Free Essay

Lin Article 2

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By tabithaorr
Words 1569
Pages 7
Lin Article Critique: Part 11
Tabitha Orr
Phone: 404-472-7914
Liberty University
COUN 503
Dr. Heckler
February 17, 2013

Summary
This particular article Effect of Forgiveness Therapy on Anger, Mood, and Vulnerability to Substance Use among Inpatient Substance-Dependent Clients looks deeper into the effects of Forgiveness Therapy on anger, mood, and vulnerability to substance abuse among impatient substance-dependent clients. The group of researchers consisted of Wei-Fen Lin, David Mack, Robert Enright, Dean Krahn, and Thomas Baskin came together to gather more information in forgiveness therapy focusing on certain targets such as anger, anxiety, and depression. The group of researchers gathered 14 patients with substance dependence and began weekly alternative individual treatment sessions with each client. After the time frame for the study had ended there was a four month period that showed the positive effects of forgiveness therapy. As stated within the article, “Forgiveness therapy may prove effective in the future because it moves to the heart of the matter of some clients. Deep hurts borne out of unfair treatment seem to play a part in substance use and abuse,” (Lin, Mack, Enright, Krahn, Baskin, 1119). The group of researchers recruited the population for this study from a drug rehabilitation center that offers intense, structured, residential treatment to individual suffering from alcohol and other drug dependencies. There were forty-three potential participants who were referred for this study based on the opinion of their therapist and then participants were provided with details regarding the study to determine if the patients would participant (Lin, Mack, Enright, Krahn, Baskin, 1115). After the participants were determined the researchers began with the procedures, which included many inventory and surveys to get a better grasp of the participant’s vulnerability to drug use. When the participants completed the inventory and surveys the forgiveness therapy began which included 12 individual therapy sessions administered by the same therapist who provided the drug and alcohol counseling as well (Lin, Mack, Enright, Krahn, Baskin, 1116). This paper will look deeper into the critique of population and sampling, critique of procedures, and lastly the type of measurement used in this study.
Population and Sampling The population for this study was chosen based on convenience random sampling in a residential treatment center. According to Pyrzcak’s (2008) description of samplings, the sample is not considered truly random; however, it could be considered convenience sampling which is a highly suspect method for drawing samples from which to generalize (p. 57). All participants were recruited from a drug rehabilitation center that offers intense, structured, residential treatment to individuals suffering from alcohol and other drug dependencies. The potential participants were given informed consent forms and information regarding to the studies so the clients have a better understanding of the study before they give their consent to participate. The researchers decided using a residential treatment center would be more effective because the clients are in the facility for substance abuse. Each of the forty-three potential participants was referred for this study on the basis of their therapist’s opinion (Lin, Mack, Enright, Krahn, Baskin, 1116). From this population, the sample of forty participants was randomly selected, which is not considered sufficiently large which causes it to be inadequate because the sample size does not accurately represent the data or finding in the population study. The sampling that took place began with forty patients, after three of the patients were eliminated from the study on the basis of their forgiveness and anger scores. With random sampling used, it was not stratified because the group of researchers gathered all the participants in one rehabilitation area and did not divide them into groups according to their amount of abuse, their location outside of the facility or the types of drug abuse but rather random groupings. The generalization would be low because the study was intended for a specific population that was struggling with a similar issue. However, the response rate would be higher because out of the 43 participants 40 of them participated in the study. In each subgroup the number of participants is low because the group was divided into two group which broke it down into 14 participants per group. In addition the dropout rate was equal in both groups, which results in a 35% completion of the study, which is well within the normal range (Lin, Mack, Enright, Krahn, Baskin, 1119). Please note the authors have done a good job in providing the demographics of the sample that was involved in the study such as age, gender, race, education, religion and marital status. Overall, this particular same was appropriate for generalization because the authors were very thorough in maintaining their focus throughout the study.
Procedures
As stated previously, the authors were very clear and thorough in reporting the demographics of the participants which included their gender, age, race, education, marital status and religion. In addition the researchers discuss the basis for selecting the participants. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups which focused on receiving Forgiveness Therapy (FT) or Alcohol and Drug Counseling (ADA). If this study has only used a single group the results would have been altered because the researchers would not be able to compare the difference in Forgiveness Therapy and Alcohol and Drug Counseling like the study set out to do. Therefore, the participants had to be broken into the two different groups to get the best results possible for this particular study. The authors did a good job to describe both FT and ADC in sufficient detail throughout this article. The researcher began by giving a few references into the study for the experimental task and then described how it was used in their study which is described as “tests were administered in random order” (Lin, Mack, Enright, Krahn, & Baskin, 1116). However, the treatments were administered by therapist and it was closely monitored to make sure the results were accurate. With the FT procedure the clients had to read one chapter in Forgiveness is a Choice by Enright before the sessions and they spent on session on each topic; however, the treatment was self-paces to the extent that participants could spend extra sessions on topics that the therapist-participant dyad believed were deserving of further work (Lin, Mack, Enright, Krahn, & Baskin, 1116). With the ADC Procedure provided the same format from the FT sessions because this particular format has been used it was consistently used over several years. The researchers used the exact same format for both groups because if the researchers chose different outlines then the study would be much harder to be able to compare the progress of each client. During this study the researchers tried to make both clients have the same treatment so the clients didn’t get better treatment than other clients. While the researchers gave both groups the same format the researchers wanted to make sure the sessions resembled a more natural setting. The environment of the experiment may not be found in more natural setting because the finding may not be valid in a more natural setting (Pyrczak, 2008). The procedures the researchers decided to use were the appropriate experiments because the participants were randomly selected and also randomly assigned into the different groups. Since the clients were not purposely assigned to the groups the results are more accurate.
Instrumentation
Although the author does not provide a list of instruments used to measure the score of the participants. For example, the authors did not give a list of questions used or even an outline for the sessions. There are specialized formats, setting, and restrictions the researchers had to use in order for the study to be accurate. The researchers stated that within the Forgiveness Therapy and Alcohol and Drug Counseling the same format was used because it was used over several years in the study facility and was very effective. When the study first began the potential clients were given information regarding the study as well as an informed consent before starting the experiment. The methods used to collect the data were stated clearly in the article such as the 12-step-based overall program for both sessions. The researchers did a good job providing other examples of citations related to the finding of this particular study. Lin, Mack, Enright, Krahn, and Baskin provided the development and statistical properties of the instruments used as well as other instruments published by commercial publishers that are usually have accompanying manuals that describe technical information of the instruments (Pyrczak, 2008). The researchers had both content and empirical validity throughout the entire study such as collecting data using an instrument to determine the extent to which the data would “make sense.” During the study the researchers are comparing the difference in therapy sessions and the progress of each client. Overall the researchers used the best instruments to measure the progress of the clients throughout the entire study. With the researchers randomly selecting the participants and randomly placing them into two different therapy sessions this makes the study even more accurate than others recently performed.

