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Listen to This

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Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

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Lesson 1 'This Is Your Life' is one of the most popular programmes on British and American television. Every week a famous person is invited to a television studio, without knowing that he or she will be the subject of the programme. The compère meets the person outside the studio and says 'This is your life!' The person then meets friends and relatives from his or her past and present. Studio 4 is where the programme is recorded. The programme begins at eight o'clock. It's 6:45 now and the director is checking the preparations with his new production assistant (PA). The subject of tonight's show will be an actor, Jason Douglas. The compère, as usual, will be Terry Donovan. Director: Let's just check the arrangements. We're bringing Jason Douglas here in a studio car—he thinks he's coming to a discussion programme! The driver has been told to arrive at exactly 7:55. Now, the programme begins at eight o'clock. At that time Jason will be walking to the studio. Terry Donovan will start his introduction at 8:01, and Jason will arrive at 8:02. Terry will meet him at the studio entrance ... Camera 4 will be there. Then he'll take him to that seat. It'll be on Camera 3. Jason will be sitting there during the whole programme. For most of the show Terry will be standing in the middle, and he'll be on Camera 2. The guests will come through that door, talk to Terry and Jason ... and then sit over there. Director: Now, is that all clear? PA: Yes ... there's just one thing. Director: Well, what is it? PA: Who's going to look after the guests during the show? Director: Pauline is. PA: And where will they be waiting during the show? Director: In Room 401, as usual. Pauline will be waiting with them, and she'll be watching the show on the monitor. She'll tell them two minutes before they enter. PA: I think that's everything. Terry: Good evening and welcome to 'This is Your Life'. This is Terry Donovan speaking. We're waiting for the subject of tonight's programme. He's one of the world's leading actors, and he thinks he's coming here to take part in a discussion programme ... I can hear him now ... yes, here he is! Jason Douglas ... This is your life! Jason: Oh, no ... I don't believe it! Not me ... Terry: Yes, you! Now come over here and sit down. Jason, you were born at number 28 Balaclava Street in East Ham, London on July 2nd, 1947. You were one of six children, and your father was a taxi driver. Of course, your name was then Graham Smith. Terry: Now, do you know this voice? 'I remember Jason when he was two. He used to scream and shout all day.' Jason: Susan! Terry: Yes ... all the way from Sydney, Australia ... She flew here specially for this programme. It's your sister, Susan Fraser! Jason: Susan ... Why didn't you tell me ... oh, this is wonderful!
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Terry: Yes, you haven't seen each other for 13 years ... take a seat next to him, Susan. You started school at the age of five, in 1952, and in 1958 you moved to Lane End Secondary School. Terry: Do you remember this voice? 'Smith! Stop looking out of the window!' Jason: Oh, no! It's Mr. Hooper! Terry: Your English teacher, Mr. Stanley Hooper. Was Jason a good student, Mr. Hooper? Mr. Hooper: Eh? No, he was the worst in the class ... but he was a brilliant actor, even in those days. He could imitate all the teachers? Terry: Thank you, Mr. Hooper. You can speak to Jason, later. Well, you went to the London School of Drama in 1966, and left in 1969. In 1973 you went to Hollywood. Terry: Do you know this voice? 'Hi Jason ... Can you ride a horse yet?' Jason: Maria! Terry: Maria Montrose ... who's come from Hollywood to be with you tonight. Maria: Hello, Jason ... it's great to be here. Hello, Terry. Jason and I were in a movie together in 1974. Jason had to learn to ride a horse ... Well, Jason doesn't like horses very much. Jason: Like them! I'm terrified of them! Maria: Anyway, he practised for two weeks. Then he went to the director ... it was Charles Orson ... and said, 'What do you want me to do?' Charles said, 'I want you to fall off the horse'. Jason was furious. He said, 'What? Fall off! I've been practising for two weeks ... I could fall off the first day ... without any practice!'

Interviewer: Good morning, sir. I'm from radio station QRX, and I wonder if you'd mind answering a few questions for our survey today. David: Uh ... sure, why not? Interviewer: What's your name? David: Uh, my name is David George. Interviewer: David, what do you do for a living? David: I'm a professional baseball player. Interviewer: Really? David: Mm-hmm. Interviewer: That's terrific. What do you do for fun? David: Well, I like to read the classics—you know, Dickens, Shakespeare, ... uh ... books like that.

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Interviewer: Fabulous. And what's the most exciting thing that's happened to you recently? David: Just call me Dad. My wife and I ... uh ... had our first baby. Interviewer: Oh, (Yeah. A little girl.) that's wonderful. David: Mm-hmm. Interviewer: Who do you admire most in this world? David: Well, I admire my wife ... uh ... she's terrific. She's going to be a great mother, great mother. Interviewer: Terrific. What do you want to be doing five years from now? David: Well, ... uh ... five years from now I'd like to be a father of five. I'd like to have lots of kids around the house. Interviewer: That's fabulous. David: Yeah. Interviewer: Thanks very much for talking to us, David. David: Well, thank you. Interviewer: Good morning. I'm from radio station QRX, and I wondered if you'd mind answering a few questions today for our survey. Suzanne: Not at all. Interviewer: What's your name? Suzanne: Suzanne Brown. Interviewer: Suzanne, what do you do for a living? Suzanne: I'm a lawyer. Interviewer: A lawyer? And what do you do for fun? Suzanne: I like to run. Interviewer: Uh-huh. Running, like— Suzanne: Jogging. Interviewer: Jogging. And what's the most exciting thing that's happened to you recently? Suzanne: I got to run in the Boston Marathon. Interviewer: Congratulations. And who do you admire most in the world? Suzanne: Oh, well, I'd have to say Martin Luther King, Jr. Interviewer: Mmm, yes. And what do you want to be doing five years from today?
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Suzanne: Well, dare I say win the Boston Marathon? Interviewer: Wonderful. Thanks a lot for talking to us today, Suzanne. Suzanne: You're welcome. Interviewer: Good morning, sir. I'm from radio station QRX, and I wonder if you could answer a few questions for our survey this morning. Adolfo: Oh, yes, yes. Interviewer: What's your name? Adolfo: My name is Adolfo Vasquez. Interviewer: Adolfo, what do you do for a living? Adolfo: I'm a dancer. Interviewer: A dancer. And what do you do for fun? Adolfo: I watch ... uh ... musical movies. Interviewer: Musical movies. And what's the most exciting thing that's happened to you recently? Adolfo: Oh, about six years ago I moved to United States, (Uh-huh.) and that's quite exciting for me. Interviewer: Yes, that is very exciting. What do you—who do you admire most in the world? Adolfo: I admire a lot ... um ... Sophia Loren, the movie actress. Interviewer: I understand completely. (Mm-hmm.) What do you want to be doing five years from now? Adolfo: I like very much what I'm doing right now, so I really would like to keep doing it. Interviewer: Very good. (Mm-hmm.) Thanks for speaking to us today, Adolfo. Adolfo: Okay. You're welcome. Interviewer: Good morning, Miss. I'm from radio station QRX, and I wonder if you could answer a few questions for our survey. Linda: Sure. Interviewer: What's your name? Linda: Linda Montgomery. Interviewer: Linda, what do you do for a living? Linda: Uh, well, right now I'm going to beauty school.

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Interviewer: Beauty school? Linda: Yeah. Interviewer: Uh-huh. And what do you do for fun? Linda: Oh, what for fun, I hang out with my friends—you know, go for pizza, stuff like that. Interviewer: I understand. What's the most exciting thing that's happened to you recently? Linda: Oh, this was so great! (Yeah?) Four of my friends and I, we went to a Bruce Springsteen concert. We actually—we got tickets. Interviewer: Wonderful. Linda: It was the best. Interviewer: Who do you admire most in the world? Linda: Who do I admi—I guess (Mm-hmm.) my dad, (Uh-huh.) probably my dad. Yeah. Interviewer: And what do you want to be doing five years from now? Linda: I would love it if I could have my own beauty salon. Interviewer: Uh-huh. Linda: That would be great. Interviewer: Thanks very much for talking to us today. Linda: Okay.

Announcer: And now, at 10:50 it's time for "In Your Own Words", in which we interview people with unusual stories to tell. Here to introduce the programme is Patricia Newell. Good morning, Patricia. Patricia: Good morning, and good morning everyone. With me in the studio now is this morning's guest, Trevor Cartridge. Good morning, Trevor. Trevor: Good morning, Patricia. Patricia: Trevor, you have one of the most unusual stories I've ever heard. Yet, nowadays, you seem to lead a very ordinary life. Trevor: Yes, Patricia. I'm a dentist. I live and work in London. Patricia: But at one time you used to have a different job? Trevor: Yes, I was a soldier. Patricia: A soldier? Trevor: That's right. Patricia: And how long ago was that?
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Trevor: Oh, about two thousand years ago. Patricia: That's right. Trevor Cartridge believes that he was a soldier in the army of Julius Caesar. He remembers coming to Britain with the Roman army two thousand years ago. Trevor, tell us your remarkable story ... in your own words! Trevor: Well, funnily enough, it all began because I wanted to give up smoking. Patricia: Give up smoking! Trevor: Mm, I used to smoke too much and I tried to give up several times, but I always started smoking again a few days later. In the end I went to a hypnotist. He hypnotized me, and I stopped smoking at once. I was delighted, as you can imagine. Patricia: Yes? Trevor: That made me very interested in hypnotism, and I talked to the hypnotist about it. He told me that some people could remember their past lives when they were hypnotized, and he asked if I wanted to try. I didn't believe it at first, but in the end I agreed. He hypnotized me, and sure enough, I remembered. I was a Roman soldier in Caesar's army. Patricia: You didn't believe it at first? Trevor: I didn't believe it before we tried the experiment. Now I'm absolutely convinced it's true. Patricia: What do you remember? Trevor: Oh, all kinds of things, but the most interesting thing I remember is the night we landed in Britain. Patricia: You remember that? Trevor: Oh yes. It was a terrible, stormy night. There were a hundred or more of us in the boat. We were all shut in, because the weather was so bad and most people were sick, because it was very stuffy. There was a terrible smell of petrol, I remember. Lots of men thought we should go back to France. It wasn't called 'France' then, of course. Patricia: And there was a smell of petrol? Trevor: Yes, it was terrible. The weather got worse and worse. We thought we were going to die. In the end the boat was pushed up onto the sands, and we climbed out. I remember jumping into the water and struggling to the beach. The water was up to my shoulders and it was a freezing night. A lot of men were killed by the cold or drowned in the storm, but I managed to get ashore. Patricia: You did? Trevor: Yes. There were about ten survivors from our boat, but even then our troubles weren't over. We found a farmhouse, but it was deserted. When the people read the newspapers, and knew that we were coming, they were terrified. They took all their animals and all their food, and ran away into the hills. Of course, there were no proper roads in those days. Well, we went into the house and tried to light a fire, but we couldn't even do that. We always kept matches in our trousers' pockets, so naturally they were all soaked. We couldn't find anything to eat, except one tin of cat food. We were so hungry, we broke it open with our knives, and ate it. We found a tap, but the water was frozen.

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In the end we drank rainwater from the tin. We sat very close together and tried to keep warm. We could hear wolves but we didn't have any weapons, because our guns were full of seawater. By the morning, the storm was over. We went on to the beach and found what was left of the boat. We managed to find some food, and we hoped there was some wine too, but when we opened the box all the bottles were broken. Patricia: So what happened? Trevor: We waited. Finally another boat came and took us away, and we joined the other soldiers. I remember going into the camp, and getting a hot meal, and clean clothes. It was wonderful. We were given our pay, too. I remember the date on the coins, 50 BC. It was an exciting time. Patricia: And did you stay in Britain? Trevor: Oh yes, I was here for five years, from 50 BC to 55 BC. I enjoyed my stay in Britain very much. Patricia: And then you went back to Rome? Trevor: I can't remember anything after that. Patricia: Well, Trevor Cartridge, thank you for telling us your story, in your own words.

(1) Bob, do you think you could possibly turn off that radio? I'm (pause) trying to write a letter. (2) A: I don't want a double room. I want a single room. B: I'm sorry, sir, but I'm afraid 43 (pause) is the only single room available at the moment. (3) A: Just look what I've got. B: Let me see. Fifty pounds! (pause) Where on earth did you get it? (4) A: Oh bother the Sex Discrimination Act. Surely they can't force me to take on a married woman. B: They can't force you to, Mr. Clark, but (pause) you mustn't discriminate against someone just because they're married. (5) A: I'm glad I'm not a princess. It must be a dreadful life. B: Dreadful? (pause) I wouldn't mind being a prince. (6) I'm a reasonably hard-working person. But (pause) I'm not a workaholic. (7) A: Had your brother been nervous about it himself? B: Well, he didn't say, but possibly (pause) he had been.

The Knowledge Becoming a London taxi driver isn't easy. In order to obtain a licence to drive a taxi in London, candidates have to pass a detailed examination. They have to learn not only the streets, landmarks and hotels, but also the quickest way to get there. This is called 'The Knowledge' by London cab drivers and it can take years of study and practice to get 'The Knowledge'. Candidates are examined not only on the quickest routes but also on the quickest routes at different times of the day. People who want to pass the examination spend much of their free time driving or even cycling around London, studying maps and learning the huge street directory by heart.

The Underground Travelling on the London underground (the 'tube') presents few difficulties for visitors because
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of the clear colour-coded maps. It is always useful to have plenty of spare change with you because there are often long queues at the larger stations. If you have enough change you can buy your ticket from a machine. You will find signs which list the stations in alphabetical order, with the correct fares, near the machines. There are automatic barriers which are operated by the tickets. You should keep the ticket, because it is checked at the destination.

Lesson 2 Interviewer: Is film editing a complicated job? Film Editor: Oh yes, a lot of people probably don't know how complicated a job it can be. It's far more than just sticking pieces of film together. Interviewer: How long does it take to edit a film? Film Editor: Well, it depends. You can probably expect to edit a 10-minute film in about a week. A 35-minute documentary, like the one I'm editing at present, takes a minimum of four to five weeks to edit. Interviewer: Can you explain to me how film editing works? Film Editor: There are different steps. 'Synching up', for example. Interviewer: What do you mean by synching up? Film Editor: It means matching sound and pictures and that is usually done by my assistant. The film and the sound tape have numbers stamped along the edge which have to be matched. The details of the film and the sound are also recorded in a log book, so it's quick and easy to find a particular take and its soundtrack. This operation is called logging and is again done by my assistant. Interviewer: So what do you usually do yourself? Film Editor: A lot of things, of course. First, I have to view all the material to make a first selection of the best takes. There's a lot of film to look through because to make a sequence work the way you want, you need a lot of shots to choose from. Interviewer: Does that mean that you have to discard sequences? Film Editor: Oh yes. On average for every foot of edited film, you need twelve times as much unedited film and therefore you have to compromise and, of course, discard some of it. Interviewer: What do you do after selecting the material? Film Editor: First of all, I prepare an initial version of the film, a 'rough cut' as it is called. That means that I actually cut the film into pieces and stick them together again in the new order. Interviewer: And after this 'rough cut' what happens? Film Editor: Well, after the 'rough cut' comes the 'fine cut' when the film takes its final form. The producer and the director come in for a viewing. Some small changes may then be necessary, but when the 'fine cut' has been approved by everyone, this is the final version of the film.

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Interviewer: At this point is the film ready for distribution? Film Editor: Oh no. After the final version of the film has been approved, there is the dubbing, there are voices, music, background noises and sometimes special effects to be put together for the soundtrack. And after the dubbing, the edited film is sent to the 'neg' cutters. Interviewer: What do the 'neg' cutters do? Film Editor: They cut the original negatives on the films, so that these match the edited film exactly. And after all that comes the best part—I can sit down quietly with my feet up and enjoy watching the film!

