Premium Essay

Linking Factors to Childhood Obesity and Interventions

In: Other Topics

Submitted By cartezl
Words 3365
Pages 14
Linking Factors to Childhood Obesity and Interventions: A Literature Review
Dontonio Earls
Colin University

The prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide has created an immense concern in how to combat the chronic disease; however, researchers have found that there are fundamental risk factors that contribute to childhood obesity. Because of this immense concern, researchers have examined several risk factors that may be linked to the rising number of obesity among children. The literature reviewed has revealed that the contributions of the built environment have played negative role in providing support to children who are obese or overweight. The objective of this research was to examine the negative risk factors that may be correlated with childhood obesity. The results revealed that the effects of childhood obesity have emerged from different phases of life: (a) familial stress, (b) emotional-behavioral stress (c) self-esteem, (d) peer victimization, (e) eating-habits and influences, and (f) physical activities.
In addition to examining the fundamental risk factors, interventions have been suggested and discussed in this paper. Keywords: childhood, obesity, parents, schools, physical activity, food, intervention

Linking Factors to Childhood Obesity and Intervention: A Literature Review Overview. Today, childhood obesity has become a primary issue for public health worldwide. It has been well documented that over 23 million children in the United States alone are obese or overweight. Center for Disease Control (2004), defined obesity in children or adolescents as those individuals with a body mass index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile on revised Center for Disease Control and Prevention growth chart (Green, Riley, and Hargrove, 2012, p. 916). Multiple health risks are associated with overweight and obesity that are specific...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Childhood Obesity

...Children and Obesity Sharletta Guy-Pope SOC490: Social Science Capstone Raqota Berger June 18, 2012 Introduction Due to the growing concern and increase prevalence of childhood obesity around the world the population of children as it relates to childhood obesity indicates that these children will suffer even greater as adults. This increasing concern has become a public health issue and a social issue with children. Furthermore, research shows that the media plays an important role in the current epidemic of childhood obesity, which also has become a social issue with children. The increasing amounts of junk food and fast food advertisements, that target children and adolescents, have an effect on the outcome of their health and nutritional habits; these advertisements shift away from good nutritional practices. Food advertisements that advertise unhealthy foods such as foods high in saturated fats and cholesterol (junk foods) puts children at risk for high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol, both of which causes heart disease later on in life, which are precursors of cardiovascular disease resulting in childhood obesity. Sociocultural Factors Gender Society, culture, and the media send children powerful messages about body weight and shape ideals. For girls; ideas that are stressed in the media include the "thin ideal" and urging to diet and exercise, which can put pressure on girls to be thin, putting......

Words: 2446 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Tcp-1 Annotated Bibliography The American Cancer Society has been a leading organization in cancer prevention and awareness for over a century. They contribute to the fight against cancer in a variety of ways to include advocating and creating laws to prevent and treat cancer, investing in cancer fighting research, and helping those who are diagnosed with cancer cope and treat their illness. The information in this article states that there is indeed a link between cancer and poor diet and physical inactivity. The article provides several interventions and mitigating strategies an individual can take to manage risk of cancer due to a lack of exercise and heathy diet. This article is key in validating the second point in the thesis statement as a cause of cancer. National Cancer Institute (NCI) (2014) Cancer in Children and Adolescence. Retrieved from: NCI is a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and is the main agency of the Federal Government tasked with the study, research, and training of cancer. This fact sheet confirms that occurrences of pediatric cancer are rising in the U.S. and provides a range of helpful statics to support the thesis. Section three of the fact sheet also discusses the possible causes of cancer in children to include...