References
Lin, W., Mack, D., Enright, R., Krahn, D., & Baskin, T. (2004). Effects of forgiveness therapy on anger , mood, and vulnerability to substance use among inpatient substance-dependent clients. 72(6), 1114-1121.
Pyrczak, F., & Bruce, R. R. (2008). Evaluating research in academic journals, a practical guide to realistic evaluation. (4 ed.). czak Pub.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Lin Critic

...Lin Article Critique: Part 3 Dustin T. Rheel Liberty University Counseling 503, D22 Professor Carlene Taylor December 9, 2012 Percentages are reported widely in academic journals to support a researcher’s findings. The percentages or numbers are utilized either support or reject the hypothesis. When a researcher does not utilize numbers or percentages whiting researcher it tends to mislead individuals who are reading the article. The Lin article started with 40 participants in the beginning of the study and by the end of the study they were left with 14 participants (Lin, Mack, Enright, Krahn, and Baskin article, 2004). The post test results examined the reaming 14 participants, seven in the experimental group and seven in the controlled group. Four months after the experiment, six of the experimental group remained available for follow up testing. In the controlled group only four participants were available for the same follow up testing. Lin et al. (2004) noted that during the research process participation varied among both the experimental and controlled groups. When reviewing the article it was noted that Line et al. (2004) did not distinguish between the pre-test scores and the post-test scores, making it difficult to compare the pre and post test results. When assessing whether the reader is able to understand the data presented, it is shown to be misleading to the readers. This is due to the inconsistent data. In addition some of the percentages......