Man: Hi. Woman: Hi. Man: What'd you do last night? Woman: I watched TV. There was a really good movie called Soylent Green. Man: Soylent Green? Woman: Yeah. Charlton Heston was in it. Man: What's it about? Woman: Oh, it's about life in New York in the year 2022. Man: I wonder if New York will still be here in 2022. Woman: In this movie, in 2022 ... Man: Yeah? Woman: ... New York has forty million people. Man: Ouch! Woman: And twenty million of them are unemployed. Man: How many people live in New York now? About seven or eight million? Woman: Yeah, I think that's right. Man: Mm-hmm. You know, if it's hard enough to find an apartment now in New York City, what's it going to be like in 2022? Woman: Well, in this movie most people have no apartment. So thousands sleep on the steps of buildings. (Uh-huh.) People who do have a place to live have to crawl over sleeping people to get inside. And there are shortages of everything. The soil is so polluted that nothing will grow. (Ooo.) And the air is so polluted they never see the sun. It's really awful. Man: I think I'm going to avoid going to New York City in the year 2022. Woman: And there was this scene where the star, Charlton Heston, goes into a house where some very
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rich people live. Man: Uh-huh. Woman: He can't believe it, because they have running water and they have soap. Man: Really? Woman: And then he goes into the kitchen and they have tomatoes and lettuce and beef. He almost cries because he's never seen real food in his life, you know, especially the beef. It was amazing for him. Man: Well, if most people have no real food, what do they eat? Woman: They eat something called soylent. Man: Soylent? Woman: Yeah. There's soylent red and soylent yellow and soylent green. The first two are made out of soybeans. But the soylent green is made out of ocean plants. (Ugh.) The people eat it like crackers. That's all they have to eat. Man: That sounds disgusting. Woman: Well, you know, it really isn't that far from reality. Man: No? Woman: Yeah. Because, you know the greenhouse effect that's beginning now and heating up the earth ... Man: Oh, yeah, I've heard about that. Woman: ... because we're putting the pollutants in the atmosphere, you know? Man: Mm-hmm. Woman: I mean, in this movie New York has ninety degrees weather all year long. And it could really happen. Uh ... like now, we ... we have fuel shortages. And in the movie there's so little electricity that people have to ride bicycles to make it. Man: You know something? I don't think that movie is a true prediction of the future. Woman: I don't know. It scares me. I think it might be. Man: Really? Woman: Well, yeah. The native Americans, the people we call the 'Indians', had been in America for many thousands of years before Christopher Columbus arrived in 1492. Columbus thought he had arrived in India, so he called the native people 'Indians'. The Indians were kind to the early settlers. They were not afraid of them and they wanted to help them. They showed the settlers the new world around them; they taught them about the local crops like sweet potatoes, corn and peanuts; they introduced the Europeans to chocolate and to the turkey;

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and the Europeans did business with the Indians. But soon the settlers wanted bigger farms and more land for themselves and their families. More and more immigrants were coming from Europe and all these people needed land. So the Europeans started to take the land from the Indians. The Indians had to move back into the centre of the continent because the settlers were taking all their land. The Indians couldn't understand this. They had a very different idea of land from the Europeans. For the Indians, the land, the earth, was their mother. Everything came from their mother, the land, and everything went back to it. The land was for everyone and it was impossible for one man to own it. How could the White Man divide the earth into parts? How could he put fences round it, buy it and sell it? Naturally, when the White Man started taking all the Indians' land, the Indians started fighting back. They wanted to keep their land, they wanted to stop the White Man taking it all for himself. But the White Man was stronger and cleverer. Slowly he pushed the Indians into those parts of the continent that he didn't want—the parts where it was too cold or too dry or too mountainous to live comfortably. By 1875 the Indians had lost the fight: they were living in special places called 'reservations'. But even here the White Man took land from them—perhaps he wanted the wood, or perhaps the land had important minerals in it, or he even wanted to make national parks there. So even on their reservations the Indians were not safe from the White Man. There are many Hollywood films about the fight between the Indians and the White Man. Usually in these films the Indians are bad and the White Man is good and brave. But was it really like that? What do you think? Do you think the Indians were right or wrong to fight the White Man?

Interviewer: Today, there are more than 15 million people living in Australia. Only 160,000 of these are Aborigines, so where have the rest come from? Well, until 1850 most of the settlers came from Britain and Ireland and, as we know, many of these were convicts. Then in 1851 something happened which changed everything. Gold was discovered in southeastern Australia. During the next ten years, nearly 700,000 people went to Australia to find gold and become rich. Many of them were Chinese. China is quite near to Australia. Since then many different groups of immigrants have gone to Australia for many different reasons. Today I'm going to talk to Mario whose family came from Italy and to Helena from Greece. Mario, when did the first Italians arrive in Australia? Mario: The first Italians went there, like the Chinese, in the gold-rushes, hoping to find gold and become rich. But many also went there for political reasons. During the 1850s and 1860s different states in Italy were fighting for independence and some Italians were forced to leave their homelands because they were in danger of being put in prison for political reasons. Interviewer: I believe there are a lot of Italians in the sugar industry. Mario: Yes, that's right. In 1891 the first group of 300 Italians went to work in the sugarcane fields of northern Australia. They worked very hard and many saved enough money to buy their own land. In this way they came to dominate the sugar industry on many parts of the Queensland coast. Interviewer: But not all Italians work in the sugar industry, do they? Mario: No. A lot of them are in the fishing industry. Italy has a long coastline, as you know, and Italians have always been good fishermen. At the end of the nineteenth century some of these went to western Australia to make a new life for themselves. Again, many of them, including my grandfather, were successful. Interviewer: And what about the Greeks, Helena? Helena: Well, the Greeks are the fourth largest national group in Australia, after the British, the Irish and the Italians. Most Greeks arrived after the Second World War but in the 1860s there were already about 500 Greeks living in Australia.
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Interviewer: So when did the first Greeks arrive? Helena: Probably in 1830, they went to work in vineyards in southeastern Australia. The Greeks have been making wine for centuries so their experience was very valuable. Interviewer: But didn't some of them go into the coalmines? Helena: Yes, they weren't all able to enjoy the pleasant outdoor life of the vineyards. Some of them went to work in the coalmines in Sydney. Others started cafes and bars and restaurants. By 1890 there were Greek cafes and restaurants all over Sydney and out in the countryside (or the bush, as the Australians call it) as well. Interviewer: And then, as you said, many Greeks arrived after the Second World War, didn't they? Helena: Yes, yes, that's right. Conditions in Greece were very bad: there was very little work and many people were very poor. Australia needed more workers and so offered to pay the boat fare. People who already had members of their family in Australia took advantage of this offer and went to find a better life there. Interviewer: Well, thank you, Mario and Helena. Next week we will be talking to Juan from Spain and Margaret from Scotland. (1) A: It doesn't sound much like dancing to me. B: It is; it's great. A: More like some competition in the Olympic Games. C: Yeah. It's (pause) good exercise. Keeps you fit. (2) A: But you can't just start dancing in the street like that. B: Why not? We take the portable cassette recorder and when we find a nice street, we (pause) turn the music up really loud and start dancing. (3) A: We have competitions to see who can do it the fastest without falling over. Malc's the winner so far. B: Yeah, I'm the best. I teach the others but (pause) they can't do it like me yet. (4) A: You're reading a new book, John? B: Yes. Actually, (pause) it's a very old book. (5) A: Now, can you deliver all this to my house? B: Certainly. Just (pause) write your address and I'll get the boy to bring them round. (6) A: Good. I've made a nice curry. I hope you do like curry? B: Yes, I love curry, I used to work in India, as a matter of fact. A: Really? How interesting. You must (pause) tell us all about it over dinner. The Foolish Frog Once upon a time a big, fat frog lived in a tiny shallow pond. He knew every plant and stone in it, and he could swim across it easily. He was the biggest creature in the pond, so he was very important. When he croaked, the water snails listened politely. And the water beetles always swam behind him. He was very happy there. One day, while he was catching flies, a pretty dragon fly passed by. 'You're a very fine frog,' she sang, 'but why don't you live in a bigger pond? Come to my pond. You'll find a lot of frogs there.

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You'll meet some fine fish, and you'll see the dangerous ducks. And you must see our lovely water lilies. Life in a large pond is wonderful!' 'Perhaps it is rather dull here,' thought the foolish frog. So he hopped after the dragon fly. But he didn't like the big, deep pond. It was full of strange plants. The water snails were rude to him, and he was afraid of the ducks. The fish didn't like him, and he was the smallest frog there. He was lonely and unhappy. He sat on a water lily leaf and croaked sadly to himself, 'I don't like it here. I think I'll go home tomorrow.' But a hungry heron flew down and swallowed him up for supper. Lesson 3 Clerk: Hello, sir. What can I do for you? Customer: Hi. Uh ... I have this ... uh ... cassette player (Mm-hmm.) here that I bought about six months ago. And it just ruined four of my favourite cassettes. Clerk: Oh dear, I'm sorry. Customer: So I ... um ... wanted you to fix it. I'm sure it will be no problem, right? Clerk: Your sales slip, please? Customer: Yeah, here it is. Uh. Clerk: I'm sorry, sir. Your warranty's expired. Customer: Well, it ... uh ... ran out ten days ago, but I'm sure that you'll ... you'll ... fix the machine for free, because the machine was obviously defective when I bought it. I ... Clerk: I'm sorry, sir. Your warranty has run out. There's nothing I can do. Customer: No. No, look. No. I didn't drop it off a building or anything. I mean, what difference can ten days make? I mean you ... you can— Clerk: Sir, I'm sorry, we have the six-month rule for a reason. We can't ... Customer: Well, but you can bend the rule a little bit. Clerk: ... make an exception for you. Then we'll have to make an exception for everybody. (Well, but look ...) You could say it's only a month, it's only two months. Customer: I just lost twenty dollars worth of tapes. Clerk: Sir, I'm sorry, it's too late. Customer: It actually ate the tapes. I mean, they're destroyed. I mean— Clerk: Well, sir, you knew (I ...) when your warranty ran out. You should (Well ...) have brought it in before. It was (Well ... look ...) guaranteed for six months. I'm sorry, there's nothing I can do. Customer: Paying for this is adding insult to injury. I mean, surely you're going to make good on this cassette player. It's ... it's ... it's a good cassette player, but it's just defective. I mean, I can't pay for this.
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Clerk: Well, sir, I'm sorry, you should have brought it in earlier. Customer: But surely you won't hold me to ten days on this. Clerk: Sir, the rules are the rules. I'm sorry, but there's nothing I can do. Norma: You know, Brian, it doesn't look like you've vacuumed the living room or cleaned the bathroom. Brian: No, I haven't. Ugh. I had the worst day. I am so tired. Look, I promise I'll do it this weekend. Norma: Listen, I know the feeling. I'm tired, too. But I came home and I did my share of the housework. I mean, that's the agreement, right? Brian: All right. We agreed. I'll do it in a minute. Norma: Come on. Don't be that way. You know, (What?) I shouldn't have to ask you to do anything. I mean, we both work, we both live in the house, we agreed that housework is ... is both of our responsibility. I don't like to have to keep reminding you about it. It makes me feel like an old nag or something. Brian: Sometimes you are an old nag. Norma: Oh, great! Brian: No, it's just that I don't notice when things get dirty like you do. Look, all you have to do is tell me, and I'll do it. Norma: No, I don't want to be put in that position. I mean, you can see dirt as well as I can. Otherwise—I mean, that puts all the responsibility on me. Brian: It's just that cleanliness is not a high priority with me. There are other things I would much rather do. Besides, the living room floor does not look that dirty. Norma: Brian. Brian: Okay, a couple crumbs. Bob: Mr. Weaver, I have been with this company now for five years. And I've always been very loyal to the company. And I feel that I've worked quite hard here. And I've never been promoted. It's getting to the point now in my life where, you know, I need more money. I would like to buy a car. I'd like to start a family, and maybe buy a house, all of which is impossible with the current salary you're paying me. Mr. Weaver: Bob, I know you've been with the company for a while, but raises here are based on merit, not on length of employment. Now, you do your job adequately, but you don't do it well enough to deserve a raise at this time. Now, I've told you before, to earn a raise you need to take more initiative and show more enthusiasm for the job. Uh, for instance, maybe find a way to make the office run more efficiently. Bob: All right. Maybe I could show a little more enthusiasm. I still think that I work hard here. But a company does have at least an obligation to pay its employees enough to live on. And the salary I'm getting here isn't enough. The rent's rising. The price of food is going up. The reflation is high, and I can barely cover my expenses.

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Mr. Weaver: Bob, again, I pay people what they're worth to the company, now, not what they think they need to live on comfortably. If you did that the company would go out of business. Bob: Yes, but I have ... I have been here for five years and I have been very loyal. And it's absolutely necessary for me to have a raise or I cannot justify keeping this job any more. Mr. Weaver: Well, that's a decision you'll have to make for yourself, Bob. Here is an extract from a radio talk on marriage customs in different parts of the world by Professor Robin Stuart: Despite the recent growth in the number of divorces, we in the West still tend to regard courtship and marriage through the eyes of a Hollywood producer. For us it's a romantic business. Boy meets girl, boy falls in love with girl, boy asks girl to marry him, girl accepts. Wedding, flowers, big celebration. But in other parts of the world things work differently. In India, for instance, arranged marriage is still very common. An intermediary, usually a married lady, learns that a young man wishes to get married and she undertakes to find him a suitable bride. The young couple meet for the first time on the day of the wedding. In Japan, too, arranged marriages still take place. But there things are organized in a different way. A girl wishes to find a husband, and the girl's mother, or an aunt perhaps, approaches the mother of a suitable young man and the young couple are introduced. They get a chance to have a look at one another and if one of them says 'Oh, no, I could never marry him or her', they call the whole thing off. But if they like one another, then the wedding goes ahead. In parts of Africa, a man is allowed to have several wives. Now that sounds fine from the man's point of view, but in fact the man is taking on a great responsibility. When he takes a new wife and buys her a nice present, he has to buy all his other wives presents of equal value and, although we are obviously speaking of a male-dominated society, the wives often become very close and so, if there is a disagreement in the family, the husband has three or four wives to argue with instead of just one. Now, most listeners, being used to the Western style of courtship and marriage, will assume that this is the best system and the one with the greatest chance of producing a happy marriage. But pause and reflect. Marriage must always be something of a gamble. Going out with somebody for six months is very different from being married to them for six years. It is true that American women, brought up in the United States, who married Africans and went to live in Africa, have sometimes found it exceedingly difficult to assume the role of the wife of an African living in Africa. However, my observations have led me to believe that various forms of arranged marriage have just as much chance of bringing happiness to the husband and wife as our Western system of choosing marriage partners.

Dentist: There we are. Now, open wide. Now, this won't hurt a bit. You won't feel a thing. Patient: Aaaagh! Dentist: Come along, now. Open your mouth. I can't give you the injection with your mouth closed, can I? Patient: I ... I ... I don't want an injection. I hate needles. Dentist: But it won't hurt you, I promise. None of us likes injections but sometimes they're necessary. Patient: It will hurt, I know. Dentist: Not at all. Look, I often deal with little children and they never complain; they're always very brave. Now, open wide.
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Patient: I don't want an injection. Dentist: But how else can I take out your tooth? It would hurt even more without an injection, wouldn't it? And the reason we're taking it out is because it's hurting you, isn't it? Once you've had an injection and I've taken out the tooth you won't have any more pain at all. So let's be brave. Open wide. Patient: Aaaagh. Dentist: But I haven't touched you yet. What are you shouting for? Patient: You're going to touch me. Dentist: Well, of course I am. I can't give you an injection without touching you. As soon as you've had the injection your gum will freeze and you won't feel a thing. Patient: How do I know what you'll do while I'm asleep? You might rob me. Dentist: Now, let's not be silly. You won't go to sleep. We don't do that nowadays. This will just freeze the area around the tooth so that you can't feel any pain while I'm pulling out the tooth. That's all. You won't go to sleep. You can watch everything I do in that mirror above you. Come along now. Patient: I don't want to watch. I'll faint. Dentist: Then don't look in the mirror. But there won't be a lot of blood. I promise you. Patient: Blood! Blood! Why did you have to say that? I can't afford to lose any blood. Dentist: Now let's not be silly. You can't take out a tooth without losing some blood. Patient: Blood ...! Dentist: But it's a tiny amount. You'll make it up in a day. Patient: A night. Dentist: All right, in a night, then. But as I said it's only a small amount of blood ... Patient: Blood! Blood! Dentist: ... and it isn't going to kill you. Patient: Kill! Kill! Dentist: Oh, don't be silly; of course it won't. You can't die from having a tooth pulled out. Patient: Die! Die! Dentist: I shall get cross in a minute. Patient: Cross! Cross!

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Dentist: Now look, I've had just about enough of this. You come in here screaming in pain, saying that you've been in agony all night because you bit on a bone or something, and you ask me to do something to stop the pain but the minute I do try to do something you won't let me. Now, just what exactly am I expected to do? You're a grown man and I'm a very busy lady. I have a lot of patients waiting in the other room and you're taking up my time, which is very expensive. Now, pull yourself together and let's get on with it. Patient: I can't. Couldn't you just give me some painkillers? Dentist: Well, I could, but that isn't going to solve the problem. On the other hand, perhaps that's the best thing if you're so nervous about me doing the extraction today. Yes, perhaps that's best. You take some painkillers and let's make an appointment for next week when you're feeling less nervous. Now, which day would you like, Mr. ...? Sorry I didn't catch your name. Patient: Dracula.

