops. (6) 5. Iron, which acts as an energy sponge, forms within the star. (5) 6. A supernova occurs. (1) 7. If it is a massive star, a neutron star forms. If it is a super massive star, a black hole forms. (3)

NEBULAR NONSENSE ANSWER KEY - LEVEL 1
R Y D U O L C F X A T O M S U A L S L T F E L T I H N D L A G E G E U R G A S U H S A T I R U S T

16

SPACE SPIRALS ANSWER KEY - LEVEL 1

1p

r
4 g

o r c
5 b

t a k y p

o v i t u

2 s

a v o n

t a r
3 s

a l r

e

STAR SCRAMBLES ANSWER KEY - LEVEL 1
1. DUST

2. FUSION
3. GALAXY 4. DWARF 5. PROTOSTAR 6. MATTER 7. ENERGY 8. CLOUD 9. SUPERNOVA 10. GIANT

17

SPACE CONNECTION ANSWER KEY - LEVEL 1

Draw a line to connect each word to the group of words that best describes it.
1. Star The medium size star in our solar system

2.

Sun

To shine brightly

3.

Core

A star that does not give off light

4.

Glow

A glowing ball of gas

5.

Red Giant

A giant explosion that took place in space a very long time ago The middle

6.

Expand

7.

Black Dwarf

A large star that glows red

8.

Big Bang

To grow larger

18

SPACE SQUARED EXAMPLE KEY - LEVEL 2
2. 1 + 1 + 1 + 4 = 7 3. 100 + 25 + 25 = 150 4. 36 + 4 +1 + 1 = 42 5. 144 + 25 + 1 = 170 6. 256 + 36 + 4 + 4 + 400 7. 1600 + 25 + 4 + 1 = 1630 8. 25 + 1 + 1 = 27 9. 9 + 4 + 1 = 14 10. 28,900 + 900 + 100 + 100 = 30,000 (1x1 + 1x1 + 1x1 + 2x2) (10x10 + 5x5 + 5x5) (6x6 + 2x2 + 1x1 + 1x1) (12x12 + 5x5 + 1x1) (16x16 + 6x6 + 2x2 + 2x2) (40x40 + 5x5 + 2x2 + 1x1) (5x5 + 1x1 + 1x1) (3x3 + 2x2 + 1x1) (170x170 + 30x30 + 10x10 + 10x10)

DEEP SPACE DOUBLETS EXAMPLE KEY - LEVEL 2
2. gas was war car can ran run Sun 3. star spar spat slat slap slop slot soot hoot hood hold hole 6. fuse muse must most post pose pore tore bore born burn 4. core care bare pare part pert peat beat brat bray xray (X-ray)

5. heat feat flat flaw flow glow

7. mass mast most lost loft lift life

19

8. spin spit slit slot slow glow

9. mass moss most molt bolt colt coat coal cool

10. red led let lot hot

SPACE SPIRALS ANSWER KEY - LEVEL 2 1 n t e n a l 4 p s 8 u a a c m u i r c r r a s l l a l y b r e u e t 9 7 3 5 e n o s r p h s a e n 10 c o s y n r b a t o m a o 6 f u l a e x r r 2 u s i o n e u t

STAR SIGNS ANSWER KEY - LEVEL 2

A. Gemini B. Cancer C. Aries D. Libra E. Ursa Major F. Capricornus G. Leo H. Draco I. Pegasus
20

L The Water Carrier B The Crab F The Goat A The Twins H The Dragon I The Winged Horse N The Scorpion J The Bull M The Archer

J. Taurus K. Pisces L. Aquarius M. Sagittarius N. Scorpius O. Orion

K The Fish O The Hunter G The Lion D The Scales C The Ram E The Great Bear

NEBULAR NONSENSE ANSWER KEY - LEVEL 2 N E B U L E L C Y C A G N O R T U E N A T A F T N A I G D E R O V C U A I G A L A X Y O E L S H Y D R O G E N L S S I E T O R A N R S D P M O V E D S A E I W E H O N L U Y I P U C O R E T W O L G U A I G D E R A L V X S A L U B E N E C U E N