Words: 1743 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Lin Article Critique Part 1

...Running head: LIN ARTICLE CRITIQUE 1 Article Critique Effects of Forgiveness Therapy on Anger, Mood, and Vulnerability to Substance Abuse Among Inpatient Substance-Dependent Clients Liberty University C. Campbell March 31, 2013 LIN ARTICLE CRITIQUE 2 Introduction In the article Effects of Forgiveness Therapy on Anger, Mood and Vulnerability to Substance Use Among Inpatient Substance-Dependent Clients (Lin 2004) the researchers wanted to test Forgiveness Therapy (FT) as a tool for treating clients dealing with substance abuse related to negative emotional overload. They focused on anxiety, depression and anger which, according to Lin, are triggers for substance abuse (2004, pg. 1114). They set out to talk and interview forty three potential participants who were recommended by their counselors from a residential drug rehabilitation center. This population was chosen due to the rigid course of treatment they were already receiving from the treatment facility in response to the personal calamity being experiences by the client. These were the most severe cases since they usually experienced repeated relapses, petty crimes and a lower motivation for change. While conducting the research what they found was not really surprising but rather normal for this group of clients. The participation started to fall off and by the end of the research they had fallen to less than half of the......

Words: 1524 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Article Critique

...Running head: LIN ARTICLE CRITIQUE 1 Article Critique Effects of Forgiveness Therapy on Anger, Mood, and Vulnerability to Substance Abuse Among Inpatient Substance-Dependent Clients Liberty University March 31, 2013 LIN ARTICLE CRITIQUE 2 Introduction In the article Effects of Forgiveness Therapy on Anger, Mood and Vulnerability to Substance Use Among Inpatient Substance-Dependent Clients (Lin 2004) the researchers wanted to test Forgiveness Therapy (FT) as a tool for treating clients dealing with substance abuse related to negative emotional overload. They focused on anxiety, depression and anger which, according to Lin, are triggers for substance abuse (2004, pg. 1114). They set out to talk and interview forty three potential participants who were recommended by their counselors from a residential drug rehabilitation center. This population was chosen due to the rigid course of treatment they were already receiving from the treatment facility in response to the personal calamity being experiences by the client. These were the most severe cases since they usually experienced repeated relapses, petty crimes and a lower motivation for change. While conducting the research what they found was not really surprising but rather normal for this group of clients. The participation started to fall off and by the end of the research they had fallen to less than half of the original......

Words: 1522 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Lin Article Critic Ii

...Lin Article Critic II Liberty University Lin Article Critic II This paper will review Lin article, Effects of Forgiveness Therapy on Anger, Mood, and Vulnerability to Substance use among Inpatient Substance-dependent Clients, and critic population of the study vs. population of interest, Operationalization aspects, Evaluation of DV measurement, and Evaluation of DV measurement. Lin, Wei-Fen. Mack, D, Enright, R, Krahn Dean, &Thomas Baskin (2004), states that the level of anger and violence observed among alcohol and substance abusers are far higher than the levels found in the general population, and coping skills have been implemented in many substance abuse programs to teach patients how to become aware of their anger and also manage their emotions effectively. Many researchers have directed their focus on Forgiveness Therapy (FT) as an alternative option to any other treatment for patients to overcome their emotional bondage, which leads them to misuse alcohol and dependency to controlled substances. The hypothesis in this study is that Forgiveness Therapy decreases the frequency and severity of anger, anxiety, and depression, and patients in residential treatment for alcohol and drug dependency have demonstrated less anger and urge towards drug use after receiving this treatment. Critic of Population of the Study This study, which took place in a residential drug rehabilitation facility, targeted the effects of Forgiveness Therapy in decreasing the frequency......