Words: 1367 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Related Literatures

...University, Zaria, Nigeria 94 Relation of Body Mass Index with Lipid Profile and Blood Pressure in Healthy Female of Lower Socioeconomic Group, in Kaduna Northern Nigeria 1A. Abubakar, 1M.A. M abruok, 2A.B. Gerie, 3A.A. Dikko, 4S. Aliyu, 1T. Yusuf, 3R.A. Magaji, 1M.A. Kabir and 1U.W. Adama 1Department of Human Physiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria 2Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Teaching Hospital Shika, Zaria, Nigeria 3Department of Human Physiology, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria 4Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria Abstracts: In Nigeria 30 million people suffer from this hypertension which is the main risk factor for stroke, and renal failure. Elevated levels of triglyceride, cholesterol and LDL-C are documented as risk factors for atherogenesis. LDL-C in its oxidized or acetylated form has been identified as a major atherogenic particle. Fifty two women between 19-32 years of age attending Primary Health Care center (PH C) in Kaduna and its environment were use in this study. Their height, weight and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were recorded. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using their height (m2) and weight (kg). On the basis of BMI, all participants were divided into three groups that is under weight whose BMI was less than 19 kg / m2, normal who’s BMI was between 19 and 26 kg / m2and overweight who’s BMI was more than 26 kg / m2. The mean BMI of the three groups in the 52......

Words: 9023 - Pages: 37

Free Essay

Yes Yes

...ISSUE REPORT F as in Fat: HOW OBESITY THREATENS AMERICA’S FUTURE 2010 JUNE 2010 PREVENTING EPIDEMICS. PROTECTING PEOPLE. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TRUST FOR AMERICA’S HEALTH IS A NON-PROFIT, NON-PARTISAN ORGANIZATION DEDICATED TO SAVING LIVES AND MAKING DISEASE PREVENTION A NATIONAL PRIORITY. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation focuses on the pressing health and health care issues facing our country. As the nation’s largest philanthropy devoted exclusively to improving the health and health care of all Americans, the Foundation works with a diverse group of organizations and individuals to identify solutions and achieve comprehensive, meaningful and timely change. For more than 35 years the Foundation has brought experience, commitment, and a rigorous, balanced approach to the problems that affect the health and health care of those it serves. Helping Americans lead healthier lives and get the care they need—the Foundation expects to make a difference in our lifetime. For more information, visit TFAH BOARD OF DIRECTORS Lowell Weicker, Jr. President Former three-term U.S. Senator and Governor of Connecticut Cynthia M. Harris, PhD, DABT Vice President Director and Associate Professor Institute of Public Health, Florida A & M University Robert T. Harris, MD Secretary Former Chief Medical Officer and Senior Vice President for Healthcare BlueCross BlueShield of North Carolina John W. Everets Treasurer Gail Christopher, DN Vice President for Health WK Kellogg...

Words: 4180 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Health Equity

...the Causes of the Causes Paula Braveman, MD, MPHa Laura Gottlieb, MD, MPHb ABSTRACT During the past two decades, the public health community’s attention has been drawn increasingly to the social determinants of health (SDH)—the factors apart from medical care that can be influenced by social policies and shape health in powerful ways. We use “medical care” rather than “health care” to refer to clinical services, to avoid potential confusion between “health” and “health care.” The World Health Organization’s Commission on the Social Determinants of Health has defined SDH as “the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age” and “the fundamental drivers of these conditions.” The term “social determinants” often evokes factors such as health-related features of neighborhoods (e.g., walkability, recreational areas, and accessibility of healthful foods), which can influence health-related behaviors. Evidence has accumulated, however, pointing to socioeconomic factors such as income, wealth, and education as the fundamental causes of a wide range of health outcomes. This article broadly reviews some of the knowledge accumulated to date that highlights the importance of social—and particularly socioeconomic— factors in shaping health, and plausible pathways and biological mechanisms that may explain their effects. We also discuss challenges to advancing this knowledge and how they might be overcome. University of California, San Francisco,......