Man: Rose (hic). Rose (hic). Rosemary. Can (hic) can you (hic) help me? Rosemary: What's the mater? Oh, you've got the hiccups. Man: I've had them for (hic) three hours (hic, hic). Rosemary: Oh, there must be something we can do. Now, what are the different remedies for hiccups? Man: I've tried everything (hic) I can think of. Rosemary: Have you tried holding your breath? Man: I've tried (hic) holding it (hic) but I hiccuped. Rosemary: Well, you obviously haven't held it long enough. Man: How can (hic) I hold it long enough when I (hic) hiccup in the middle? Rosemary: Now what's the other thing I've heard? Now come along, something to do with a glass of water. That's right, you have to drink from the other side of a glass. Have you tried that? Man: Well, how (hic) do you mean (hic) drink (hic) from the other side of a glass? Rosemary: Well, you know how you drink normally ... Man: Yes (hic). Rosemary: Then you drink from the opposite side. Man: You mean (hic) you turn the glass round (hic)? Rosemary: You bend over with your head towards the floor, then you put your lips to the far side of the glass and you try to drink it like that. Man: Ah, (hic) you mean like this? Rosemary: Oh no, you're getting it all over the carpet. Now what's the other thing? Key down the back of your neck.
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Man: No (hic), that's for when your ... your nose's bleeding. Rosemary: Oh, is it? What about a coin on your forehead? Man: I've never (hic, hic) heard of that (hic). Rosemary: Now what's that other thing for hiccups? A shock, a shock. I'll have to frighten you ... Erm ... let me burst a paper bag. Man: (Hic) But (hic) I know you (hic) are going to frighten me so I (hic) won't be frightened, will I? (Hic) Rosemary: Now what else is there? Now, look, I know. I'll give you five pounds if you hiccup again, you give me five pounds if you can't. Man: Yes, all right. Rosemary: Did you understand what I said? Man: Of course I did. You give me five pounds if I hiccup again. Rosemary: Yes, but you stopped hiccuping, so that means you owe me five pounds. Man: Oh, no! (1) A: But the whole office complains that I smell of garlic for a week after we've been to the French restaurant. B: Well, how about (pause) the Chinese then? (2) A: Look,if you're determined to eat, why don't you go down to the take away and bring us back a nice packet of fish and chips? B: Fish and chips? A: Well, it's better than nothing, isn't it? Go on. It's down the road and if you're quick, (pause) they'll still be hot when you get back. (3) A: Hurry up and you'll be in time for the next programme. B: Not if (pause) there's a queue. (4) A: Hi George. Where are you off to? B: Home, do you want to come and listen to some jazz? A: Yes, that sounds (pause) a good idea. (5) A: But I don't think I'm going to take it. B: Why not? Not enough money? A: No, it's not that; the money's good. About 200 a week. It's just that we'll be working in a hotel playing for the tourists and they just want the same old tunes over and over to dance to and I get so bored. It's not like playing music, it's like being a machine. B: I wouldn't mind (pause) being a machine for that money. (6) But if all I wanted was money I could do an ordinary job. I play drums because (pause) I want to play drums. Sleep

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It's clear that everyone needs to sleep. Most people rarely think about how and why they sleep, however. We know that if we sleep well, we feel rested. If we don't sleep enough, we often feel tired and irritable. It seems there are two purposes of sleep: physical rest and emotional or psychological rest. We need to rest our bodies and our minds. Both are important in order for us to be healthy. Each night we alternate between two kinds of sleep: active sleep and passive sleep. The passive sleep gives our body the rest that's needed and prepares us for active sleep, in which dreaming occurs. Throughout the night, people alternate between passive and active sleep. The brain rests, then it becomes active, then dreaming occurs. The cycle is repeated: the brain rests, then it becomes active, then dreaming occurs. This cycle is repeated several times throughout the night. During eight hours of sleep, people dream for a total of one and half hours on the average.

Lesson 4 Announcer: And now over to Marsha Davenport for today's weather forecast. Marsha? Weather reporter: Thanks, Peter. Well, as you can see from the weather map, there's varied weather activity across the United States and Canada today. Let's start with the west coast, where it's raining from British Columbia down to northern California. The high in Seattle will be 50 degrees. Southern California will be in better shape today—they'll have sunny skies and warmer temperatures. We're looking for a high of 78 degrees in San Diego. The mid-west will be having clear but windy weather. Oklahoma City will see a high of 65 and sunny skies, with very strong winds. Down in Houston we're looking for cloudy skies and a high of 69. Over to the east in Miami we expect the thermometer to reach 64 degrees, but it'll be cloudy and quite windy. Up in the northeast, it looks like winter just won't let go! New York City will be having another day of heavy rains, high winds, and cold temperatures, with a high of only 35 degrees expected. Further north in Montreal it's even colder—28 degrees, with snow flurries expected today. Over in Toronto it's sunny but a cold 30 degrees. And that's this morning's weather forecast. We'll have a complete weather update today at noon. News anchor: Good evening. I'm Charles McKay, and this is the 5 o'clock evening news. The top story this hour: The town of Delta has been declared a health hazard. The entire town of Delta was closed down by government authorities yesterday, after testing confirmed that the town had been poisoned by the dumping of toxic chemicals in town dumps. Suspicions were first aroused three weeks ago, when 200 people telephoned the hospital complaining of headaches, stomachaches, faintness, and dizziness. An investigation revealed that toxic wastes had leaked into the ground and contaminated the water supply. People were being poisoned by their drinking water and by the fruits and vegetables they were eating from their gardens. In fact, any contact they had with soil or water was dangerous. Government authorities have ordered all residents to leave the area until the chemical company responsible for the toxic waste can determine whether the town can be cleaned up and made safe again. And now here's Sarah Cooper with tonight's Consumer Report. Sarah? Consumer reporter: Thank you Charles, and good evening. There was some good news for beer drinkers today: A recent study of 17,000 Canadians shows that people who drink beer moderately are healthier than people who drink other alcoholic beverages, such as wine or liquor. Researchers say they don't yet know exactly why this is so. They found, however, that moderate beer drinkers reported less illness and appeared to have a lower risk of death from heart disease. Good health seemed to be connected to the amount of beer consumed and the regularity of drinking. People who drank beer one or more times a day reported the least amount of illness. Heavy drinkers, however—people who drank 35 or more pints of beer a week—reported more illness. The war against cigarette smoking is heating up again. Legislation was introduced today that would make it illegal to advertise cigarettes, cigars, or any other tobacco product in any form of media. That means ads would be banned from newspapers, magazines, television, radio, and billboards. The legislation would also prevent tobacco manufacturers from sponsoring sporting events and from giving away free samples. This is the strongest anti-smoking legislation that has been introduced to date. Cigarette manufacturers insist that the legislation would be useless. In fact, they claim
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that in parts of the country where advertising has already been prohibited, cigarette smoking has actually increased. That concludes the Consumer Report for tonight. Let's go over now to Jerry Ryan and find out what's happening in the world of sports. Jerry? Sports announcer: Thanks, Sarah, and good evening sports fans. It was an exciting day in world soccer. Mexico defeated France 7 to 6, in a close game that offered spectators plenty of excitement. The game between Canada and Argentina ended in a tie, 3 to 3. And in a game that's still in progress, Italy is leading Haiti 2 to 1, with 30 minutes left to go. Tune in tonight at 11 for a complete sports update. Reporter: Well here I am at the Brooklyn Academy of Dramatic Arts. I'm asking different students here about their favourite forms of artistic entertainment. Pop or classical concerts? Art galleries or the theatre? The ballet or the opera? The first person I'm going to talk to is Benny Gross. Benny comes from New York and he's 20 years old and he's studying the piano. Benny, hello and welcome to our programme. Benny: Hi, thanks. Reporter: So, first question Benny—have you ever been to an art gallery? Benny: Yes, lots of times. Reporter: And the ballet, have you ever been to the ballet? Benny: Yes, a few times. It's all right, I quite like it. Reporter: And what about classical concerts? Benny: Yes, of course, many many times. Reporter: Erm—next—have you ever been to an exhibition, Benny? Benny: Oh, yes—I love going to photographic exhibitions. Reporter: Do you? Now, next question—what about a ... folk concert? Benny: No, never. I think folk music is awful. Reporter: Ok. And the opera? Have you ever been to the opera? Benny: Yes. Two or three times. It's a little difficult but I quite like it. Reporter: And a pop concert? Benny: No, never. Reporter: And finally—have you ever been to the theatre? Benny: Yes, once or twice, but I didn't like it much. Reporter: Ok Benny. Now the next thing is—which do you like best from this list of eight forms of artistic entertainment?

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Benny: Well I like going to classical concerts best because I'm a musician, and I love classical music. Reporter: Ok and what next? Benny: Erm let's see—next, art galleries I think. And then, exhibitions. Reporter: OK—art galleries, then exhibitions. Then? The theatre? Benny: No, I don't think so, I don't really like the theatre. Reporter: The ballet? The opera? Which do you prefer of those two? Benny: The opera. Reporter: So of the theatre and the ballet, which do you prefer? Benny: Erm, the ballet I think because there's the music. I can always enjoy the music if I don't always like the dancing. Reporter: Right, well, thanks very much, Benny. Benny: You're welcome. Reporter: My next guest is Kimberley Martins. What are you studying here, Kimberley? Kimberley: Modern dance. I want to be a professional dancer when I leave. Reporter: OK, so here we go. First question—have you ever been to an art gallery? Kimberley: Yes, lots of times. Reporter: And have you ever been to the ballet? Stupid question I think. Kimberley: Yes, a bit. Of course I have. I go almost every night if I can. Reporter: And what about classical concerts? Kimberley: Yes—there are classical concerts here a lot—the other students perform here and I go to those when I can. Reporter: What about exhibitions—have you ever—? Kimberley: Oh yes, lots of times—I like exhibitions—exhibitions about famous people—dancers, actors, you know— Reporter: Mmm. And what about a folk concert? Have you ever been to one of them? Kimberley: No, I don't like folk music very much. Reporter: What about the opera? Kimberley: No, never. I don't really like opera. It's a bit too heavy for me. Reporter: A pop concert?
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Kimberley: Yes. I saw Madonna once. She was fantastic—she's a really great dancer. Reporter: And have you ever been to the theatre? Kimberley: Yes, I have. Reporter: Right. Thank you Kimberley. My next question is—which do you like best of all? And I think I know the answer. Kimberley: Yes—ballet, of course. After that, exhibitions. And after that, art galleries. Reporter: OK. Kimberley: Erm, what's left. Can I see the list? Reporter: Yes, of course. Kimberley: Erm, let me see—oh, it's difficult—I suppose—what next?—er—classical concerts, pop concerts, the theatre. Well, I think pop concerts next, I like going to those. Then I don't know. Classical concerts or the theatre? Classical concerts I think. So that leaves the theatre after them. OK? Reporter: Great. And many thanks for talking to us, Kimberley. Kimberley: You're welcome. Salesgirl: Yes? Mrs. Bradley: Six packets of Rothmans and three of Silk Cut please. Salesgirl: Six Rothmans ... and three Silk Cut. That's ... six fifty fives—three pound thirty ... three Silk Cut—one forty-four ... That's four pound seventy-four altogether. Thank you. 26p. change ... and your stamps. Interviewer: Excuse me madam. Mrs. Bradley: Yes? Interviewer: I wonder whether you'd help us. We're doing a survey on smokers' habits. Would you mind ...? Mrs. Bradley: Well ... I'm in a bit of a hurry actually Interviewer: It'll only take a few minutes. We'd very much appreciate your help. Mrs. Bradley: Well all right. I can spare that I suppose. Interviewer: Thank you. You are a smoker ... of course? Mrs. Bradley: Yes I'm afraid I am. My husband is too. As you can see ... I've just bought the week's ration. Interviewer: Would you describe yourself as being a heavy smoker?

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Mrs. Bradley: Heavy ... no. I wouldn't call three packets of twenty a week heavy smoking. That's not even ten a day. No ... a light smoker. My husband ... he's different ... Interviewer: Yes? Mrs. Bradley: I get in twice as many a week for him. He smokes twenty or more a day. Interviewer: You wouldn't describe him as a chain-smoker ...? Mrs. Bradley: No ... he's not as bad as that. Interviewer: Right ... Thank you Mrs. ...? Mrs. Bradley: Bradley. Doris Bradley. Interviewer: ... Mrs. Bradley. You and your husband smoke cigarettes I see. What about cigars ... a pipe ... Does your husband ...? Mrs. Bradley: Oh he's never smoked a pipe. He's the restless, nervy type. I always associate pipe-smoking with people of another kind ... the calm contented type ... As for cigars I suppose he never smokes more than one a year—after his Christmas dinner. Of course I only smoke cigarettes. Interviewer: Right. Now let's keep to you Mrs. Bradley. When and why—if that's not asking too much—did you begin to smoke? Can you remember? Mrs. Bradley: Yes ... I remember very well. I'm thirty-two now ... so I must have been ... er ... yes ... seventeen ... when I had my first cigarette. It was at a party and—you know—at that age you want to do everything your friends do. So when my boyfriend—not my husband—when he offered me a cigarette I accepted it. I remember feeling awfully grown-up about it. Then I started smoking ... let's see now ... just two or three a day ... and I gradually increased. Interviewer: I see. That's very clear. Now ... Might I ask if you have ever tried to give up smoking? Mrs. Bradley: Yes—twice. The first time about six months before getting married. Oh that was because I was saving up and ... yes ... I used to smoke more in those days. Sometimes thirty a day. So I decided to give it up—but only succeeded I'm afraid in cutting it down. I still smoked a little ... Interviewer: And the second time? Mrs. Bradley: Oh the second time I did manage to give up completely for a while. I was expecting ... and the doctor advised me not to smoke at all. I went for about ... seven or eight months ... without a single cigarette. Interviewer: Then you took it up again. Mrs. Bradley: Yes ... a couple of weeks after the baby was born. It was all right then because the baby was being bottle fed anyway. Interviewer: Good. That's interesting. So if you'd been breast-feeding you would have gone for longer without smoking? Mrs. Bradley: Definitely. It's what the doctors advise. Though not all mothers do as their doctors say ... Interviewer: Now Mrs. Bradley. When do you smoke most?
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Mrs. Bradley: Erm ... When I'm sitting watching TV or ... or ... reading a book ... but especially I'm with ... when I'm in company. Yes ... that's it ... when I'm with friends. I never smoke when I'm doing the housework ... never ... There's always too much to do. Interviewer: Do you ever smoke at meal times? Mrs. Bradley: I always have ... one cigarette after a meal. Never on an empty stomach. Which reminds me—I must be going. My husband will be waiting for his lunch. And Keith ... he's my son. Interviewer: Just one more question and that'll be all. Mrs. Bradley: Well if you insist. Interviewer: How would you describe the effect that smoking has on you? Mrs. Bradley: What do you mean? Interviewer: Well ... Does smoking—for example—make you excitable ... keep you awake ...? Mrs. Bradley: Oh no—quite the contrary. As I told you before I smoke most at times when I'm most relaxed. Though quite honestly I ... don't really know whether I smoke because I'm relaxed or ... er ... you know ... in order to relax. Now I really must be ... Please excuse me. I see you're ... you're carrying a tape-recorder. This won't be on the radio, will it? Interviewer: No Mrs. Bradley ... I'm afraid not. But we do thank you all the same. Mrs. Bradley: Right. Goodbye. Interviewer: Goodbye Mrs. Bradley. (Pause.) Salesgirl: How's it going then? Interviewer: Fine. Give us a packet of Seniors, will you. I'm dying for a smoke. Salesgirl: That's 60p. Interviewer: What about you. Don't you smoke ...? (1) Interviewer: Why do the actors wear roller-skates? Designer: Well, they're all playing trains, you see. Interviewer: Trains? Designer: Yes, singing trains and they have to skate all round the audience at very high speeds. We've designed special lightweight costumes for them out of foam rubber, otherwise (pause) they'd be exhausted at the end of each performance. (2) I found it took me rather a long time to get into the book. I mean, I kept wondering when we were going to begin with the plot, when we were going to get the actual story. Apart from that I must say that (pause) I enjoyed it very much. (3) I found it very exciting and moving. I couldn't put it down and (pause) I stayed up very late to finish it.