Words: 1117 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Chinas First Opium War

...this paper, I will discuss Chinas opium problem within the 1830’s. At this point, the British Empire has established a routine shipping triangle between ports in England to ports in India; here British merchants would pick up large shipments of opium. From India, the merchants headed towards China, Canton in particular. From here the large shipments were sold to merchants using large British clipper ships, who distributed the large shipments of opium to smaller smuggling ships called “fast dragons” to be dispersed amongst the vast provinces of China. I will discuss the impact of this trade triangle for both the British and the Chinese. Also to be discussed is Imperial Commissioner Lin and his anti-opium campaign in China as well as on the British front. The Chinese and British had contrasting views on Lin and his campaign to end the mass profits the British were collecting from poisoning the Chinese community. Ultimately the opium war would conclude with the Nanjing treaty signed by the Chinese in 1842. Britain forced China to sign via threat of military and naval conquest, a tactic called gunboat diplomacy. Before we delve too far into the characters that were directly involved in the diplomacy regarding the opium situation in China, we must get a better understanding of the market conditions that the situation arose from. There is a very clear line that separates the two types of trade between the British and Chinese empires respectively. There was legal trade which......

Words: 2327 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Premium Soft

...Problem Identification * Ken Lin, co-founder of PremiumSoft, needs to hire more staff for his company, however he wants to be able to keep and gain the best talent and be able to manage the work environment that he has already established with even more staff. Analysis * Keeping/maintaining best talent available * Help your employees be great * Keep employees engaged and challenged * Stimulate their minds * Find the right motivators for employees * Minimize hassles * Find out what employees want, and how the company can meet this * Creatives = employees * Same team = same goals * Keep customers happy * Allow and listen to customer requests * Maintaining up-to-date work environment * Use of emerging social software platforms (ESSPs) to keep employees/consumers in collaboration over products and usage * Has the ability to help out companies meet the ever-growing needs of both clients to the system Alternative Solutions 1. Keep things status quo and continue same approaches to hiring/maintaining employees. 2. Adopt the approaches as discussed and achieve goals as set/defined by the company. 3. Implement more supervisory positions so that Lin is not trying to run company and maintain all human resources capabilities. Recommendation * Alternative solution #2 allows PremiumSoft to continue in the direction it has been going and allows more involvement between......

Words: 2037 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Internet of Things (Iot)

...* Process optimization (Borne, 2014). * Optimized resource consumption (Borne, 2014). * Instantaneous control and response in complex autonomous systems (Borne, 2014). * Increase operational efficiency, power new business models, and improve quality of life (Harrell, 2015). * Provide an accurate analysis of customer data (Medici, 2015). Some Applications of IoF Business intelligence (BI). “The BI application ensures the analysis and measurement of the consumer’s thoughts, behaviors, relationships, buying attitudes, choices, and many more parameters that form the backbone of effective strategy building, business operations management, customer relationship management, and other business operations” (Chang, Mishra, & Lin, 2015, p. 4). The incorporation of IoT in BI solutions can lead...

Words: 863 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Supporting the Hypothesis Res 341

...addressed Century National Bank and the possibility of the banks potential to earn revenue through a reduction in the interest earning accounts regulations and requirements. This week the calculations of the data collected from the data set samples of service and interest for Century National Bank will be the determining factor of the hypothesis. The independent clause is if the required services on interest earning accounts reduce and the dependent clause is the quantity of interest earning accounts will increase, thus leading to an increase in the bank’s revenue. The information gathered from the articles and data provide supporting details or not supporting details toward the hypothesis. The articles used discuss facts about high yield interest earning accounts, concerns about minimum required balance requirements and fees on accounts. Another articles used explained the research by Lin, and the relation between the customer’s expectations and perceptions of the quality of service prior to and post purchase and how it affects the banks. Research from 60 accounts provide results of the customers who have interest earning accounts, the services used, and how many people use the services. Charts demonstrate a clearer understanding of the data collected. Ethical concerns are important when a company changes policies. Changes should retain the customers’ loyalty and trust as the company progresses toward success. Deducing the provided data set and focusing on the......