THOSE A-MAZE-ING STARS ANSWER KEY - LEVEL 2
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

A new star is called a protostar to Heat produced . . . to Medium size stars . . . to A pulsar is . . . to Black dwarf stars . . . to Nuclear fusion occurs as stars . . . to Only massive stars . . . to Nuclear fusion occurs at . . . to A white dwarf star . . . to All stars become . . . to Neutron stars emit . . . to End E

21

Resources

Web Sites • http://web.syr.edu:80/~jmlacivi/index.html This site covers the birth of a star from particles of gas and dust, the life cycle of the star, the grouping of stars into clusters and galaxies, and the eventual death of a star after millions of years. • http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/amazing-space.html Part of the Hubble Space Telescope’s Amazing Space site with interactive activities for kids. The current one under development is “Stars:birth, life, death, and rebirth.” Books • Universe by William J. Kaufmann III, Freeman and Company, 1994. This book comes highly recommended from both students, and scientists. It explains many concepts in astronomy from cosmology to high-energy astrophysics, including information on stars (see chapter 18). Intended for the upper high school student with a strong science background and interest, or the undergraduate science major taking a basic astronomy course. A useful resource for teachers on all levels. • The Young Oxford Book of Astronomy by Jacqueline & Simon Mitton, Oxford University Press, Inc., 1995. This book explains many concepts in astronomy from the Solar System, galaxies and the Universe. Intended for the middle or high school student. • How Far is a Star? by Sidney Rosen, Carolrhoda Books, Inc.,1992. With cartoon characters leading the way, you'll find out much about the lives of stars, how big they are, and how far away they are in this question-and-answer book. Intended for students in elementary school.

About this Poster
The images on this poster are all artists' renditions. The neutron star is depicted to emphasize its powerful magnetic field. The black hole image shows the large accretion disk and jets surrounding the black hole, which cannot be seen.

22

Produced by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Science of Stars

...Science of Stars This paper is about the science of the stars. In this paper I will address how astronomers determine the composition, temperature, speed, and rotation rate of distant objects. I will briefly explain the properties of stars in the H-R diagram from Chapter 15 of the course textbook “The Cosmic Perspective”. I will also summarize the lifecycle of the Sun and identify where the Sun is in its lifecycle. Studying Distant Objects Astronomers study light which comes from distant objects to determine its composition, temperature, speed, and rotation of distant objects. This process is called spectroscopy. Spectroscopy was first used to study celestial objects in 1863 by William Higgins. By using this process he discovered the Sun and most stars are primarily composed of hydrogen gases. By using the spectroscopy technique it was discovered that different objects give off and absorb different spectrums of light. Where the object falls in the spectrum of light can be determined by examining its peak intensity at each wave length of light. The light helps us to determine an objects composition, temperature, and rotation. There are three types of spectra used to evaluate light. Objects which absorb light at different wavelengths are referred to as absorption spectrum. The intensity of light drops in objects which absorb light and therefore appear as dark lines on a rainbow of colors. Objects such are stars, planets with atmospheres, and galaxies absorb......

Words: 1119 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Stars

...Science of Stars Science of Stars This paper is about the science of the stars.   In this paper I will address how astronomers determine the composition, temperature, speed, and rotation rate of distant objects.   I will briefly explain the properties of stars in the H-R diagram from Chapter 15 of the course textbook “The Cosmic Perspective”.   I will also summarize the lifecycle of the Sun and identify where the Sun is in its lifecycle.   Studying Distant Objects Astronomers study light which comes from distant objects to determine its composition, temperature, speed, and rotation of distant objects.   This process is called spectroscopy.   Spectroscopy was first used to study celestial objects in 1863 by William Higgins.   By using this process he discovered the Sun and most stars are primarily composed of hydrogen gases. By using the spectroscopy technique it was discovered that different objects give off and absorb different spectrums of light. Where the object falls in the spectrum of light can be determined by examining its peak intensity at each wave length of light.   The light helps us to determine an objects composition, temperature, and rotation. There are three types of spectra used to evaluate light.   Objects which absorb light at different wavelengths are referred to as absorption spectrum. The intensity of light drops in objects which absorb light and therefore appear as dark lines on a rainbow of colors.   Objects such are stars, planets with......