Words: 9260 - Pages: 38

Free Essay

Psychosocial Variables and Self-Rated Health in Young Adult Obese Women

...Research journal homepage: Psychosocial variables and self-rated health in young adult obese women Mary Jane Smith, PhD, RN a,⁎, Laurie Theeke, PhD, FNP-BC a, 1, Stacey Culp, PhD a, 2, Karen Clark, MD b, 3, Susan Pinto, MSN, RN a, 4 a b WVU School of Nursing, PO Box 9600, Health Sciences Center South, Morgantown, WV 26506-9600 School of Medicine, Student Health Services, PO Box 9247, Health Sciences Center South, Morgantown, WV 26506-9247 a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 10 October 2013 Revised 4 November 2013 Accepted 4 November 2013 Keywords: Obesity Self-rated health Stress Loneliness Self-esteem a b s t r a c t Aim: The aim of this study is to describe relationships among self-rated health, stress, sleep quality, loneliness, and self-esteem, in obese young adult women. Background: Obesity has steadily increased among young adults and is a major predictor of self-rated health. Methods: A sample of 68 obese (BMI 30 or higher, mean 35), young (18–34 years, mean 22) adult women were recruited from a health center. Survey data were gathered and analyzed using descriptive and bivariate procedures to assess relationships and group differences. Results: Scores reflected stress, loneliness, poor sleep quality, and poor self-esteem. There were positive correlations among stress, loneliness, and sleep quality and, a high inverse correlation between loneliness and self-esteem. Those who ranked their......

Words: 5610 - Pages: 23

Free Essay

Knowledge and Behavior Towards Caffeinated and Carbonated Beverages Among High School Students

...Knowledge and Behavior towards Caffeinated and Carbonated Beverages among High School Students Chapter One Introduction of the Study Chapter one is divided into five parts: (1) Background and Theoretical Framework of the Study, (2) Statement of the Problem and Hypothesis, (3) Significance of the Study, (4) Definition of Terms, and (5) Delimitation of the Study. Part One, Background and Theoretical Framework of the Study, presents the rationale and the reasons why the study is being conducted. Likewise, it describes the theoretical basis of the study as well as the conceptual framework. Part Two, Statement of the Problem and Hypothesis, describes the general goal of the study and the specific questions to be answered in the study with corresponding hypothesis to be tested. Part Three, Significance of the Study, enumerates the different beneficiaries and corresponding benefits that they can derive from the results of the study. Part Four, Definition of Terms, lists alphabetically technical terms used in this study. These terms are defined conceptually and operationally. Part Five, Delimitation of the Study, identifies the scopes and limitations encountered during the conduct of the study. It identifies the variables, the subjects, research designs and statistical analysis procedures used in the study. Likewise, it specifies the location and time of the conduct of the study. Background and Theoretical Framework of the Study Soft drinks and sodas......

Words: 12041 - Pages: 49

Premium Essay

Case Analysis: Coca-Cola Co

...began; within five years large scale bottling operations became available. Throughout the company's history, and even today, it has faced and overcame many challenges. Coca-Cola was, until recently, the world’s most valuable brand (Elliott, 2013), but is still the worldwide leader in the beverage industry. Through all the successes, Coca-Cola has encountered some challenges along the way. Coca-Cola has been criticized for discrimination against minority employees, poor working conditions of migrant workers, and even assassinations of trade union leaders and union-affiliated workers that provoked protests (Raman, 2007). Another emerging issue the company is facing is criticism that their products are contributing to health issues such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, carcinogens, and numerous other reported problems (Chang & Rodolfo, 2009; Huilgol, 2006; Imai et al, 2010). Coca-Cola contains many different chemical compounds and is sold without labeling all of the contents (Huilgol, 2006; Imai et al, 2010). A report by CSE found a high pesticide content in Coca-Cola in India. The...

Words: 5834 - Pages: 24

Free Essay


...Nutrition and Academic Performance 1 NUTRITION AND ITS EFFECTS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE HOW CAN OUR SCHOOLS IMPROVE? By Amy Ross SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS EDUCATION AT NORTHERN MICHIGAN UNDERSITY July 28, 2010 APPROVED BY: DATE: Derek L. Anderson, Ed.D. August 2, 2010 Nutrition and Academic Performance 2 Table of contents Abstract ...…………………………………………………………………………………………3 Chapter I: Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….…4 Statement of Problems…………………………………………………………………….8 Research Questions…………………………………………………………………….…9 Definition of Terms ……………………………….…………………………………….10 Chapter II: Review of the Literature Nutrition and Cognition ………………………..……………………………………….11 Food Insufficiency …………………………..………………………………………….24 School Food Programs ……………………………...…………………………………..35 Chapter III: Results and Analysis …………………………..…………………………………..51 Chapter IV: Recommendations and Conclusion ……………………...………………………..54 References...………………………………………………………………………………..…...59 Nutrition and Academic Performance 3 Abstract The purpose of this paper was to review existing literature about past research that highlighted studies concerning nutrition and its relationship to brain function, cognition, learning, and social behaviors. There is evidence that school breakfast and lunch programs are not up to par with current United States Department of Agriculture standards and that USDA standards may not be utilizing the latest research...