Words: 1954 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Annotated Bib

...Society, 15(2), 207. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/195768418?accountid=458 This article talks about persons with disabilities and how they relate to people in society. It refers to how differently abled people have a sense of belonging and wanting to have their own identity outside of the medical diagnosis. They do not want to be referred to or defined by the limits of the diagnosis of their condition. Defining persons with disabilities as a culture gives them their own kind of language, a community and identity. Disadvantages are putting limits on the culture and persons and also setting up discriminations against people with disabilities by people with disabilities. Shrivastava, S., Shrivastava, P., & Ramasamy, J. (2015). Exploring the scope of community-based rehabilitation in ensuring the holistic development of differently-abled people. African Health Sciences, 15(1), 278-280. doi:10.4314/ahs.v15i1.36 1. This article talks about how community based rehabilitation is going to improve rehab services for the disabled population. Also touches on how this population is a sensitive population and it takes careful planning and carrying out of services to be successful. Native American Verbos, A. K., & Humphries, M. (2014). A Native American relational ethic: An indigenous perspective on teaching human responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 123(1), 1-9. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-013-1790-3 This journal article......

Words: 1480 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Vagina My Penis

...OPTIMIZING THE MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION The principal objective of this article is to come up with an alternative way to optimize the standard deviation of the quality characteristic of a product or process enabling the practitioner to assign distinct weights to process mean and standard deviation and to find trade-off solutions between them, taking their relative magnitudes into account. In this article various approaches have been proposed e.g. Response surface methodology and robust parameter design. RSM and RPD are used to get low variability, low cost, high quality, and high reliability in the process and product .The priority-based, mean squared–based, and Goal programming–based approaches in the RSM framework are attached to many drawbacks necessitating alternative methods to be used. The dual response optimization approach may be difficult for practitioners who do not have sufficient mathematical knowledge and are mostly found in journals that are difficult to find. RSM framework approaches have been proposed by Vining and Myers(1990), Copeland and Nelson(1996) and Lind and Tu(1995).Other data-driven approaches that are applicable include the ones by Ding et al.(2004), Jeong et al.(2005) and Shaibu and Cho(2009).Although the weighted square sum-based method allow overtaking of drawbacks of the priority based methods, they do not capture solutions. The proposed method uses less complicated techniques and it is assumed that an optimal solution for a dual...

Words: 1451 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Management

...Boudreau v. Lin, 1997 12369 (ON SC) 1997-08-20 Case Presentation For INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS LAW PREPARED BY Lewis-Asonye Chigozie 300759315 Ogunsanya Quadri 300771273 Akinola Oluwafemi 300761445 Nwankwo Ifeanyi 300671046 ON MARCH, 26TH 2014. SUBMITTED TO Professor Michael Karambatos Table of Contents Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………...2 Facts...........…………………………………………………………………………………...3 Issues.............................................................................................................…........................6 Rules ….…………...........................………………………………………………………….7 Analysis........................………………………………………………………………………..9 Conclusion….…………………………………………………………………………………11 References…………………………………………………………………………………….12 Introduction Plaintiff: Mr. Paul Boudreau; Counsel: Katherine A. Cotton Defendant: Professor Jimming Lin; Counsel: Daniel Mayo Defendant: University of Ottawa; Counsel: Kathryn Prud’ Homme The case between Mr. Paul Boudreau and Professor Jimming Lin took place in the Ontario Supreme Court (General Division) presided by Métivier J. The hearing was on the March 3, 4, and 5, 1997 while the judgement was rendered on August 20, 1997. The Judges opening remarks to the case:- The plaintiff,...

Words: 2635 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

What Substances or Objects Should Be Recycled the Recycling Legislative Experience in Taiwan

...J Mater Cycles Waste Manag (2005) 7:1–7 DOI 10.1007/s10163-004-0119-9 © Springer-Verlag 2005 SPECIAL FEATURE: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Material Cycles and Waste Management is Asia (2) Chun-Chao Lin · Chun-hsu Lin What substances or objects should be recycled? The recycling legislative experience in Taiwan Received: October 1, 2004 / Accepted: October 10, 2004 Abstract The legislative framework of waste management in Taiwan has never been efficient, mainly due to unclear definitions and regulations. In 2002, this system was split into two parts by enacting a new law, the Resource Recycling and Re-use Act (RRRA). However, it then became more complicated and recycling effectiveness was impeded. The causes were mainly the unclear definitions, conflicts about the scope, and issues between the RRRA and the Waste Disposal Act (WDA). This article examines the recycling legislation experience in Taiwan, and proposes two modifications for resolving these problems. The first proposal is merging these two acts into one. The second proposed modification maintains a two-system structure but introduces a new subject, “discards,” into the law. The subject of discards is further categorized as “recyclable resources” or “waste,” which correspond to “recycling operations” and “disposal operations,” respectively. The new structures, interfaces, prerequisites, properties, and comparisons are also explained. Key words Waste · Recyclable resources · Discards ·......