Words: 321 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Science of Stars

...Science of Stars Sherry LaFace University of Phoenix SCI/151 Robert Austin July 15, 2013 Telescopes are tools that provide a way to collect and process electromagnetic radiation that is in space and in the universe. Planets, stars, and other galaxies are all visible through telescopes which magnify the image that is out in space so that it is more visible through the magnification. Through the magnification of telescopes astronomers can study and learn more about the planets and stars that are being viewed. Astronomers’ having the ability to have better vision through the magnification of the telescope helps to determine the temperature, speed, and rotation in realms that are an extreme distance away. With magnification of planets and stars that was provided through telescopes astronomers where able to learn a great deal about the stars and their properties that each star possesses. The distance that the star is from earth can help to determine the brightness of the star. Stars appear brighter the closer that they are from the planet earth. Stars also appear brighter depending on the amount of energy that they are generating. Distance from earth and the amount of energy that the star is generating determine how bright a star appears to us on earth. Another aspect of a star that is taken into account when studying the stars is the size of the star itself. If the star is a very large object then it will appear brighter from earth then a star that is much smaller.......

Words: 1096 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Enterprise

...technologies used to create and refresh the data warehouse. The Thesis discusses how data from databases and other data warehouses could integrate. In addition, there is discussion of specific data marts within the warehouse to satisfy a specific need. Finally, there are explanations for how users will consume the data in the enterprise data warehouse, such as through reporting and other business intelligence. This discussion also includes the topics of system architecture of how data from databases and other data warehouses from different departments could integrate. An Enterprise Data Warehouse prototype developed will show how a pair of different databases undergoes the Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) process and loaded into an actual set of star schemas then makes the reporting easier. Separately, an important piece of this thesis takes an actual example of data and compares the performance between them by running the same queries against separate databases, one transactional and one data warehouse. As the queries expand in difficulty, larger grows the gap between the actual recorded times of running that same query in the different environments. i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Edward M. Leonard, B.S. I would like to thank my family for their love and support during my work on this master’s thesis. I would especially like to thank my sister, Jamie Ousterout for her time and skills to help me edit this thesis. I would like to thank Marquette University for my employment......

Words: 20485 - Pages: 82

Premium Essay

Sony Barcenola Plant a

...Introduction This paper will describe the ERP Systems Implementation Project named STAR in Sony Barcelona Plant. The SONY Head Quarters would put Barcelona Plant as a pilot, and extend the experiences to the three European Plants even the global market. This paper will analyze the business situation in Europe and the problems in Ideal Factory as well as analyze the benefits and risks on continuing with the European STAR Project or defining an independent strategy. Situation summary STAR launched in mid 1997 in order to standardize the production and procurement processes, and apply information system in three SONY plants in Europe, however, the progress and results of the project was disappointing. Also, the Ideal Factory, which is with the initial arm of improving efficiencies and coordination among three plants in Europe, presented many problems and questioned by staff such as some plant managers. Therefore, Ferran Gil, the Plant General Director, affirmed that Barcelona Plant needed to define a new Plant model due to competitors' fast growth meant shorter production lifecycles and greater pressure in profit margins. There also have some different views on this issues. Some problems of implementing STAR Project 1. Cost. Because the project was centralized in London, the transportation cost would be high when project members had to attend the monthly meeting. Also, due to high consumption in Europe, three plants may be too much for this area. 2. Satisfaction. Each......