Words: 16993 - Pages: 68

Free Essay

Social Marketing

...Social Marketing Campaigns and Children’s Media Use Social Marketing Campaigns and Children’s Media Use W. Douglas Evans Summary Media-related commercial marketing aimed at promoting the purchase of products and services by children, and by adults for children, is ubiquitous and has been associated with negative health consequences such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity. But, as Douglas Evans points out, not all marketing in the electronic media is confined to the sale of products. Increasingly savvy social marketers have begun to make extensive use of the same techniques and strategies used by commercial marketers to promote healthful behaviors and to counter some of the negative effects of conventional media marketing to children and adolescents. Evans points out that social marketing campaigns have been effective in helping to prevent and control tobacco use, increase physical activity, improve nutrition, and promote condom use, as well as other positive health behaviors. He reviews the evidence from a number of major recent campaigns and programming in the United States and overseas and describes the evaluation and research methods used to determine their effectiveness. He begins his review of the field of social marketing by describing how it uses many of the strategies practiced so successfully in commercial marketing. He notes the recent development of public health brands and the use of branding as a health promotion strategy. He then goes on ...

Words: 11255 - Pages: 46

Free Essay

Is Childhood Disappearing?

...Is Childhood Disappearing? 2012 Brendan Dolman Sociology, Unit 3 5/1/2012 Abstract This is a report to look at the social construct of Childhood and whether it is disappearing. This report explores the history of childhood and current socio cultural influences on modern day childhood. Is Childhood disappearing? Introduction I am interested in this subject area because childhood is a social construct which seems to be diminishing from society. This is of particular interest to me because childhood as we know it has only been about for the last century but now it seems that it is once again diminishing from society. I say this because when looking at childhood from 50 years ago and comparing it to childhood today there is a huge difference. Today toys seem to be targeted at children of ages 1-10 years old but not for children above that age (Manhattan Institute for Policy Research). Children seem to be pushed into the spotlight of adult activities such as the fashion and glamour world in the case of beauty pageants (Daily Mail Online 2011). There also seems to be more of a focus on older children playing on computer consoles with violent games which depict realistic and gruesome actions. These computer games also depict real life situations such as the war in Afghanistan and give these older children the opportunity to play as a soldier in this scenario. Content What is childhood? Childhood is not to be confused with being a child, it is a completely......

Words: 10061 - Pages: 41

Premium Essay


...nutrition is a powerful good: people who are well nourished are more likely to be healthy, productive and able to learn. Good nutrition benefits families, their communities and the world as a whole. Undernutrition is, by the same logic, devastating. It blunts the intellect, saps the productivity of everyone it touches and perpetuates poverty. Stunting - or low height for age - traps people into a lifelong cycle of poor nutrition, illness, poverty and inequity. The damage to physical and cognitive development, especially during the first two years of a child’s life, is largely irreversible. A child’s poorer school performance results in future income reductions of up to 22 per cent on average. As adults, they are also at increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN)   period from birth to two years of age is the “critical window” for the promotion of good growth, health, and behavioral and cognitive developmentmothers are empowered to initiate breastfeeding within one hour of birth, breastfeed exclusively for the first six months and continue to breastfeed for two years or more, together with nutritionally adequate, safe, age appropriate, responsive complementary feeding starting at six months.  Maternal nutrition is also important for ensuring good nutrition status of the infant as well as safeguarding women's health.  . The Deadly Opposition to Genetically Modified Food Vitamin A deficiency has killed 8 million kids in the......