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(4) Well, I do agree with Jane that the book took a long time to start. In fact, for me, it's only honest to say that (pause) the book never really got started at all. (5) I'm one of those impatient readers who want to get straight into a book from the beginning. Otherwise (pause) I tend to skip parts that don't really hold my interest. (6) A: I'm afraid I did quite a lot of skipping with Alan Bailey's novel. And with over five hundred pages it was a bit of a disappointment really. B: Yes, I must admit that (pause) it was rather long. Books Belong to the Past Sir, I visited my old school yesterday. It hasn't changed in thirty years. The pupils were sitting in the same desks and reading the same books. When are schools going to move into the modern world? Books belong to the past. In our homes radio and television bring us knowledge of the world. We can see and hear the truth for ourselves. If we want entertainment most of us prefer a modern film to a classical novel. In the business world computers store information, so that we no longer need encyclopaedias and dictionaries. But in the schools teachers and pupils still use books. There should be a radio and television set in every classroom, and a library of tapes and records in every school. The children of today will rarely open a book when they leave school. The children of tomorrow won't need to read and write at all. M.P. Miller London

Lesson 5 Herbert Wilson and his wife went to the Isle of Wight for their summer holiday. But they were by no means pleased with their hotel. As soon as they returned home, Herbert decided to write to the Manager of Happytours. Herbert: Can you spare a moment, dear? I want you to listen to this letter. Margaret: Go ahead, then. Herbert: Dear Sir, my wife and I arrived home last night after a holiday arranged by your firm, in Jersey. We stayed at the hotel described in your brochure as a comfortable, medium sized hotel, with a magnificent view of the sea, offering courteous, old fashioned service and excellent food, served in a relaxed friendly atmosphere. Margaret: Yes, that's what the brochure said. Herbert: In fact the hotel is situated at least half a mile from the sea. Our room overlooked a car park ... Margaret: Through the gates of which motor vehicles were constantly arriving or departing. Herbert: Yes, that's good. The food was strictly beef burgers and chips or fish and chips. Wine was available, but at exorbitant prices, and as for the courteous, old fashioned service, the majority of the staff were foreign and virtually incapable of speaking or understanding the English language. Margaret: Yes, that's quite true.
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Herbert: In addition to this, we were most unhappy with the arrangements for our journey home. We were instructed to catch the 11:00 am ferry ... Margaret: Wasn't it 12:00? Herbert: No, 11:00 ... but this was apparently delayed and we did not get away till 6 o'clock in the evening. Now that our holiday is over, it seems fairly pointless writing this letter, but I should like you to know that we were most disappointed with the hotel and travel arrangements and shall certainly not be booking any future holidays through Happytours. Yours faithfully, Herbert Wilson. Margaret: Yes dear, that's a very good letter. Miss Bush is talking to a travel agent in London. Travel Agent: Good morning. Can I help you? Miss Bush: Hello. Er, my name's Miss Bush and I'm intending to go to a conference in Sydney for three weeks. Travel Agent: I see. Er, do you want the excursion fare or the full return fare. Miss Bush: Now, can I get a stopover on an excursion fare? Travel Agent: Yes, you're allowed only one stopover on the excursion fare. Miss Bush: Oh, only one. Travel Agent: Yes. But of course, if you pay the full return fare then you can have unlimited stopovers. Miss Bush: Oh that's much better. Yes. You see, the thing is that I've got two weeks' holiday after the conference and I've never been out that way before at all to Australia or the Far East, and I, I wanted to go, you know, shopping or seeing Hong Kong or India or somewhere round there. Travel Agent: Yes. Uhum. Miss Bush: Um, where exactly can I go? Travel Agent: Well, lots of places. There's Singapore or um, Teheran, Kuwait, Athens, you've really got quite a lot of choice you know. Miss Bush: Mm. Well, it sounds marvellous. Um, how much would that cost? How much is the full fare? Travel Agent: The full fare? Well, that's really quite a lot. It's £1204. Miss Bush: (laughs) Yes, a thousand two hundred and four. Well, it's once in a lifetime, you know, I've never been. Travel Agent: Mm. Miss Bush: The thing is, actually that, um, I'm absolutely terrified of flying. I've never done it before.

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Travel Agent: Oh dear. Uhum Miss Bush: And er, um, I'm hoping that I can persuade my two friends, who are also going to the conference, to stop over with me on the way back. Travel Agent: Yes, that would be a good idea, yes. Miss Bush: Mm, yes. By the way, one of them's in Cairo at the moment. Would it be possible for me to stop over there on my way to Sydney? Travel Agent: Yes of course. There are plenty of flights to Cairo and, and then plenty more onwards from Cairo to Sydney. And then you can stay, there, in Cairo, for as long as you like. Miss Bush: Oh that's great? Now, the thing is, I think I'd better go and persuade Mr. Adams that, you know, he'd like to stop with me in Cairo ... Travel Agent: I see. Miss Bush: ... go and discuss it with him and then come back to you in a day or two, if that's all right. Travel Agent: Yes. Certainly. Of course, madam. Miss Bush: Oh, thank you very much. OK. Goodbye. Travel Agent: Thank you. Goodbye. Gillian felt slightly uneasy as the porter unlocked the gates and waved her through. St Alfred's Hospital was not an ordinary mental institution. It was the most exclusive institution of its type in the country. You had to be not only mentally ill, but also extremely wealthy to be accepted as a patient. She parked her car outside the main entrance of the imposing eighteenth century building. She paused on the steps to look at the superb ornamental gardens and surrounding parkland. An old man in a white panama hat was watering the flowerbed beside the steps. He smiled at her. Old man: Good afternoon, miss. A lovely day, isn't it? Gillian: Yes, it certainly is. Old man: Are you a new patient? Gillian: Oh, I'm not a patient. I'm just here to do some research. Old man: Will you be staying long? Gillian: I really don't know. I wonder if you could direct me to Dr. Carmichael's office? Old man: Certainly, miss. Just go through the main door, turn left, walk down to the end of the corridor, and it's the last door on the right. Gillian: Thank you very much indeed. Dr. Carmichael was waiting for her. He had been looking forward to meeting his new research assistant. He himself had always been interested in the special problems of long stay patients. Dr. Carmichael was very proud of his hospital and she was impressed by the relaxed and informal atmosphere. She spent the mornings interviewing patients, and the afternoons writing up the results of her research in the gardens. Some of the patients were withdrawn and depressed, some seemed almost normal. Only one or two had to be kept locked up. She found it hard to believe that all of them had been thought
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too dangerous to live in normal society. She often saw the old man in the panama hat. He spent most of his time working in the gardens, but he always stopped to speak to her. She found out that his name was Maurice Featherstone. He was a gentle and mild-mannered old fellow, with clear, blue, honest eyes, white hair and a pinkish complexion. He always looked pleased with life. She became particularly curious about him, but Dr. Carmichael had never asked her to interview him, and she wondered why. One night, at dinner, she asked about Mr. Featherstone. Dr. Carmichael: Ah, yes, Maurice. Nice old chap. He's been here longer than anybody. Gillian: What's wrong with him? Dr. Carmichael: Nothing. His family put him here thirty-five years ago. They never come to visit him, but the bills are always paid on time. Gillian: But what had he done? Dr. Carmichael: I'll show you his file. It seems that he burnt down his school when he was seventeen. His family tried to keep the incident quiet. Over the next few years there were a number of mysterious fires in his neighbourhood, but the family did nothing until he tried to set fire to the family mansion. He was in here the next day. Maurice never protested. Gillian: And that was thirty-five years ago! Dr. Carmichael: I'm afraid so. If I'd had my way, I'd have let him out years ago. Gillian: But he can't still be dangerous! Dr. Carmichael: No. He's had plenty of opportunities. We even let him smoke. If he'd wanted to start a fire, he could have done it at any time. Gillian was shocked by the story. She became determined to do something about it. She wrote letters to Maurice's family, but never received a reply. He had never been officially certified as insane, and legally, he could leave at any time. Dr. Carmichael was easily persuaded to let her talk to Maurice. Gillian: Maurice, have you ever thought about leaving this place? Maurice: No, miss. I'm very happy here. This is my home. And anyway, I've got nowhere to go. Gillian: But wouldn't you like to go into the village sometimes ... to walk around, to buy your own tobacco? Maurice: I've never thought about it, miss. I suppose it would be nice. But I wouldn't want to stay away for long. I've spent twenty years working on this garden. I know every flower and tree. What would happen to them if I weren't here? Gillian realized that it would be unkind to make him leave the hospital. However, she found out that the next Saturday was his birthday. She arranged with the staff to give him a party. They wanted it to be a surprise and Dr. Carmichael agreed to let him go out for the afternoon. There was a flower show in the village. Maurice left at two o'clock. He seemed quite excited. They expected him to return about four o'clock. The cook had made a birthday cake and the staff had decorated the lounge. Gillian was standing in the window when she saw him. He was early. He was walking up the drive towards the house, whistling cheerfully. Behind him, above the trees, several thick black columns

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of smoke were beginning to rise slowly into the clear blue sky. 1. The student, puzzled about a particular point, decides to ask a question. As so often happens when under pressure, he tends to concentrate most of his attention on the subject matter and he pays practically no attention to the language. Consequently, (pause) he fails to employ the correct question form. 2. However, even though the student does employ an appropriate question form, (pause) difficulties may still arise. 3. The basic difficulty may, in fact, be one of several different types. It may lie in the student's limited aural perception, in other words, (pause) the student may not have clearly heard what was said. 4. Learners of English have, for example, said to me such things as "See me here tomorrow" or "Explain this". Fortunately, as I deal with non-native speakers and as I understand their language problems, I interpret this as inadequacy in the language rather than rudeness. Other teachers, however, (pause) may feel angry at receiving such orders. 5. Today I'm going to consider, very briefly, a problem concerned with the competition for land use, that i... that is (pause) whether crops should be used to produce food or to ... should be used to produce fuel. 6. A particularly interesting possibility for many developing countries has been the conversion of plant material to alcohol. Th... this is interesting because in many developing countries there is a large agricultural sector, and at the same time (pause) a small industrial sector. The School Holidays Are Too Long Today the children of this country have at last returned to work. After two months' holiday pupils have started a new term. How many adults get such long holidays? Two to four weeks in the summer and public holidays—that's all the working man gets. As for the average woman, she's lucky to get a holiday at all. Children don't need such long holidays. In term-time they start work later and finish earlier than anyone else. In the holidays most of them get bored, and some get into trouble. What a waste! If their overworked parents were given more free time instead, everyone would be happier. This isn't just a national problem either—it's worldwide. Dates may be different from country to country, but the pattern's the same. Why should children do half as much work and get twice as much holiday as their parents? Lesson 6 Reporter: And now, Mrs. Skinner, can you tell us your story? What happened at your farm when the earthquake passed? Mrs. Skinner: Oh, it was terrible. I'll never forget it to my dying day. I hope I never see anything like that again. It was terrible. Well, we always get up, Jack and me, at about quarter to five. He has to milk the cows early, you see, and while he's doing that I make his breakfast. I was in the kitchen when it came. Suddenly the whole house was moving. The coffee pot flew through the window, and I was on my back on the kitchen floor. The noise was terrible. Well, I knew what I had to do. You have to get outside, you know, it's safer there. So I ran through the house and opened the front door. Then I stopped—I couldn't believe it—everything was different, everything had changed, nothing was in the right place any more. You know outside our house there is a path to the gate—there was I should say—well, the path wasn't there any more. In front of the front door was our rose garden, not the path! And next to the rose garden were the eucalyptus trees, and behind them the raspberry patch—just as before, but they had all moved, moved about five metres to the left, to the south that is. On each side of the garden path we had a line of beautiful old cypress trees. Well these had now
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moved right down to the end of the house, to the left again that is. And the path had completely disappeared. Reporter: But that's incredible, Mrs. Skinner. Do you mean that everything in front of your house had moved—what?—five metres to the left, I mean to the south? The raspberry patch, the eucalyptus trees, the rose-garden, the two lines of cypress trees—all had moved? Mrs. Skinner: Yes, everything had moved into the place of the other! Reporter: But your front path had completely disappeared? Mrs. Skinner: Yes, that's right. Oh it was terrible, terrible. Reporter: And your husband Jack? Was he all right? Mrs. Skinner: Yes—but the cowshed had moved too—it had moved several metres. Jack was all right—I could see him running round after the cows—all the cows had escaped you see. They were running all over the place—it was impossible to catch them. Reporter: So Jack, your husband, was all right. Mrs. Skinner: Well he was a bit shocked like me, but he was all right. Oh, I forgot to tell you about the granary—that had moved south too. Its normal place was behind the house and now it was near the cowshed. Can you believe it? Reporter: Incredible, Mrs. Skinner. And the house itself—what about your house? Mrs. Skinner: Well then we saw what had happened. Everything had moved one way—that is, to the south—except the house. The house—can you believe it?—had moved the other way—the house had moved north. So the house went one way and everything else—the garden, the trees, the granary—went the other way. Reporter: Incredible, Mrs. Skinner, absolutely incredible. A funny thing happened to me last Friday. I'd gone to London to do some shopping. I wanted to get some Christmas presents, and I needed to find some books for my course at college (you see, I'm a student). I caught an early train to London, so by early afternoon I'd bought everything that I wanted. Anyway, I'm not very fond of London, all the noise and traffic, and I'd made some arrangements for that evening. So, I took a taxi to Waterloo station. I can't really afford taxis, but I wanted to get the 3:30 train. Unfortunately the taxi got stuck in a traffic jam, and by the time I got to Waterloo, the train had just gone. I had to wait an hour for the next one. I bought an evening newspaper, the 'Standard', and wandered over to the station buffet. At that time of day it's nearly empty, so I bought a coffee and a packet of biscuits ... chocolate biscuits. I am very fond of chocolate biscuits. There were plenty of empty tables and I found one near the window. I sat down and began doing the crossword. I always enjoy doing crossword puzzles. After a couple of minutes a man sat down opposite me. There was nothing special about him, except that he was very tall. In fact he looked like a typical city businessman ... you know, dark suit and briefcase. I didn't say anything and I carried on with my crossword. Suddenly he reached across the table, opened my packet of biscuits, took one, dipped it into his coffee and popped it into his mouth. I couldn't believe my eyes! I was too shocked to say anything. Anyway, I didn't want to make a fuss, so I decided to ignore it. I always avoid trouble if I can. I just took a biscuit myself and went back to my crossword. When the man took a second biscuit, I didn't look up and I didn't make a sound. I pretended

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to be very interested in the puzzle. After a couple of minutes, I casually put out my hand, took the last biscuit and glanced at the man. He was staring at me furiously. I nervously put the biscuit in my mouth, and decided to leave. I was ready to get up and go when the man suddenly pushed back his chair, stood up and hurried out of the buffet. I felt very relieved and decided to wait two or three minutes before going myself. I finished my coffee, folded my newspaper and stood up. And there, on the table, where my newspaper had been, was my packet of biscuits. Inspector: Morning, Sergeant. What have you got for me today? Sergeant: We've got that tape from Gentleman Jim, sir. It was sent to us yesterday. They want to know if it's all right to send it to his wife. Inspector: And is it? Sergeant: I don't know sir. I'm sure there's a message hidden in the tape, but I don't know what it is. It's been examined by half the police force in London, and nothing was found. But there is something very peculiar about that tape. Inspector: Well, what is it? Sergeant: Well, sir, he talks about happy memories and things. And really, Inspector, I don't think Gentleman Jim really feels like that about anything. I don't think he means any of it. I'm sure there is something else on the tape, and it's hidden in what he says. But I can't find it. Inspector: The tape is all right, is it? It wasn't tampered with when Gentleman Jim recorded the message? Sergeant: The tape was carefully examined by three different experts, and they didn't find anything. Whatever it is, it's in the words. Inspector: Well, I think I'd better listen to this tape, and see if I can find this mystery message. Sergeant: Right you are sir, it's waiting for you. Jim: Hello my dear wife. I want you to listen very carefully to this recording. Play it over and over again, and enjoy all the beautiful things I want to remind you about. Don't worry about me, just think about the beautiful things, and I'm sure you will be very happy, and you will find something very comforting in my words. Are you ready? I want to remind you of some really happy memories. Do you remember the day when we first met? You were very beautiful. There was a lot of sunshine that day, do you remember? There aren't many girls who are very beautiful, are there? But you were lovely. And our children. They're very beautiful. Two lovely girls, and a handsome boy, although they're all in prison now. I remember when our son was small, he had lovely blue eyes, and very beautiful gold curly hair. Do you remember the toys he used to play with? I remember his teddy bear, and also some very beautiful bricks, which he used to play with on the bedroom floor. Those were happy days. Do you remember, dear wife, the first dance we went to? You wore a blue dress and you looked very beautiful in the moonlight, and we danced until the morning, and then I took you home on my motorbike. Your mother was waiting for us, and she looked very beautiful. The next day I asked you to marry me. I don't think your mother was very pleased. She wanted us to buy the house next to her, do you remember? But we wanted a bigger house, with a very beautiful garden and we found one. I like our house very much. I remember coming home one day in the winter, and looking at our house. It looked very beautiful under the white snow, and I knew that you were waiting in the kitchen with a cup of hot soup, and my dear friend Ginger. Poor Ginger. He has been in prison too. He says that you are very beautiful. The important thing in prison is to have happy memories. And I've got wonderful memories. Do you remember Ginger's cat? It was a very beautiful big black cat. Ginger liked it very much. He bought it fish to eat, and a very beautiful red ribbon, which he tied around its neck. I always liked Ginger's cat. I'm sorry I did not want to see you when you came. I wanted to send you this message instead. When I come home, I will buy you some expensive perfume, or a very beautiful rose. Play this recording many times, and
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think carefully about my words. Think about what came after all these beautiful things, and walk into the country, sit down beside the river, under a very beautiful tree, and think about me. Your loving Gentleman Jim. Inspector: Is that all? Sergeant: Yes, that's all. Inspector: You're quite right. There is something very peculiar about that message. Look, I've written some questions for you. Inspector: Well, I think Gentleman Jim has hidden a message in the tape. Sergeant: Yes sir, so do I. He keeps telling his wife to play the message over and over again. Inspector: He tells her that she'll find something comforting. What do you think he means by that? Sergeant: Well sir, perhaps there is money hidden somewhere, and this message tells his wife where to look? Inspector: I wish he'd tell us where to look. Then perhaps we'd find the message. Sergeant: I think he has told us, Inspector. Inspector: What do you mean? Sergeant: Well, did you notice that he keeps saying the same words over again? Inspector: Yes, of course. He says everything is very beautiful. Sergeant: Mm, that's right. And he tells his wife to think about these beautiful things. That must be a clue. Inspector: Well, what does he say? His wife is beautiful, the girls are beautiful, his son is beautiful, the bricks were beautiful ... Sergeant: That's a very funny thing to say. Inspector: Yes, it is. But wife, girls, son, bricks. It doesn't make any sense. 'Very beautiful bricks,' he said. It's nonsense! Sergeant: Just a minute. Do you remember what Gentleman Jim said at the end of the recording? Inspector: What was that? Sergeant: He said, 'Think about what came after all these beautiful things.' I think that's the answer, Inspector. Play it again, and every time he says 'very beautiful' write down the next word. I think we'll find Gentleman Jim's message. Inspector: Right Sergeant. That's very clever of you. Well done! 1. When it has been decided what's to be read—a chapter of a book, for example—then it's helpful to get an overview of the contents before starting to read. This can be done by reading the introduction, usually the opening paragraph, and the conclusion, usually the final paragraph.