Words: 646 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Project Management Tools

...improvement Timeline- GANTT Chart Page 6 Conclusion Page 6 Appendix 1 Project charter Page 7 appendix 2 Scope statement Page 8 Appendix 3 PBS Page 9 Appendix 4 WBS Page 10 Appendix 5 GHANTT Chart Page 11 Appendix 6 Baseline documentation Page 12 Bibliography Page 13 INTRODUCTION A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service (PMBOK 2013) The purpose of this report is to analyse importance of project management tools and to evaluate PRINCE 2 lifecycle that has been used in bathroom refurbishment project. The aim of the project is to refurbish 240 bathrooms, involving professional building expertise to deliver project within budget and time constrains. Project objectives are to provide quality rooms and pleasant experience to all guests, increase room standards to 4 star AA and retention rate, to increase room revenue by establishing higher best available rates (BAR) Project motivation is based on social media and GSR guest feedback on bathroom physical evidences. Project budget estimated of £548 000 where brand new fitted and refurbished bathroom are main deliverable that would full fill project objectives. PROJECT CHARTER Project charter is a document issued by project initiator or sponsor that formally authorises the existence of a project and provides the project manager with a authority to apply organisational resources to......

Words: 1228 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Develop a Markteing Communication Plan

...risk projects. To define all parties with an interest in the project and the means and frequency of communication between them and the project. The Project Director owns this plan with the Project Manager, to ensure all necessary communication is issued out to relevant parties. Project Description Briefly describe why the project is being undertaken. This communication plan is created, to role out a new limited collection of Boxing stars with Madam Tussaud’s Communication Objectives The primary goal is to ensure that all individuals involved in the project understand the overall vision and aims, how and when changes will be implemented, to enable staff participation as required. This requires clear presentation and articulation of the vision and key messages, as well as specific requirements (e.g. training and process changes) as these are developed. List the projects communication objectives. For example: Objectives summary: Equal information flow between the 9 locations Awareness – of new collection of boxing stars in there best fight. Form September until December Wold wide role out at the same time - in all nine Cabarets Communication will be reliable, consistent, timely, open, straightforward, jargon-fee and customized wherever possible to the specific needs of target audiences. Interested Party All individuals noted in this document are related to the Madam Tussauds project with access details in the College’s Active......

Words: 3477 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Title

...Solar System | Stars | Glossary | Printables, Worksheets, and Activities | The Sun | The Planets | The Moon | Asteroids | Kuiper Belt | Comets | Meteors | | Astronomers | | The Stars | Lifecycle | Nuclear Fusion | Brightest Stars | Galaxies | Other Solar Systems | Constellations | Why Stars Twinkle | Birth | Death | Star Types | Closest Stars | Nebulae | Major Stars | The Zodiac | Activities, Links | STARS Each star in the sky is an enormous glowing ball of gas. Our sun is a medium-sized star.  Stars can live for billions of years. A star is born when an enormous cloud of hydrogen gas collapses until it is hot enough to burn nuclear fuel (producing tremendous amounts heat and radiation). As the nuclear fuel runs out (in about 5 billion years), the star expands and the core contracts, becoming a giant star which eventually explodes and turns into a dim, cool object (a black dwarf, neutron star, or black hole, depending on its initial mass). The largest stars have the shortest life span (still billions of years); more massive stars burn hotter and faster than their smaller counterparts (like the Sun). The composition of stars is studied using spectroscopy in which their visible light (the spectrum) is studied.  GROUPS OF STARS  In the universe, most stars occur in groups of at least two stars. Two stars that are locked in elliptical orbit around their center of mass (their barycenter) are called a binary star system. About half of all stars are in a......