Words: 4041 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Business Entities, Laws, and Regulations Paper

...Business Entities, Laws, and Regulations Paper University Of Phoenix Business Entities, Laws, and Regulations Paper Successful management of a business entity is dependent on understanding industry structure, taxation, laws, regulations, risks, motivation, and a business plan. The business structure will affect profits, business liability, and taxes. A sole proprietorship, an LLC, or corporation, requires research and planning to determine which structure is right for a business. Equally important is development of a good business plan. The business plan will provide industry insight to important aspects of a business. Understanding local, state, and federal business laws and regulations will assist in identifying risks and provide information to protect or minimize the outcome of litigation or failure. Lou and Jose are planning to open a sports bar and restaurant but they lack the startup cash to do so. A wealthy investor named Miriam, has agreed to provide working capital to fund the startup and establishment of the business. In return for investing her money into the business, she wants a percentage of the company. The structure that is appropriate for the business is a member-managed LLC with Lou and Jose as the designated manager and Miriam as the non-manager. Lou and Jose will manage day-to-day business, whereas, Miriam has no control, unless otherwise provided in the operating agreement (Cheeseman, 2010). An LLC (limited Liability Company) is a tax chameleon,......

Words: 1795 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Why the Industrial Revolution Originated in Europe

...Alexander  Roussos   SID:  40058831   GE2224  –  Assignment  2     With  the  article  “The  Needham  Puzzle:  Why  the  Industrial  Revolution  Din   Not  Originate  in  China”,  Justin  Yifu  Lin  examines  several  reasons  for  why  China,   with  its  greater  population  and  technological  advancements  in  premodern  times   was  not  able  to  beat  Europe  into  the  industrial  age.  The  author  starts  off  his   analysis  by  criticizing  the  hypothesis  ‘The  High-­‐Level  Equilibrium  Trap’,  first   proposed  by  Mark  Elvin,  while  continuously  lifting  forward  his  own  ideas  and   theories  regarding  the  matter.  I  will  start  off  by  explaining  the  main  parts  of  the   High-­‐level  Equilibrium  trap,  address  how  Dr.  Lin  disagrees  from  the  hypothesis   and  conclude  with  my  viewpoints  on  Dr.  Lin’s  statements.   The  ‘High-­‐Level  Equilibrium  Trap’  originates  in  the  old  supply  and  demand   analysis  where  an  economy  is  trying  to  stabilize  around  a  certain  equilibrium.  In   this  case, ......

Words: 1007 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Case Study Zappos

...Emily Hallan M60- Organizational Behavior Katherine Berggren 11/2/15 Zappos Case Study: Happiness and Company Culture To Zappos, service is not just a value held on the corporate plaque or something they like to talk about. At Zappos, delivering exceptional service is a way of life. Zappos is a large online clothing and shoe shop who has made service, not shoes, their business. In 2009 Zappos was acquired by Amazon for an all-stock deal, valued at $1.2 Billion. While many factors contributed to the success of Zappos, the biggest contributors were the leaders, Tony Hsieh and Alfred Lin. Hsieh and Lin understood that the happiness of their employees, partners, and customers was key to Zappos business. Everyone inside Zappos, knew the link between the culture of happiness and the positive performance, attributed to the success of the company. Since the creation of Zappos in 1999, the Zappos brand has upheld its “wow” customer service positioning and a distinct corporate culture. At the time there was no other big online footwear retailers, so Nick Swinmurn, founder and CEO of Zappos, created an online footwear site, containing many varieties of shoes in different colors, styles and sizes. At the time there were not a lot of online shoe retailers, so they were primarily competing with brick and mortar shoe stores. Initially, Zappos received inventory through independent shoe stores but by 2000, they had secured relationships with the shoe manufacturers themselves and......

Words: 2110 - Pages: 9