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In addition, (pause) a glance at the headings of sections or subsections will show the order in which the items are introduced. 2. Finally, the students should ask themselves a specific question connected with the main part of their reading. They should then endeavour to answer it by making appropriate notes as they read. This will help them to focus on the reading as well as (pause) providing a summary which can be reread later. 3. When the student is writing a dissertation or doing a piece of research then he will need to consult a specialized bibliography. This is a book which lists all the published materials on a particular subject, and in some cases gives a brief summary of each item. Very recent research, however, (pause) may not appear in a bibliography. 4. There's the type of error which leads to misunderstanding or, even worse, to a total breakdown in communication. The causes of such misunderstandings and breakdowns are numerous, and I'll therefore be able to (pause) do no more than try to cover the most important ones here. 5. Very often those students who come from a language background which is Indo-European, misuse English words which have a similar form to those in their native language. Spanish speakers, for example, expect the English word "actually" to mean the same as the Spanish word "actualmente". Unfortunately, (pause) it doesn't. 6. Finally, we come to the third type of error. This is the least damaging of the three, though (pause) it's still important. Sign Language Deaf people, people who can't hear, are still able to communicate quite well with a special language. It's called sign language. The speaker of sign language uses hand gestures in order to communicate. Basic sign language has been used for a long, long time, but sign language wasn't really developed until about 250 years ago. In the middle of the 1700s a Frenchman named Epee developed sign language. Epee was able to speak and hear, but he worked during most of his life as a teacher of deaf people in France. Epee developed a large number of vocabulary words for sign language. Epee taught these words to his deaf students. Epee's system used mostly picture image signs. We call them picture image signs because the signs create a picture. For example, the sign for sleep is to put both hands together, and then to place the hands flat against the right side of your face, and then to lower your head slightly to the right. This action was meant to show the position of sleep. So we call it a picture image sign. Try to Remember Try to Remember the kind of September When life was slow and also mellow Try to Remember the kind of September When grass was green and grain was yellow Try to Remember the kind of September When you were a tender and callow fellow Try to Remember and if you remember Then follow Follow ... Try to remember when life was so tender That no one wept except the willow Try to remember the kind of September When love was an ember about to billow Try to remember, and if you remember
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Then follow Follow ... Deep in December It's nice to remember Although you know the snow will follow Deep in December It's nice to remember The fell of september that makes us mellow Deep in December Our hearts should remember And follow Follow ... Lesson 7 Professor Ernest Watson was answering questions on a radio phone-in programme on the subject of learning a foreign language. Listener: Hello, Professor, can you hear me? Prof W: Yes, we can hear you fine. Listener: My name is Humphries, Albert Humphries, and I live in Balham, in London. Prof W: Yes, good evening Mr. Humphries. What is your question? Mr. H: I've been studying Spanish for some years. I go to Spain on holiday sometimes. I've learnt quite a lot of grammar and vocabulary. But I find it very difficult to speak, and when I went to Spain this summer, I couldn't understand the Spanish people at all. I got really disheartened. Prof W: Yes, it is a problem. How long have you been studying Spanish? Mr. H: About four years. Prof W: Yes, how exactly? Going to an evening class, using tapes ...? Mr. H: I've been going to an evening class and I've watched quite a lot of the BBC television programmes. Prof W: Oh, yes. They're very good. Did you buy the BBC book? Mr. H: No, we use a different book in the class. But I watched the programmes. Prof W: Yes, I see ... Mr. Humphries, I always think that learning a language is rather like learning to drive. Now, you couldn't learn to drive a car by sitting in a classroom or watching television. I think what you need is a lot of practice in using the language. Mr. H: That's all very well if you live in the country where they speak the language but I don't. Prof W: Yes, I understand the problem. Though even if you live in the country where the language is spoken, you have to reach a certain standard before you are able to have conversations with the natives. I was thinking perhaps you might arrange with another student or students to have regular conversation practice. Mr. H: But the other students make the same mistakes as I do.

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Prof W: I think you're confusing learning with practicing. Remember what I said about driving a car. Learning to speak means being able to put together the right groups of words and to say them in a reasonably accurate way. Mr. H: And what about learning to understand real Spanish? Prof W: Well, again, you need practice in hearing the Spanish language spoken by Spanish speakers. There are Spanish speakers in London. Get one of them to read some extracts from a Spanish newspaper onto a cassette. Have you got a cassette recorder? Mr. H: Yes. Prof W: Then you want to listen and listen and listen to the recordings until you almost know them by heart, just as if you were learning to drive, you'd practice parking the car, over and over again, till you could do it perfectly. Learning to speak a language is a very hard business. You don't need a huge vocabulary. You need a small vocabulary that you can use really efficiently, and to be able to do that you need lots and lots of practice. Woman: Good morning. Librarian: Morning, can I help you? Woman: Yes, I'd like to join the library. We're new to the district you see. Librarian: Certainly. Well all we need is some sort of identification with your name and address on it. Woman: Oh dear. We just moved, you see, and everything has my old address. Librarian: A driving licence, perhaps? Woman: No, I don't drive. Librarian: Your husband's would do. Woman: Yes, but his licence will still have the old address on it. Librarian: Perhaps you have a letter addressed to you at your new house? Woman: No, I'm afraid not. We've only been there a few days you see and no one's written to us yet. Librarian: What about your bank book? Woman: That's just the same. Oh dear, and I did want to get some books out this weekend. We're going on holiday to relax after the move, you see, and I wanted to take something with me to read. Librarian: Well, I'm sorry, but we can't possibly issue tickets without some form of identification. What about your passport? Woman: What? Oh yes, how silly of me. I've just got a new one and it does have our new address. I've just been to book our tickets so I have it on me. Just a minute. Here you are. Librarian: Thank you. Well, that's all right. Now if you'd like to go and choose your books your tickets will be ready for you when you come back to the desk to have them stamped out. Woman: Oh, thank you. Er, how many books am I allowed to take out?
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Librarian: You can take four books out at a time and you also get two tickets to take out magazines or periodicals. Newspapers, I'm afraid can't be taken out; they have to be read here. Woman: Oh that's fine. We have our own daily newspaper delivered to the house. Oh, do you have a record library? Some libraries do, I know. Librarian: Yes, we do. You have to pay a deposit of £5 in case you damage them. But that entitles you to take out two records at a time. We also have everything available on cassette if you prefer it. Cassettes seem to be much more popular than records lately. Woman: Oh yes, as a matter of fact, I would prefer cassettes but I won't take any out today. I'll leave it until we come back from our holidays. Could you show me where your history and biography sections are, please? Librarian: Yes, just over there to your right. If there's any particular book you want you can look it up in the catalogue, which you'll find just round the corner. Woman: Thank you. Oh, and how long am I allowed to keep the books for? Librarian: For three weeks. After that you must telephone to renew the books if you wish to keep them longer. Otherwise we charge 20p a day fine for each book. Woman: Oh dear. We're going away for six weeks. Can I renew them now? Librarian: I'm afraid not. You must do that at the end of three weeks. Someone else might want them you see. And in that case we have to ask you to return them. Woman: You mean, if someone wants them after my three weeks are up I have to bring them back? Librarian: Yes, but just telephone and we'll see what we can do. Woman: But I'm going to Tahiti. It would cost a fortune. Librarian: Well ... Woman: Oh, never mind. I'll leave it until we get back. It's not worth all the bother. I'll get some paperbacks in the airport. Well, thank you. I'm sorry I've been such a nuisance. Good morning. Librarian: Not at all. Good morning. Receptionist: United World Colleges. Can I help you? Julian: Yes, I'd like some information about the colleges, please. Receptionist: Hold the line. I'll put you through to the International Secretary. Creighton: Good morning. Robert Creighton speaking. Julian: Good morning. My name's Julian Harris and I have a friend in Spain who's interested in applying for a place at one of the colleges. There are one or two questions which she'd like me to ask you. Creighton: Go ahead.

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Julian: Thanks. The first one is: what language is used for normal lessons? Creighton: Well, the main language of instruction in all the colleges is English. But at Pacific College in Canada some subjects are taught in French, and at the College of the Adriatic some may be taught in Italian. Julian: Right. Her next question is about fees. Is it expensive to go to one of the colleges? Creighton: Students' parents don't have to be rich, if that's what you mean. There are scholarships for all colleges, but we do ask parents to help by paying what they can afford. Julian: Good, she'll be glad to hear that. Now she wants to know something about getting into a college. Does she have to get high marks in her examinations? Creighton: Ah, yes, well she will have to do well, but academic ability is not the only thing that's important. We also look at personal qualities. Julian: What sort of things do you mean? Creighton: Maturity, the ability to get on well with people from different countries, that sort of thing. Julian: Of course. I understand what you mean. Her last question is about her other interests. Can she do painting and modern dancing, for example? Creighton: Yes, probably. It depends on the staff at the college she enters. Each college has its own special activities, such as theatre studies or environmental work, in which students can take part. Julian: Good. I think that's all. Thank you very much for your help. Creighton: You're welcome. I hope your friend sends in an application. Julian: I'm sure she will. Thanks again. Goodbye. Creighton: Goodbye. Grace: It's so great seeing you guys again. Curtis: Yeah. Martin: I agree. Grace: I can't believe it's been twenty years since we were all in college together. Martin: You know something, I remember it as if it were yesterday. Curtis: I do ... (Yeah.) I was just going to say, as if it were yesterday. Martin: Incredible. Grace: Martin, what do you remember most about our college days? Martin: Oh, I remember most?
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Grace: Uh-huh. Martin: Curtis's hair ... down to his waist. Curtis: Now, I remember how Grace looked. (Wha ...) She always had a flower painted on her face, remember that? Martin: Oh, yes. I remember that. Grace: Now wait, wait. Let's not forget about Martin and his air-conditioned blue jeans. I never saw anybody with more holes in their jeans than Martin. Martin: They're a classic. You know, I still have those blue jeans. (Oh.) Grace: Still have them? I don't believe it. Curtis: Oh. Incredible. I don't either. Martin: And I still wear them, too. Curtis: You know, I was just thinking the other day—it's funny-about that worst ... worst thing that happened in college. Martin: The worst thing? Grace: What was that? Curtis: Yeah. The time we were driving home from college for a spring break, remember? (Oooh.) (Ooh. Yeah. Oooh.) It was a holiday, and every gas station was closed. And that darn gas gauge was on empty. Martin: And (We were desperate.) we stopped at that gas station and tried to get some gas out of that pump. Grace: And the neighbours saw us and called the police. We almost got arrested. (Oooh.) Gosh, I was scared stiff. Martin: You were scared stiff? I was petrified. And—but, you know, it was a lot different from the time we actually did get arrested. Curtis: Umm. Grace: Yeah. You know, that's my best memory. That peace demonstration. (Yeah.) You know, somehow getting arrested for something you believe in isn't ... isn't scary at all. Curtis: No, it isn't at all. Martin: You're right. Curtis: But it did help that there were five hundred other students getting arrested along with us. Martin: That was a great day, though. Grace: Hey, hey, you all remember our last day of college?

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Martin: What, you mean graduation? Curtis: Graduation, what's to remember? None of you went to graduation. I didn't go. Martin: Do you regret that, that ... that after all these years you skipped out on the ceremony? Grace: Not me. Hey, I've changed my mind about a lot of things in twenty years, but I don't think we missed anything that day. Curtis: No, nothing at all. And that picnic that the three of us had by the stream, remember? (That was great.) (Oooh.) Drinking wine, playing guitar, singing. Oh, that was worth more to me than any graduation ceremony. Martin: That was (Mm-hmm.) the best graduation ceremony there could have been. Curtis: Mm-hmm. 1. Most of the subjects of the enquiry think that nearly every word in English has just one meaning. 2. While it's true, of course, that many words in English do have only one meaning, it can easily be shown that the majority have more than one. 3. The third important misconception on the part of the students is their idea that a word can be used correctly as soon as its meaning is known. 4. English has a larger vocabulary than any other language. The reason for this, of course, is that it has been influenced by several other languages. It has, in fact, borrowed words from many sources. It is, therefore, particularly rich in synonyms. 5. Perhaps more important is a grammatical matter, namely that some words which mean the same can only be used when certain other words are present. 6. Unfortunately, when many students pick up a book to read they tend to have no particular purpose in mind other than simply to read the book. 7. The result is that students frequently don't have an overall view of what they're reading; also, they tend to forget fairly soon what they've been reading. 8. One reason for poor comprehension from reading may be that students fail to make notes or to ask themselves questions about the text. 9. If the reading material was broken down every twenty-five pages by short tests, reminding him what he had read, he could go on without fatigue or loss of efficiency for periods of up to six hours. 10. If he can increase his reading speed without loss of comprehension, then he'll have become a more efficient reader. Credit Cards Many businesses, such as department stores, restaurants, hotels and airline companies, use a credit system for selling their products and services. In a credit system, the seller agrees to sell something to the buyer without immediately receiving cash. The buyer receives the goods or services immediately and promises to pay for them later. This "buy-now-pay-later" credit system is quite old. People have been buying things on credit for centuries. But nowadays people use credit cards. There are two types of credit cards. One type is issued directly by a store to a customer. Many large department stores issue credit cards to their customers. The store credit card can be used to make
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purchases only at a particular store. The other kind of credit card is issued by a credit company. Credit cards from credit companies can be used to buy things almost anywhere. If you have a major credit card, you can buy airplane tickets, stay at hotels, and eat at restaurants with it. Most large credit companies are connected to large banks. So if you want a credit card from a credit company, you generally have to make an application at a bank. After an applicant receives a credit card, he or she can make purchases, using the card.