Words: 970 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Dols of Mattel - Challenges on the Global Markets

...represents is not commonly accepted. On the other hand privacy issues were raised by parents regarding the digital marketing activity of Mattel, as rights of children are related in this market. Mattel needs to consider whether these challenges are related specifically to the lifestyle Barbie represents, whether the lifecycle of Barbie can be expanded in a changing global environment. Or the issues are the signs of a general change regarding toys marketed internationally and also digitally. I came to the conclusion that Mattel needs to introduce a new doll which fits the new expectations. II. Problem/Issue Statement Mattel is the No 1. toy producer in the world, in terms of Sale. Their products with the strongest market presence are based on the concept of dolls / collectibles, where these characters are supported with background story, additional gadgets, additional releases of attached tools. The flagship brand of the company is the fashion Barbie doll, which was 50 years old in 2009. Barbie represents an independent, young American girl and as a fashion doll it acted in different professions and situations during the years. Thanks to this concept the lifecycle of the brand could been expanded on its maturity level, changes in customer preferences and interests could been introduced in the lifestyle of Barbie also. Apart of this new accessories were introduced, and attached products like books, stationeries, puppet house, clothes for humans, soap opera, etc. This concept of...

Words: 2127 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Economics Project (Stock Marcket)

...software products and services; and designs and sells hardware worldwide. The company’s Windows & Windows Live division offers PC operating system that primarily includes Windows 7 operating system, Windows live suite of applications and Web services, and PC hardware products. Its Server and Tools division provides Windows Server operating systems, Windows Azure; Microsoft SQL Server, SQL Azure, Windows Intune, Windows Embedded, Visual Studio, Silverlight, system center products, Microsoft consulting services, and Premier product support services. This division also offers cloud-based services; and training and certification to developers and information technology professionals, as well as builds standalone and software development lifecycle tools for software architects, developers, testers, and project managers. The company’s Online Services division provides online information and content, including Bing, MSN, adCenter, and Atlas online tools for advertisers. Its Microsoft Business division offers Microsoft office, Microsoft Exchange, Microsoft SharePoint, Microsoft Lync, Microsoft Office project and office Visio, and Microsoft Dynamics ERP and CRM, as well as Microsoft Office Web Apps and Microsoft Office 365, which are online service offerings. The company’s Entertainment and Devices Division segment provides Xbox 360 entertainment platform, which includes the Xbox 360 gaming and entertainment console, Kinect for Xbox 360, Xbox 360 video games, and Xbox 360......

Words: 843 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Industry Life Cycle

...survival, innovation and firm structure in new industries is reviewed to assess whether industries proceed through regular cycles as they age. A leading depiction of the evolution of new industries, the product life cycle, is used to organize the evidence it is shown that the product life cycle captures the way many industries evolve through their formative eras, but regular patterns occur when industries are mature that are not predicted by the product life cycle. Regularities in entry, exit, firm survival and firm structure are also developed for industries whose evolution departs significantly from the product life cycle. Definition of 'Industry Lifecycle' A concept relating to the different stages an industry will go through, from the first product entry to its eventual decline. There are typically five stages in the industry lifecycle. They are defined as: i. Early Stages Phase - alternative product design and positioning, establishing the range and boundaries of the industry itself. Ii.Inovation Phase - Product innovation declines, process innovation begins and a "dominant design" will arrive. iii. Cost or Shakeout Phase - Companies settle on the "dominant design"; economies of scale are achieved, forcing smaller players to be acquired or exit altogether. Barriers to entry become very high, as large-scale consolidation occurs. iv. Maturity - Growth is no longer the main focus, market share and cash flow become the primary goals of the companies left in the......

Words: 3012 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Stars

...In this paper I will explain how astronomers determine the composition, temperature, speed, and rotation rate of distant objects using various methods. I will explain the properties of stars. I will also summarize the complete lifecycle of the Sun and determine where the Sun is currently in its lifecycle.Light is a type of energy. Light behaves like a wave because it acts as a disturbance in the magnetic and electric field of space. Light can behave as a particle, because it sends all its energy to one place. A particle of light is called a photon. Photons can be absorbed into objects, bounce off objects, or fly through space. Scientists use the electromagnetic spectrum to organize and explain all types of electromagnetic energy that exist throughout the universe. Electromagnetic waves are organized in the electromagnetic spectrum according to their wavelength from the shortest, which are known as gamma rays to the longest which are known as radio waves. Electromagnetic energy is created by vibration. The vibration produces waves that carry energy. Each magnetic wave emits a different level of energy. These energies travel silently at the speed of light and produce a signature wave with a unique range of length, energy and frequency that scientists can identify and measure. One way that the energy of an electromagnetic wave is measured is by measuring its frequency. Frequency refers to the number of waves a vibration creates during a period of time. In general, the higher......