Words: 10134 - Pages: 41

Premium Essay

Managing Change the NHS 12 13 14 18 2.1 How to access the models 2.2 How can we understand complexity, interdependence and fragmentation? Weisbord’s Six-Box Organisational Model 7S Model PESTELI Five Whys Content, Context and Process Model Soft Systems Methodology Process modelling Process flow Influence diagram Theory of Constraints (TOC) 22 25 25 27 29 30 32 34 36 37 38 39 40 40 42 43 45 46 47 48 48 50 54 54 55 56 56 58 2.3 Why do we need to change? SWOT analysis 2.4 Who and what can change? Force field analysis ‘Sources and potency of forces’ ‘Readiness and capability’ Commitment, enrolment and compliance Organisation-level change interventions Total Quality Management (TQM) Business Process Reengineering (BPR) Group-level change interventions Parallel learning structures Self-managed teams Individual-level change interventions Innovation research Securing individual behaviour change Managing Change in the NHS 2.5 How can we make change happen? Organisational development (OD) Organisational learning and the Learning Organisation Action research Project management 60 60 63 66 68 Part 3 Reflections on evidence 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Assistance with using available evidence Developing an evidence base Developing...

Words: 33529 - Pages: 135

Free Essay

Why Fingers Are Weird

...[pic] ICAK-USA Research The Following is a Compilation of Applied Kinesiology Research Papers Published in the Collected Papers of the International College of Applied Kinesiology for the year 2005-2006 -- Edited by Scott Cuthbert, D.C. Functional Systems Approach to Central Nervous System Evaluation Richard Belli, D.C., D.A.C.N.B. ABSTRACT Objective: This study investigates the clinical utility of testing functional systems within the central nervous system, compared to testing individual motor nerves with manual muscle testing. Design: Private practice. Study Subjects: Patients were examined by the treating chiropractor from his existing patient pool. Methods: Chiropractic management was decided on by the treating chiropractor. A series of twelve tests were designed to discover disorders of functional systems within the CNS. The tests described were to evaluate the function of 12 systems: 1) spinal cord, 2) myelencephalon/reticular formation, 3) vagal system, 4) trigeminal motor system-muscles of mastication, 5) vestibulospinal system, and bulbo reticular area, 6) reticular formation, 7) diencephalons and gait locomotion system, 8) mesencephalon, 9) cardiac sympathetic autonomic system, 10) pyramidal system, 11) limbic system, 12) sensory system. Results: This chiropractic approach tests the nervous system after provocation of functional......

Words: 29879 - Pages: 120

Premium Essay

Document Composition

...EFSA Scientific Report (2009) 231, 1-107 SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION AND ASSISTANCE SCIENTIFIC REPORT OF EFSA Review of the potential health impact of β-casomorphins and related peptides 1 Report of the DATEX Working Group on β-casomorphins (Question N° EFSA-Q-2008-379) Issued on 29 January 2009 WORKING GROUP MEMBERS Ivano De Noni, Richard J. FitzGerald, Hannu J. T. Korhonen, Yves Le Roux, Chris T. Livesey, Inga Thorsdottir, Daniel Tomé, Renger Witkamp. 1 For citation purposes: Scientific Report of EFSA prepared by a DATEX Working Group on the potential health impact of β-casomorphins and related peptides. EFSA Scientific Report (2009) 231, 1-107 © European Food Safety Authority, 2009 Review of the potential health impact of β-casomorphins and related peptides SUMMARY Proteins are a very diverse family of large organic compounds involved in many important biological processes. Following their enzymatic hydrolysis during food processing or digestion, proteins may release fragments from their primary amino acid sequence. These fragments are called peptides, and many of them are known to be physiologically active. The possible beneficial effects of bioactive peptides have attracted increasing interest in recent years. On the other hand, there are also reports suggesting that some food-derived peptides might adversely affect human health. Among these, β-casomorphin-7 (BCM7), a peptide sequence present in the milk protein β-casein, has been suggested......

Words: 50772 - Pages: 204