Lesson 8 Interviewer: We continue with the World of Investigation. Laura, an identical twin, has agreed to contribute to our investigations. I must apologize for the fact that Laura's twin cannot be here tonight. And I'd like to tell you, Laura, how sorry we are. You and your sister are very close, aren't you? Laura: Of course we are. Interviewer: Interesting! You said 'of course'. Don't you think there are quite a few sisters who aren't close? Laura: Sarah and I aren't just sisters. We're identical twins. Interviewer: I take your point. How identical are you, in fact? Laura: Both blonde, with brown eyes. Same height, same weight, same size. Even shoes. Interviewer: As you're the same size, have you always dressed alike? Laura: Oh yes. I'm told it started when we were babies. Mum made a feature of her twins. And then we got into the habit of buying two of everything. Interviewer: And you've never minded having a double identity? I mean ... another person exactly like you? Laura: Sarah isn't exactly like me. We may look identical, but. I remember our boyfriends couldn't tell us apart. Interviewer: Didn't that cause problems? Laura: For them, perhaps. Not for us. We couldn't stop laughing. Interviewer: I think you said you and Sarah weren't exactly alike? Just what did you mean by that? Laura: Sarah has a well-fed happy husband and four healthy children. When she was washing up, I was learning to type. When she was knitting, I was writing articles for the school newspaper. When she was having her second child, I was in Panama, doing my first job for United Information Services. See what I mean? Interviewer: And haven't you got a healthy husband and happy children? Laura: You must be joking. There's never been the time ... or the inclination. Interviewer: Laura, you've made some very interesting points. I gather that you don't feel that behaviour is purely genetic ... that there might be some element of environment or choice or even

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perhaps ... Laura: Shall I conclude? Sarah and I are identical twins ... in appearance, that is ... but it's a fact that life has presented us with different opportunities, so we've led very different lives. Alan and Barbara have just read an article about twins and coincidences. They are discussing the article over lunch. Listen to their discussion. Alan: That idea about our genetic make-up is rather frightening, isn't it? Barbara: Do you mean the idea that because of our genetic make-up we are bound to act in a particular way? Alan: Yes. If it's true, then it suggests that criminals are born and not made. Barbara: Not necessarily. It would only mean that somebody was born with the potential to become a criminal. Alan: How do you mean? Barbara: Well, if somebody was born with a particular set of genes that made him a potential criminal, it would be necessary for him to be brought up in a particular way if he was actually going to become a criminal. Alan: He'd have to grow up in a family of criminals, you mean? Barbara: Yes, in the sort of family that regarded crime as a way of life and saw the police as the enemy. Alan: They say it takes a thief to catch a thief. Barbara: What do you mean by that? Alan: Well, I suppose I mean that similar qualities are necessary to become a successful criminal or a first-class policeman. Barbara: That's a bit hard on the policeman, isn't it? Alan: I don't think so. In time of war men who might easily be in jail win medals for gallantry. Barbara: That's because they're the sort of men who aren't satisfied with a normal everyday job. Alan: Yes, they're men who get bored with ordinary life and want action. They're usually pretty strong characters, too. Secretary: Mr. Turner's office. Caller 1: Hello. I'd like to speak to Mr. Turner, please. Secretary: I'm sorry, he's in a meeting right now. May I take a message? Caller 1: Uh, yes. This is Mary Roberts from the First National Bank. (Mm-hmm.) Would you ask him to call me at 772-1852? Secretary: Okay. That's 772-18-?
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Caller 1: 52. Secretary: Okay. Caller 1: He can reach me at this number until, say, twelve thirty, or between two and five this afternoon. Secretary: That's fine, Ms Roberts. I'll tell him. I'll give him your message. Caller 1: Thank you very much. Goodbye. Secretary: Goodbye ... Mr. Turner's office. Caller 2: Yes. Hello. Is Mr. Turner in, please. Secretary: No, I'm sorry, he's in a meeting right now. May I take a message? Caller 2: This is Mr. Brown calling. I have a lunch appointment with Mr. Turner for tomorrow noon that I have to cancel. I'm going to be out of town for a while. Would you offer my apologies to Mr. Turner and have him call me, please, to reschedule? My number here is 7439821. Secretary: Okay, Mr. Brown. I'll make sure he gets the message. Caller 2: Thank you so much. Secretary: You're welcome. Caller 2: Bye-bye, now. Secretary: Bye-bye ... Mr. Turner's office. Caller 3: Hello, Jane. Is my husband in? Secretary: Oh, no, Mrs. Turner. I'm sorry. He's in a meeting until noon. Caller 3: Oh. Secretary: Oh, excuse me just a minute. I have another call. Can you hold for a second? Caller 3: Yes, sure. Secretary: Mr. Turner's office. Will you hold please? Hello, Mrs. Turner. Uh ... Would you like your husband to call you back? Caller 3: No. That's not necessary. But would you just tell him, please, that I won't be home until eight o'clock? I'll be working late. Secretary: Oh, sure. I'll tell him. Caller 3: Thanks a lot. Bye-bye. Secretary: Bye-bye. Thank you for holding. Uh ... Can I help you? Caller 4: Yeah. Hi. This is Wendy at Travel Agents International. Umm ... I've got Mr. Turner booked

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on a flight for Puerto Rico next Tuesday. Can you take down the information? Secretary: Sure. Caller 4: Okay. It's Pan Am Flight two twenty-six, which leaves Tuesday the twelfth at eight am. Secretary: Okay. That's Pan Am Flight two twenty-six, leaving Tuesday the twelfth at eight am. Caller 4: Right. Umm ... I'll send the ticket over later this afternoon, if that's okay. Secretary: Oh, sure. That'd be fine. Caller 4: Okay. Thanks lot. Bye. Secretary: Bye-bye ... Mr. Turner's office. Caller 5: Hello. Uh ... My name is Juan Salvador. I'm calling from Puerto Rico, and I want to speak to Mr. Turner. Secretary: I'm sorry, sir, Mr. Turner is in a meeting. May I take a message? Caller 5: I ... think it would be better if I ... uh ... call him later. Uh ... Will you please tell me when he's going to be free? Secretary: He'll be free in about an hour. Caller 5: Oh, thanks. Uh ... Why don't you leave him a message saying that I called him and I will call him back? It's in regard to our meeting on next Wednesday. Secretary: Okay. Uh ... Could you give me your name again, please? Caller 5: Yes, of course. Juan Salvador. Secretary: Could you spell that, please? Caller 5: Yes. S-a-l-v-a. Secretary: Uh ... Excuse me, sir. I'm having trouble hearing you. Could you repeat it, please? Caller 5: Yes, of course. S-a-l-v-a-d-o-r. Secretary: Thank you very much, Mr. Salvador. I'll give Mr. Turner the message. Caller 5: Oh, thank you very much. Bye-bye. Secretary: Bye-bye. Night Flight 'This is Captain Cook speaking. Our estimated time of arrival in Brisbane will be one am, so we've got a long flight ahead of us. I hope you enjoy it. Our hostesses will be serving dinner shortly. Thank you.' It was Christmas Eve 1959, and the beginning of another routine flight. The hostesses started preparing the food trays. A few of the passengers were trying to get some sleep, but most of them were reading. There was nothing to see from the windows except the vast blackness of the Australian desert below. There was nothing unusual about the flight, except perhaps that the plane was nearly full. A lot of the passengers were travelling home to spend Christmas with their families. The hostesses
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started serving dinner. It was a smooth and quiet flight. The hostesses had finished collecting the trays, and they were in the galley putting things away when the first buzzers sounded. One of the hostesses went along the aisle to check. When she came back she looked surprised. 'It's amazing,' she said. 'Even on a smooth flight like this two people have been sick.' Twenty minutes later nearly half the passengers were ill—dramatically ill. Several were moaning and groaning, some were doubled up in pain, and two were unconscious. Fortunately there was a doctor on board, and he was helping the hostesses. He came to the galley and said, 'I'd better speak to the captain. This is a severe case of food poisoning. I think we'd better land as soon as possible.' 'What caused it?' asked one of the hostesses. 'Well,' replied the doctor, 'I had the beef for dinner, and I'm fine. The passengers who chose the fish are ill.' The hostess led him to the flight deck. She tried to open the door. 'I think it's jammed,' she said. The doctor helped her to push it open. The captain was lying behind the door. He was unconscious. The co-pilot was slumped across the controls, and the radio operator was trying to revive him. The doctor quickly examined the two pilots. 'They just collapsed,' said the radio operator. 'I don't feel too good myself.' 'Can you land the plane?' said the doctor. 'Me? No, I'm not a pilot. We've got to revive them!' he replied. 'The plane's on automatic pilot. We're OK for a couple of hours.' 'I don't know,' said the doctor. 'They could be out for a long time.' 'I'd better contact ground control,' said the radio operator. The doctor turned to the hostess. 'Perhaps you should make an announcement, try to find out if there's a pilot on board.' 'We can't do that!' she said, 'It'll cause a general panic.' 'Well, how the hell are we going to get this thing down?' said the doctor. Suddenly the hostess remembered something. 'One of the passengers ... I overheard him saying that he'd been a pilot in the war. I'll get him.' She found the man and asked him to come to the galley. 'Didn't you say you used to be a pilot?' she asked. 'Yes ... why? The pilot's all right, isn't he?' She led him to the flight deck. They explained the situation to him. 'You mean, you want me to fly the plane?' he said. 'You must be joking. I was a pilot, but I flew single-engined fighter planes, and that was fifteen years ago. This thing's got four engines!' 'Isn't there anybody else?' he asked. 'I'm afraid not,' said the hostess. The man sat down at the controls. His hands were shaking slightly. The radio operator connected him to Air Traffic Control. They told him to keep flying on automatic pilot towards Brisbane, and to wait for further instructions from an experienced pilot. An hour later the lights of Brisbane appeared on the horizon. He could see the lights of the runway shining brightly beyond the city. Air Traffic Control told him to keep circling until the fuel gauge registered almost empty. This gave him a chance to get used to handling the controls. In the cabin the hostesses and the doctor were busy attending to the sick. Several people were unconscious. The plane circled for over half an hour. The passengers had begun to realize that something was wrong. 'What's going on? Why don't we land?' shouted a middle aged man. 'My wife's ill. We've got to get her to hospital!' A woman began sobbing quietly. At last the plane started its descent. Suddenly there was a bump which shook the plane. 'We're all going to die!' screamed a man. Even the hostesses looked worried as panic began to spread through the plane. 'It's all right!' someone said. 'The pilot's just lowered the wheels, that's all.' As the plane approached the runway they could see fire trucks and ambulances speeding along beside the runway with their lights flashing. There was a tremendous thump as the wheels hit the tarmac, bounced twice, raced along the runway and screeched to a halt. The first airport truck was there in seconds. 'That was nearly a perfect landing. Well done!' shouted the control tower. 'Thanks,' said the man. 'Any chance of a job?' 1. Thousands of people die of heart attacks every year; heart disease is becoming so widespread that we can almost talk of an epidemic. 2. That is, people with heart disease often show one or more of these traits. 3. The answer is, a person's personality determines that he or she will be likely to develop this illness.

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4. They set themselves unrealistic goals and force themselves to meet impossible deadlines. 5. Eventually their responses to life become less creative, more automatic, and all of their activities are performed under stress. 6. In the past, men have tended to show Type A behaviour more than women have, but with an increasing number of women entering the labour force, this also may change. 7. Stress seems to be caused by our highly technical, highly rushed modern way of life. 8. Now it is not uncommon for a sixty or fifty or even a forty-year-old to suffer a heart attack. 9. Too preoccupied with his own schedule, he has little capacity to concentrate on what other people are saying—unless, of course, they are talking about work. 10. When he returns to work, he finds that the leisure time of the night before has helped him find a creative solution to his work problems. The Boy Who Cried Wolf Once upon a time there was a very naughty shepherd boy. He often fell asleep while he was watching his sheep. And he told lies. The villagers shook their heads and said, 'That boy will come to a bad end.' One day, when he was feeling very bored, the boy decided to play a practical joke on the villagers. He ran down the hill. 'Wolf, wolf!' he cried. 'Help, come quickly. Wolf!' All the villagers seized their spears and ran to help him. But there was no wolf. 'He heard you,' the naughty boy lied, 'and ran away.' When everyone had gone, he started to laugh. Three weeks later, when he was feeling very bored indeed, he decided to play the same trick again. 'Wolf, wolf!' he shouted. 'Help, come quickly. Wolf!' Most of the villagers hurried to help him. This time the boy laughed at them. 'Ha, ha. There wasn't a wolf,' he said. 'What a good joke!' The villagers were very angry. 'Lies are not jokes,' they said. Two days later the boy woke up suddenly. He had fallen asleep in the afternoon sun. What was that big dark animal coming towards his flock? Suddenly it seized a lamb. 'Wolf!' screamed the boy. 'Wolf. Help, come quickly. Wolf!' But none of the villagers came to help him. He screamed again. The wolf heard him and licked its lips. 'I like lamb,' it thought, 'but shepherd boy tastes much nicer.' When the shepherd boy didn't come home that night, some of the villagers went to look for him. They found a few bones. Lesson 9 Catherine has just left school and she wants to find a job. She and her mother have come to speak to the Careers Advisory Officer. Listen to their conversation. Officer: Oh, come in, take a seat. I'm the Careers Officer. You're Cathy, aren't you? Mother: That's right. This is Catherine Hunt, and I'm her mother. Officer: How do you do, Mrs Hunt. Hello, Catherine. Cathy: Hello. Pleased to meet you. Officer: And you'd like some advice about choosing a career? Mother: Yes, she would. Wouldn't you, Catherine?
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Cathy: Yes, Please. Officer: Well, just let me ask a few questions to begin with. How old are you, Catherine? Mother: She's nineteen. Well, she's almost nineteen. She'll be nineteen next month. Officer: And what qualifications have you got? Mother: Well, qualifications from school of course. Very good results she got. And she's got certificates for ballet and for playing the piano. Officer: Is that what you're interested in, Catherine, dancing and music? Cathy: Well ... Mother: Ever since she was a little girl she's been very keen on her music and dancing. She ought to be a music teacher or something. She's quite willing to train for a few more years to get the right job, aren't you, Catherine? Cathy: Well, if it's a good idea. Mother: There you are, you see. She's good girl really. A bit lazy and disorganized sometimes, but she's very bright. I'm sure the Careers Officer will have lots of jobs for you. Officer: Well, I'm afraid it's not as easy as that. There are many young people these days who can't find the job they want. Mother: I told you so, Catherine. I told you shouldn't wear that dress. You have to look smart to get a job these days. Officer: I think she looks very nice. Mrs. Hunt, will you come into the other office for a moment and look at some of the information we have there. I'm sure you'd like to see how we can help young people. Mother: Yes, I'd love to. Mind you, I think Catherine would be a very nice teacher. She could work with young children. She'd like that. Or she could be a vet. She's always looking after sick animals. Officer: I'm afraid there's a lot of competition. You need very good results to be a vet. This way, Mrs. Hunt. Just wait a minute, Catherine. * * * Officer: There are just one or two more things, Catherine. Cathy: Do call me Cathy. Officer: OK, Cathy. Are you really interested in being a vet? Cathy: Not really. Anyway, I'm not bright enough. I'm reasonably intelligent, but I'm not brilliant. I'm afraid my mother is a bit over-optimistic. Officer: Yes, I guessed that. She's a bit overpowering, isn't she, your mum?

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Cathy: A bit. But she's very kind. Officer: I'm sure she is. So, you're interested in ballet and music, are you? Cathy: Not really. My mother sent me to lessons when I was six, so I'm quite good, I suppose. But I don't think I want to do that for the rest of my life, especially music. It's so lonely. Officer: What do you enjoy doing? Cathy: Well, I like playing tennis, and swimming. Oh, I went to France with the school choir last year. I really enjoyed that. And I like talking to people. But I suppose you mean real interests—things that would help me to get a job? Officer: No. I'm more interested in what you really want to do. You like talking to people, do you? Cathy: Oh yes, I really enjoy meeting new people. Officer: Do you think you would enjoy teaching? Cathy: No, no, I don't really. I was never very interested in school work, and I'd like to do something different. Anyway, there's a teacher training college very near us. It would be just like going to school again. Officer: So you don't want to go on training? Cathy: Oh, I wouldn't mind at all, not for something useful. I wondered about being a hairdresser—you meet lots of people, and you learn to do something properly—but I don't know. It doesn't seem very worthwhile. Officer: What about nursing? Cathy: Nursing? In a hospital? Oh, I couldn't do that, I'm not good enough. Officer: Yes, you are. You've got good qualifications in English and Maths. But it is very hard work. Cathy: Oh, I don't mind that. Officer: And it's not very pleasant sometimes. Cathy: That doesn't worry me either. Mum's right. I do look after sick animals. I looked after our dog when it was run over by a car. My mother was sick, but I didn't mind. I was too worried about the dog. Do you really think I could be a nurse? Officer: I think you could be a very good nurse. You'd have to leave home, of course. Cathy: I rather think I should enjoy that. Officer: Well, don't decide all at once. Here's some information about one or two other things which might suit you. Have a look through it before you make up your mind. Speaker 1. When I was at university, I was—I was horrified by what had happened to a lot of my friends by the time they reached the end of the course. Having spent their university careers being all the things one is at university—clever, artistic, very noisy—at the end of their time they all seemed to take entry exams for the ... the Civil Service, and there were some of them who went ... huh ... went as low as to go into the Tax Office huh. How grey, how grey, I thought. But now huh. well, look at me!
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Speaker 2. The circular letters I get drive me absolutely mad, from American Express, etc. They're sent to my work address and they're all addressed to Mr. S Andrews! Obviously they found the name on some published list and assumed that anybody who wasn't a secretary must of course be a man. It's stupid really, because the Company does put Mr. or Ms. in front of the names on its departmental lists, but perhaps because they naturally assume it's a man, they're just blind to the women's names amongst the heads of departments. Speaker 3. I work in London at er ... a large hospital as a nursing officer. It's erm ... it's what a lot of people call a male nurse, which I think is the most ridiculous term I've ever come across. It ... sort of implies that a nurse ought to be female and that by being male I'm different, but er ... the idea still carries on. The other thing is that people always say 'I suppose you really wanted to be a doctor', just because I'm a man. They can't imagine that I really wanted to be a nurse and that er ... erm ... it wasn't just that I failed to be a doctor. And ... what they don't realize is the work's completely different, you know as a ... a male nurse you've much more contact with the er ... patients and, you know, a long term responsibility for their ... their welfare huh. There's no way I'd want to be a doctor. Well, except for the money of course. Speaker 4. Whenever I say I'm a bank manager, half the time people tend to laugh. I've never understood why. I suppose bank managers do have a rather stuffy bourgeois image, but I can't see why it's funny. Speaker 5. I'm a sales representative, what used to be called a travelling salesman, and for some reason there's lots of dirty jokes about travelling salesmen. Can't think why. Well, I suppose it's because they tend to travel a lot, you know, a night here, a night there. Well, people get the idea they're not particularly dependable, sort of fly by nights I suppose, you know, wife in every port. But it aint true, I promise you. Speaker 6. I'm an apprentice hairdresser. I enjoy the work very much. I'm learning a lot, not just about hair, but how to get along with people. I'm gaining confidence 'cos I never had that at school. I left as soon as I could. I hated it. I remember teachers used to look down on jobs like hairdressing. They were ever so stuck up. They thought that only girls who were a bit dim went in for hairdressing, but I'm not dim at all. If I work hard in the salon and get all my certificates, if I save hard, in a few years I could start my own business, and I'd be earning five times as much as those old bags at school! Interviewer: Well, we heard some people just now who seem to feel that other people have a wrong idea about the work they do. Do you think this sort of thing is very widespread? Sociologist: Oh absolutely. Most jobs or professions seem to have an image or a stereotype attached to them, often much to the irritation of the job holders. But there is a serious point to all this, too, that maybe young people actually choose their careers under the influence of these false images. And certainly, there is evidence that they may even avoid certain careers because they have a negative image. Well, on a large scale, as you can imagine, this could cause problems for whole sectors of the economy. Interviewer: Er, you say there's evidence? Sociologist: Oh most definitely. There was a survey recently into children's attitudes to different professions. Interviewer: How was that done, though? Because, after all, children don't know much about the world of work before they get into it.