Words: 296 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Case

...natural environment and our role in making meaningful changes that reduce our carbon footprint are issues we take very seriously. Values • Strive to reduce the environmental impact of our products throughout the product lifecycle. • Encourage the employees to be environmentally-friendly within their business and social activities in their daily lives. • Strive to assist customers in reducing the environmental impact of their activities and to improve environmental efficiency overall. Green Procurement The green Procurement is a movement that aims to purchase components, materials, and products fabricated of manufactured with adequate consideration on the global environment. We promote the following during the procurement stage: • To procure products from suppliers that execute environmental assessment of products, including control of specified hazardous substances. • To procure form suppliers who have an environmental management system to ensure continuous improvement of environmental activities. Green Products Fujitsu Green Products are created with a resource-saving design approach. We make effective use of limited resources by using recycled plastics and recycled magnesium alloy. Fujitsu Green Products that have met the standards of the International Energy STAR Program are able to reduce their power consumption during standby mode. When the power is turned on, a linked power socket for the display also switched on at the same time. On the other hand, when the......

Words: 355 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Telescopes in Astronomy

...confines of the Earth was a daydream for early scientists. Staring into the heavens from the Earth limited the scientific community’s ability to study the cosmic bodies above the Earth’s surface. As curiosity grew to explore the Sun, moon, stars and far-reaching corners of the universe, creativity was sparked leading to the development of tools like a telescope to assist scientists with examining outer space and its contents. The development of the telescope began in the hands of a Dutch lens maker, Hans Lippershey. Lippershey developed a device consisting of a tube and a lens allowing the user to view objects up close. Galileo Galilei expanded upon Lippershey’s design creating the modern day telescope using a concave lens. Galileo used his telescope view the items in the night sky including the Milky Way. Galileo revealed that the Earth was not at the center of the universe that was a contrasting view from previous scholars. The development of the telescope has lead to significant discoveries including the moon's effect on weather patterns on Earth and in space black holes, stars' lifecycles and galaxies beyond the Milky Way to name a few. The ability to study the Sun has given scholars the ability to determine the age of the Sun, planets and stars in the night sky. The first telescope's original design, consisting of a tube and lens, gave the viewer the first glimpse into the space. As interest in astronomy grew in both the scientific and philosophical communities, the......

Words: 1299 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Green Technology

...Material selection is full of trade-off decisions, and effective strategies vary widely based on your goals and situation.  Sustainable materials can mean many things, and this page explains some considerations besides the materials’ energy performance. Lifecycle Assessment is the most thorough way to determine the environmental impacts of your building materials. However, LCA can be very costly, varies project-to-project, and is not yet extremely prevalent. Instead, the building and building products industries have a host of measures and “certifications” for green building products. BuildingGreen’s Green Building Product Certification Guide is a fantastic resource for understanding this (sometimes intentionally) complex world.   The following is a quick rundown of factors about how the material is produced and disposed of that can be important to consider.   Materials using recycled content not only require less virgin resources, they also use less energy and chemicals to process.   For instance, recycled ("secondary") aluminum has 90% less embodied energy than virgin ("primary") aluminum.  It is beneficial to both use recycled material, and design your constructions to be recycled as well. Using Recycled Materials To use recycled content in your building, call suppliers to source recycled materials.  Be sure to verify the physical properties (strength, stiffness, etc.) of the material with recycled content.  If they are lower-performance, you may need to......

Words: 1433 - Pages: 6