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Sociologist: Well, exactly. What the investigators wanted to get at was their impressions and their prejudices. They used a very simple technique. They gave the children twelve pairs of statements. In each pair one statement was positive, the other was its opposite. Interviewer: For example? Sociologist: Well, for example, 'Such and such a person is likely to be boring or interesting company.' Interviewer: I see. What professions did they ask about? Sociologist: (laugh) Do you want the whole list? Interviewer: Well, why not? Sociologist: OK. Here goes. They looked at: physicists, lawyers, economists, accountants, sales representatives, estate agents, biologists, and three types of engineer—mechanical engineers, electrical and civil. The children were asked to say which of the statements was 'most true' about each profession. Interviewer: And the results? Sociologist: Well, they were rather striking concerning one profession in particular, the poor old engineer. Of all the jobs mentioned, he came out really much worse than you might expect. The vast majority of children (90% in the case of the mechanical engineer), thought that engineering was a 'dirty job'. They also thought the job was of 'low status' and 'subordinate'; that is, the engineer is more likely to take orders than to give them. Oh, and insecure too. The only other person they thought more likely to actually lose his job was the sales representative. But,I must say there were good points too. Engineering was seen to be 'interesting, well paid' work. Interviewer: Hmm, not such a rosy picture, really. Sociologist: No ... but it got better when the children were asked about how they imagined the engineer as a person. The majority of the children chose positive comments, except that they thought the engineer was likely to be badly rather than well dressed. (laugh) Interviewer: Well, what about the other professions, then? Erm ... what came out favourite, for example? Sociologist: Oh the lawyer without a doubt. He collected by far the greatest number of positive opinions. The sales representative and then the estate agent were right at the bottom. Interviewer: Oh, so the engineers weren't right down there? Sociologist: Oh no! The children's ratings put them just above the poor old sales representative all bunched together. Probably the children don't have that much of an idea of their real work. I think they ... (laughs) ... they went by the titles, really, since civil engineer came out top, perhaps the suggestion of the name? Interviewer: Oh, I see. You mean that he was a ... a more civilized sort of chap than the others? Sociologist: (laughs) Yes, right. Reasonable sounding, isn't it? Interviewer: Yes. Quite sensible, I suppose. And I imagine the mechanical engineer came out bottom? Sociologist: Absolutely right. In fact 90% of the children associated him with dirty work, as against 76% for the electrical engineer and 68% for the civil engineer.
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Interviewer: And the other professions? Sociologist: Well, after the lawyer came the accountant; then the scientists, the physicist first. The economist came just above the engineers. Funnily enough, he was the only one that the majority of children felt would be gloomy rather than cheerful. Interviewer: A real sign of the times, that. Sociologist: Yes. But I still think the most serious implication of the results of the survey was the children's apparent ignorance of the importance of the engineer's role in society. Interviewer: Hmm. Sociologist: After all, in most other European countries to be an engineer is to be somebody. And I imagine that this means that many bright children, who might really enjoy the profession and do well in it, probably never consider it, which is a great pity for the country as a whole. We do need good engineers after all. 1. Bartering is the process by which trade takes place through the exchange of goods. 2. Whereas in the past, seashells and spices had no specific value, this new money idea had a stated value. 3. However, due to recent economic developments, the world is once again conducting trade by bartering goods for goods. 4. We refer to the more valuable currency as hard currency while we term the less valuable money, soft currency. 5. In fact, hard currency is usually demanded by the seller, particularly if the seller is from a nation having hard currency. 6. Inflation refers to an abnormally rapid increase in prices. 7. As a result of the scarcity of hard currency in some nations and the recent high world-wide inflation, it is obvious that the conventional method of payment in hard currency must be supplemented by other types of payment such as bartering. 8. Not only is the following illustration a good example of bartering, it also reveals, to a small degree, consumer preferences in beverages in the USSR and the United States. 9. It seems that Pepsi-Cola was the first company to introduce cola into the USSR, much to the disappointment of Coca-Cola. 10. Of course, bartering presents some great problems that are not always easy to overcome.

How to Make Wine This is how wine is made in our winery. After the grapes are picked in late summer, they are pressed so that all the juice runs out. Then the juice is separated from the skins and pips and it is put into large containers and left to ferment. Later, it is put into smaller containers. Then it is left for about a year when it is put into bottles. If it is a good wine, the bottles are kept for several years but the cheaper wines are sold immediately.

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Alan Simpson The mystery of the man found wandering in the city centre has now been solved. The man, whose name is now known to be Alan Simpson, is a medical student. Mr. Simpson was taking part in an experiment conducted by the university department of psychology, when he walked away, unnoticed by the staff supervising the experiment. He has now regained his memory, and has left hospital. Several people, including his sister, April Simpson, telephoned the police to identify Mr. Simpson after seeing his picture in the press.

Lesson 10 Here's the news at 11:30. Thousands of people have marched through the centre of Corby in Northamptonshire to protest against plans to close the steel works, the town's major employer. The marchers demonstrated outside the local British Steel Corporation's headquarters where union leaders are talking about closure plans with the management. Hospital waiting lists in the south west of England have gone up by a quarter in the last five years. While the number of doctors, nurses and other staff have increased, the demand on the service has grown even faster. The EEC is to give another £31 million to Britain's poorer areas. The aid from the regional development fund includes £ 13.5 million for Northern Ireland and £ 10 million for industrial improvement and road works in the north of England. In a report on rabies controls, Kent County Council has said that 17 dogs, 5 cats, 2 rabbits and 2 hamsters have been landed illegally at Channel ports in the first nine months of this year. This was seven more than in the same period last year. A derailed coal train at Thirsk in North Yorkshire has disrupted rail services between Newcastle and the south of England. It's time for the news at 3:30 here on Radio I. A girl aged 16 armed with a shotgun held up a class of children at a secondary school in Surrey this morning. Police said that soon after school began at Blair Hill Secondary School, Newton, the girl, armed with a double-barrelled shotgun belonging to her brother, went into one of the classrooms and threatened a teacher and about thirty pupils. A shot was fired into the ceiling as she was being overpowered by police officers. Surgeons at Cambridge have successfully transplanted a pancreas—the organ that produces insulin—in two patients suffering from diabetes. One patient, a 23-year-old electronics worker also had a liver transplant. The other patient, a 55-year-old housewife, had a kidney transplanted at the same time. Both patients are doing well. A stately home owner who allowed a pop concert to be staged in his grounds was fined yesterday for letting a rock band play overtime. The Honourable Frederick Sidgwick Johnson admitted allowing the rock group Led Zepplin to play on after midnight during a concert at his home near Stevenage two months ago. Stevenage magistrates fined him £125 with £25 costs. Three people have so far been killed in the storms sweeping across the north of England and southern Scotland. A woman was killed in Carlisle when a chimney on a house collapsed and two men were killed when their car crashed into a fallen tree on a country road near Melrose. More high winds and rain are forecast for tonight. Professor Richard Hill is talking about British newspapers. It seems to me that many British newspapers aren't really newspapers at all. They contain news, it is true, but much of this news only appears in print because it is guaranteed to shock, surprise or cause a chuckle. What should we expect to find in a real newspaper? Interesting political articles? Accurate reports of what has been happening in distant corners of the world? The latest news from the stock exchange? Full coverage of great sporting events? In-depth interviews with leading personalities?
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It is a sad fact that in Britain the real newspapers, the ones that report the facts, sell in thousands, while the popular papers that set out to shock or amuse have a circulation of several million. One's inescapable conclusion is that the vast majority of British readers do not really want a proper newspaper at all. They just want a few pages of entertainment. I buy the same newspaper every day. In this paper political matters, both British and foreign, are covered in full. The editorial column may support government policy on one issue and oppose it on another. There is a full page of book reviews and another devoted to the latest happenings in the theatre, the cinema and the world of art. Stock exchange prices are quoted daily. So are the exchange rates of the world's major currencies. The sports correspondents are among the best in the country, while the standard of the readers' letters is absolutely first-class. If an intelligent person were to find a copy of this paper 50 years from now, he or she would still find it entertaining, interesting and instructive. So my favourite newspaper is obviously very different from those popular papers that have a circulation of several million. But that does not mean that it is 'better' or that they are 'worse'. We are not comparing like with like. A publisher printing a newspaper with a circulation of several million is running a highly successful commercial operation. The people who buy his product are obviously satisfied customers and in a free society everybody should have the right to buy whatever kind of newspaper he pleases. Dave: Dr. Jones, how exactly would you define eccentricity? Dr. Jones: Well, we all have our own particular habits which others find irritating or amusing, but an eccentric is someone who behaves in a totally different manner from those in the society in which he lives. Dave: When you talk about eccentricity, are you referring mainly to matters of appearance? Dr. Jones: Not specifically, no. There are many other ways in which eccentricity is displayed. For instance, some individuals like to leave their mark on this earth with bizarre buildings. Others have the craziest desires which influence their whole way of life. Dave: Can you give me an example? Dr. Jones: Certainly. One that immediately springs to mind was a Victorian surgeon by the name of Buckland. Being a great animal lover he used to share his house openly with the strangest creatures, including snakes, bears, rats, monkeys and eagles. Dave: That must've been quite dangerous at times. Dr. Jones: It was, particularly for visitors who weren't used to having 'pets'—for want of a better word—in the house. They used to get bitten and even attacked. And the good doctor was so interested in animals that he couldn't resist the temptation to sample them as food. So guests who came to dinner had to be prepared for a most unusual menu, mice on toast, roast giraffe. Once he even tried to make soup from elephant's trunk. Strangely, though, his visitors seemed to go back for more. Dave: They must've had very strong stomachs, that's all I can say. Dr. Jones, what particular kind of eccentric are you most interested in from a psychologist's point of view? Dr. Jones: I think they're all fascinating, of course, but on the whole I'd say it's the hermit that I find the most intriguing, the type who cuts himself off from the world. Dave: Does one of these stand out in your mind at all?

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Dr. Jones: Yes, I suppose this century has produced one of the most famous ones: the American billionaire, Howard Hughes. Dave: But he wasn't a recluse all his life, was he? Dr. Jones: That's correct. In fact, he was just the opposite in his younger days. He was a rich young man who loved the Hollywood society of his day. But he began to disappear for long periods when he grew tired of high living. Finally, nobody was allowed to touch his food and he would wrap his hand in a tissue before picking anything up. He didn't even allow a barber to go near him too often and his hair and beard grew down to his waist. Dave: Did he live completely alone? Dr. Jones: No, that was the strangest thing. He always stayed in luxury hotels with a group of servants to take care of him. He used to spend his days locked up in a penthouse suite watching adventure films over and over again and often eating nothing but ice cream and chocolate bars. Dave: It sounds a very sad story. Dr. Jones: It does. But, as you said earlier, life wouldn't be the same without characters like him, would it? 1. In the United States we are using more and more oil every day, and the future supply is very limited. 2. It is estimated that at the current rate of use, oil may not be a major source of energy after only 25 more years. 3. We have a lot of coal under the ground, but there are many problems with mining it, transporting it, and developing a way to burn it without polluting the air. 4. Production of new nuclear power plants has slowed down because of public concern over the safety of nuclear energy. 5. The government once thought that we would be getting 20 percent of our electricity from nuclear energy by the 1970's, but nuclear energy still produced only about 12 percent of our power as of 1979. 6. There is no need to purchase fuel to operate a solar heating system because sunshine is free to everyone. 7. Because solar systems depend on sunshine, they can't always provide 100% of your heat. 8. Solar heating can be used in most areas of the United States, but it is most practical in areas where there is a lot of winter sunshine, where heat is necessary, and where fuel is expensive. 9. A hot-liquid system operates in basically the same way except the hot-liquid system contains water instead of air; and the storage unit is a large hot water tank instead of a container of hot rocks. 10. Then energy from the sun may provide the answer to our need for a new, cheap, clean source of energy. Voice Analysis If we want to measure voice features very accurately, we can use a voice analyser. A voice analyser can show four characteristics of a speaker's voice. No two speakers' voices are alike. To get a voice sample, you have to speak into the voice analyser. The voice analyser is connected to a computer. From just a few sentences of normal speech, the computer can show four types of information about your voice. It will show nasalization, loudness, frequency and length of articulation. The first
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element, nasalization, refers to how much air normally goes through your nose when you talk. The second feature of voice difference is loudness. Loudness is measured in decibels. The number of decibels in speaking is determined by the force of air that comes from the lungs. The third feature of voice variation is frequency. By frequency we mean the highness or lowness of sounds. The frequency of sound waves is measured in cycles per second. Each sound of a language will produce a different frequency. The final point of voice analysis concerns the length of articulation for each sound. This time length is measured in small fractions of a second. From all four of these voice features—length of articulation, frequency, loudness and nasalization—the voice analyser can give an exact picture of a person's voice.

Lesson 11 Doctor: Well Mr. Thomson. The first and important thing I have to tell you is that ... mm ... there is really nothing seriously wrong with you ... physically that is. My ... er ... my very thorough re-examination and the ... the analyst's report show that basically you are very fit. Yes ... very fit. Mr. Thomson: So ... Why is it doctor that I'm always so nervy ... tense ... ready to jump on anybody—my wife, children, colleagues? Doctor: I think ... erm ... I think your condition has a lot to do with er—What shall we call it? —Way of life? Habits? Mr. Thomson: Way of life? Habits? Doctor: Yes ... now tell me Mr. Thomson ... You smoke, don't you? Mr. Thomson: Yes ... I'm afraid ... I'm afraid I do, doctor. Doctor: And ... er ... rather heavily I imagine. Mr. Thomson: Well ... yes. I smoke—what ... about forty ... fifty a day I suppose. Doctor: You should do your best to stop, you know. Mr. Thomson: Yes ... I see ... But er ... Well ... it won't be the first time. I've tried to give up smoking several times but it's ... it's no good. Doctor: You see ... fifty a day is overdoing it ... you must admit. You must cut it down ... at least that. Oh yes. I know that when you're feeling tense you ... you probably feel that a cigarette relaxes you. But in the long run ... I do advise you to make ... to make a real effort. Mr. Thomson: Of course. But ... well ... it's easy to say give it up or cut it down ... but ... oh you know ... Doctor: Well in my opinion you have no choice. Either you make a real effort or ... or there's no real chance of your feeling better. You see ... well obviously I could prescribe some kind of tranquillizer ... but would that help? I'd prefer—and I'm quite sure you'll agree—I'd prefer to see you really back to normal ... not just seemingly so. And that's my reason for asking you several more questions about ... about your other habits. Mr. Thomson: Right.

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Doctor: Your eating habits for example. What do you eat normally ... during a normal day? Mr. Thomson: Yes ... well ... I'm a good eater. Yes, I'd say I'm a good eater. Now let's see ... Up at eight in the morning and my wife has a good breakfast ready. Doctor: A good breakfast? Mr. Thomson: The usual. A cereal followed by bacon and eggs with fried bread and perhaps a tomato or two. Then toast and marmalade ... all washed down with a couple of cups of tea. I er ... yes ... I really enjoy my breakfast. Doctor: Er ... yes ... I can see you do. But I'd advise you to eat rather less. We'll come to that later. Go on. Mr. Thomson: Then lunch ... no, first brunch. A cup of coffee and a bun at eleven. Lunch has to be quick because there's so much to do in the office about that time. So I have a pint and a sandwich in the pub. All very hurried. Doctor: Try to be in less of a hurry. Mr. Thomson: But I make up for it in the evening. I get home at about seven. Dinner's round about eight. Er ... yes ... My wife's an excellent cook ... excellent. It's usually some meat dish ... and we like spaghetti as a first course. Spaghetti, a meat dish, cheese, a sweet. But er ... but then ... at the end of the day shall we say ... then ... well then I begin to feel on edge again. Most evenings after dinner we read or watch TV ... but I ... I get this terrible feeling of tension. Doctor: Well ... I'm sorry to have to say this because you obviously enjoy your food ... but ... er ... I really do recommend that you ... that you eat less and—secondly—that you eat more healthily. Instead of having that enormous breakfast for example ... er ... well ... try to be content with a fruit juice and some cereal. Mr. Thomson: I see ... but er ... Doctor: Elevenses ... right ... well that's all right. But lunch should be more leisurely. Remember your health is at stake not your job. As for dinner ... er ... I'd advise you to eat a soup perhaps ... with a salad ... a salad followed by some fruit. Mr. Thomson: But my wife's cooking ... Doctor: ... is superb. Granted. And she probably enjoys preparing delicious meals for you. If you like ... well ... er ... I'll have a word with your wife ... Mr. Thomson: No ... that won't be necessary ... erm ... thanks just the same, doctor. But no ... Doctor: And on that subject Mr. Thomson ... erm ... er ... Just one other thing ... er ... I'm sure this won't embarrass you. You say you feel tense in the evenings after dinner. Might I ask about your relationship—your sexual relationship that is—with your wife? Mr. Thomson: Well ... erm ... er ... you see ... er ... (Do It Yourself magazine organizes a competition every summer to find the 'Handyman of the Year'. The winner this year is Mr. Roy Miller, a Sheffield postman. A journalist and a photographer have come to his house. The journalist is interviewing Mr. Miller for an article in the magazine.) Journalist: Well, I'm very impressed by all the work you've done on your house, Mr. Miller. How long have you been working on it?
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Mr. Miller: I first became interested in do-it-yourself several years ago. You see, my son Paul is disabled. He's in a wheel-chair and I just had to make alterations to the house. I couldn't afford to pay workmen to do it. I had to learn to do it myself. Journalist: Have you had any experience of this kind of work? Did you have any practical skills? Mr. Miller: No. I got a few books from the library but they didn't help very much. Then I decided to go to evening classes so that I could learn basic carpentry and electrics. Journalist: What sort of changes did you make to the house? Mr. Miller: First of all, practical things to help Paul. You never really realize the problems handicapped people have until it affects your own family. Most government buildings, for example, have steps up to the door. They don't plan buildings so that disabled people can get in and out. We used to live in a flat, and of course, it was totally unsuitable. Just imagine the problems a disabled person would have in your house. We needed a large house with wide corridors so that Paul could get from one room to another. We didn't have much money and we had to buy this one. It's over ninety years old and it was in a very bad state of repair. Journalist: Where did you begin? Mr. Miller: The electrics. I completely rewired the house so that Paul could reach all the switches. I had to lower the light switches and raise the power-points. I went on to do the whole house so that Paul could reach things and go where he wanted. Journalist: What else did you do? Mr. Miller: By the time I'd altered everything for Paul, do-it-yourself had become a hobby. I really enjoyed doing things with my hands. Look, I even installed smoke-alarms. Journalist: What was the purpose of that? Mr. Miller: I was very worried about fire. You see, Paul can't move very quickly. I fitted them so that we would have plenty of warning if there were a fire. I put in a complete burglar-alarm system. It took weeks. The front door opens automatically, and I'm going to put a device on Paul's wheelchair so that he'll be able to open and close it when he wants. Journalist: What are you working on now? Mr. Miller: I've just finished the kitchen. I've designed it so that he can reach everything. Now I'm building an extension so that Paul will have a large room on the ground floor where he can work. Journalist: There's a £10,000 prize. How are you going to spend it? Mr. Miller: I am going to start my own business so that I can convert ordinary houses for disabled people. I think I've become an expert on the subject. The first job I ever had was as a waitress. I did it the summer before I started at university, when I was eighteen. I was working in a very nice hotel in a small town in Scotland where there are a lot of tourists in the summer so they were taking on extra staff. I arrived there in the evening and met some of the other girls who were working at the hotel—we all lived in a little house opposite the hotel. Anyway, they were all really friendly and we had dinner together and then sat around chatting and drinking coffee—I didn't get to bed until after one o'clock in the morning. I had to be at work

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in the dining room at seven thirty in the morning to start serving breakfast. Well, I didn't wake up 'til seven fifteen! So I threw my clothes on and rushed over to the hotel. I must have looked a real mess because the head waiter just looked at me and told me to go to the bathroom to tidy myself up—I was so embarrassed! The first thing I learned was that there were these two heavy swing doors into the kitchen from the restaurant—one for going into the kitchen and one for going out, so that the waiters coming in didn't bump into the ones going out. Anyway, that morning I was so frightened of the head waiter that I didn't listen properly to what he was saying, so when one of the waiters asked me to give him a hand and take two plates of eggs and bacon and an orange juice out to the restaurant, I went straight towards the wrong door and collided with another waiter coming in! You can't imagine the mess—eggs, bacon and orange juice all over the floor, the door, the waiter and me. The other waiter thought it was quite funny, but the head waiter was furious and made me clear everything up straight away in case someone slipped and fell. After serving breakfast, at about ten o'clock, we had our own breakfast. I was starving by then, and just wanted to sit down and eat quietly. But some of the waiters started making fun of my English accent—they were all Scottish. I think they were just trying to cheer me up and have a joke, but I was so upset and hungry that I just rushed off to the bathroom in tears! I thought everybody hated me! By the time I came back, they'd cleared up all the breakfast things, and I hadn't had a chance to eat anything! Well, straight away we started getting the dining room ready for lunch—cleaning the silver, setting the tables, hoovering the floor. The room had a beautiful view over a river with the mountains behind, but of course, as soon as I stopped work to have a look out of the window, the head waiter spotted me and told me off again. I didn't make too bad a job of serving lunch—one of the waiters looked after me and showed me how to do things. One of the customers ordered some expensive white wine, and I gave him a bottle from the cupboard, not from the fridge, so it wasn't cold enough. But fortunately the other waiters hid the bottle I'd opened wrongly and I gave him another bottle from the fridge so the head waiter didn't find out. I would have been quite happy, but I had another problem which was that I'd got up in such a hurry I just put on the shoes I'd been wearing the night before. Well, these shoes looked quite smart but they had really high heels, and after a few hours on my feet I was in agony and there was nothing I could do about it, there was certainly no time to go and change them. I can tell you I never wore those shoes to work again! Anyway, after lunch we had our own lunch—I managed to get something to eat this time, and we were free in the afternoon. I went for a walk with one of the other girls and we got a bit lost so I didn't have time for any rest before we went back to work at six. By the time we finished serving dinner at about ten thirty I was completely exhausted. I'd never worked so hard in my life, I think. Of course, I stayed up chatting with the other girls that night too, and most of the other nights I was there. I fell into bed at night and out of it at seven the next morning, but I loved the job after a while, believe it or not, and I even went back to work there the next year! I never got on very well with the head waiter, though. 1. The Landsats are two butterfly-shaped spacecraft that were sent into orbit around the earth in 1972 and 1975. 2. They circle the earth 14 times every 24 hours at a height of 570 miles, or 918 kilometres, above the earth. 3. From the photographs sent from the satellites, scientists are learning things about the earth they have never known before. 4. In false colours, water is black, cities are blue-green, rock is brown, healthy plants are red and diseased plants are green. The white areas show barren land. 5. Because photographs from the satellite are taken looking directly down on the land from such a height, they are more accurate than earlier photographs taken from airplanes. 6. The second use of these Landsat photographs is to help find oil and minerals.
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7. Although these two Landsats have already produced a lot of very important information about the world, they are just the beginning. 8. Later Landsats may be equipped to photograph even smaller areas or they may be equipped with radar. Body Positions People often show their feelings by the body positions they adopt. These can contradict what you are saying, especially when you are trying to disguise the way you feel. For example, a very common defensive position, assumed when people feel threatened in some way, is to put your arm or arms across your body. This is a way of shielding yourself from a threatening situation. This shielding action can be disguised as adjusting one's cuff or watchstrap. Leaning back in your chair especially with your arms folded is not only defensive, it's also a way of showing your disapproval, of a need to distance yourself from the rest of the company. A position which betrays an aggressive attitude is to avoid looking directly at the person you are speaking to. On the other hand, approval and desire to cooperate are shown by copying the position of the person you are speaking to. This shows that you agree or are willing to agree with someone. The position of one's feet also often shows the direction of people's thoughts, for example, feet or a foot pointing towards the door can indicate that a person wishes to leave the room. The direction in which your foot points can also show which of the people in the room you feel most sympathetic towards, even when you are not speaking directly to that person. Lesson 12 Gentleman Jim has worked out a plan to rob a bank. He's telling his gang, Fingers Jones and Ginger Robertson about the plan. Listen to their conversation. Fingers: Let's see. You're going to walk up the counter and you're going to start writing a cheque. Then you're going to open the canister of nerve gas, and everyone will go to sleep instantly. Jim: That's right. This gas will put anyone to sleep for exactly three minutes. Fingers: And while everyone is asleep, you're going to go round to the manager's desk and steal all the money? Jim: Exactly. I've worked it out very carefully. There should be about £50,000 in used bank notes. Ginger: Sounds great. There's only one thing. If you open the gas, you'll go to sleep too, won't you? Jim: I have thought of that. I'll wear a motor-cycle helmet, with an oxygen mask inside. If I wear a helmet, no one will be able to recognize me afterwards, either. Ginger: I think it's risky. If the bank clerk sees you take out a gas canister, he won't wait. He'll push the alarm button straight away. Fingers: I've just had an idea. If I came into the bank when you were standing at the counter, no one would even look at me. Then, if I threw the can of nerve gas, they wouldn't guess that we were connected. Ginger: Yes, that might be better. Are you going to wear a helmet, too? Fingers: No. It would look very suspicious if two people were wearing motor cycle helmets. I'll just open the door, throw in the gas canister, and leave Gentleman Jim to rob the bank.

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Jim: I like that idea. Right, we'll do that. Any other problems that you can see? Ginger: What are you going to do with the money? If you walk out with £50,000 under your arm, somebody will surely notice you. Jim: You'll be sitting in a get-away car, waiting for me outsaid the bank. Ginger: But there is a police station just fifty yards away. If I park a car outside the bank, the police would probably come and ask me to move. Fingers: Well, what do you suggest? He can't just walk around the town. He'll be carrying £50,000 in bundles of bank notes. Jim: Just a minute! I've thought of something. What day is this robbery? Fingers: Monday. Jim: Monday! You know what happens on Monday, don't you? It's dustbin day! Ginger: So? Jim: So, can you think of a better way of moving the money? If you saw a man pick up £50,000 and put it into a car, what would you think? Fingers: I'd think he was a thief. Jim: Exactly. But if you saw a man pick up a dustbin and put it into a lorry, what would you think? Fingers: I'd think he was a dustman. Hey! That's clever! Ginger: And if the £50,000 was in the dustbin, I could pick up the money and nobody would notice. That's brilliant. Fingers: Is there a dustbin? Jim: Oh yes, several. They put the dustbins out every Monday. They'll be standing there, outside the bank. Fingers: But if you put the money in a dustbin, it'll stink. We'll never be able to spend it if it smells like that. Jim: We don't have to put it in a dustbin. We can put it in a black plastic bag. They often have black plastic bags for rubbish nowadays. If I carry one in my pocket, I can pull it out after you've thrown the gas. OK? Let's run through the plan once more. Ginger: You go into the bank with a motor-cycle helmet on, and a black rubbish bag in your pocket. Fingers: I come in a few minutes later. I open the door, throw in the open gas canister, and then go ... where? Jim: I've hired a room in the building right opposite the bank. Go up in the lift to the top floor and keep a look out. When you get there, radio Ginger, and tell him to come. Ginger: In the meantime, everyone in the bank has gone to sleep, except you. You take the money, and put it in the plastic bag.
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Jim: I come out, and put the bag with the rubbish, and then go back into the bank. Ginger: Go back? Jim:Oh yes. If everyone woke up and I wasn't there, they'd know I was one of the thieves. No, I'll go back and pretend to wake up with everyone else. Fingers: That's a really clever touch. Ginger: I drive a dustcart and wait in the cul-de-sac behind the bank until Fingers contacts me. Then I come and pick up the rubbish, including the £50,000. Jim: I can't think of any problems, can you? (Doorbell rings. Door opens.) Boss: At long last! Why did it take you so long? 1st villain: Er ... I really am sorry about this, boss ... Boss: Come on! What happened? Where's the money? 1st villain: Well, it's a long story. We parked outside the bank, OK, on South Street, and I went in and got the money—you know, no problems, they just filled the bag like you said they would. I went outside, jumped into the car, and off we went. Boss: Yes, yes, yes. And then? 2nd villain: We turned right up Forest Road, and of course the traffic lights at the High Street crossroads were against us. And when they went green the stupid car stalled, didn't it? I mean, it was dead— 1st villain: So I had to get out and push, all the way to the garage opposite the school. I don't know why Jim here couldn't fix it. I mean, the car was your responsibility, wasn't it? 2nd villain: Yeah, but it was you that stole it, wasn't it? Why didn't you get a better one? 1st villain: OK, it was my fault. I'm sorry. 2nd villain: The mechanic said it would take at least two days to fix it—so we just had to leave it there and walk. 1st villain: Well, we crossed over Church Lane, and you'll never believe what happened next, just outside the Police Station, too. 2nd villain: Look, it wasn't my fault. You were responsible for providing the bag—I couldn't help it if the catch broke. 1st villain: It took us five minutes to pick up all the notes again. Boss: Fine, fine, fine. But where is the money? 2nd villain: We're getting there, boss. Anyway, we ran to where the second car was parked, outside the library in Ox Lane—you know, we were going to switch cars there—and then—you know, this is

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just unbelievable— 1st villain: —yeah. We drove up Church Lane, but they were digging up the road just by the church, so we had to take the left fork and go all the way round the north side of the park. And then, just before the London Road roundabout— 2nd villain: —some idiot must have driven out from the railway station without looking right into the side of a lorry. The road was completely blocked. There was nothing for it but to abandon the car and walk the rest of the way. Boss: All right, it's a very fascinating story. But I still want to have a look at the money. 1st villain: Well, that's the thing, boss. I mean, I'm terribly sorry, but this idiot must have left it somewhere. 2nd villain: Who are you calling an idiot? I had nothing to do with it. You were carrying the bag. 1st villain: No. I wasn't. I gave it to you ... Man: Excuse me, madam. Woman: Yes? Man: Would you mind letting me take a look in your bag? Woman: I beg your pardon? Man: I'd like to look into your bag, if you don't mind. Woman: Well I'm afraid I certainly do mind, if it's all the same to you. Now go away. Impertinence! Man: I'm afraid I shall have to insist, madam. Woman: And just who are you to insist, may I ask? I advise you to take yourself off, young man, before I call a policeman. Man: I am a policeman, madam. Here's my identity card. Woman: What? Oh ... well ... and just what right does that give you to go around looking into people's bags? Man: None whatsoever, unless I have reason to believe that there's something in the bags belonging to someone else? Woman: What do you mean belonging to someone else? Man: Well, perhaps, things that haven't been paid for? Woman: Are you talking about stolen goods? That's a nice way to talk, I must say. I don't know what things are coming to when perfectly honest citizens get stopped in the street and have their bags examined. A nice state of affairs! Man: Exactly, but if the citizens are honest, they wouldn't mind, would they? So may I look in your bag, madam? We don't want to make a fuss, do we? Woman: Fuss? Who's making a fuss? Stopping people in the street and demanding to see what they've got in their bags. Charming! That's what I call it, charming! Now go away; I've got a train to catch.
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Man: I'm sorry. I'm trying to do my job as politely as possible but I'm afraid you're making it rather difficult. However, I must insist on seeing what you have in your bag. Woman: And what, precisely, do you expect to find in there? The Crown Jewels? Man: No need to be sarcastic, Madam. I thought I'd made myself plain. If there's nothing in there which doesn't belong to you, you can go straight off and catch your train and I'll apologize for the inconvenience. Women: Oh, very well. Anything to help the police. Man: Thank you, madam. Woman: Not at all, only too happy to cooperate. There you are. Man: Thank you,Mm. Six lipsticks? Woman: Yes, nothing unusual in that. I like to change the colour with my mood. Man: And five powder-compacts? Woman: I use a lot of powder. I don't want to embarrass you, but I sweat a lot. (Laughs) Man: And ten men's watches? Woman: Er, yes. I get very nervous if I don't know the time. Anxiety, you know. We all suffer from it in this day and age. Man: I see you smoke a lot, too, madam. Fifteen cigarette lighters? Woman: Yes, I am rather a heavy smoker. And ... and I use them for finding my way in the dark and ... and for finding the keyhole late at night. And ... and I happen to collect lighters. It's my hobby. I have a superb collection at home. Man: I bet you do, madam. Well, I'm afraid I'm going to have to ask you to come along with me. Woman: How dare you! I don't go out with strange men. And anyway I told you I have a train to catch. Man: I'm afraid you won't be catching it today, madam. Now are you going to come along quietly or am I going to have to call for help? Woman: But this is outrageous! (Start fade) I shall complain to my MP. One has to carry one's valuables around these days; one's house might be broken into while one's out ... 1. The American Indians of the Southwest have led an agricultural life since the year 1 A.D., and in some aspects their life is still similar today. 2. At the beginning of this period, the people farmed on the tops of high, flat, mountain plateaus, called mesas. Mesa is the Spanish word for table. 3. They lived on top of the mesas or in the protection of the caves on the sides of the cliffs. 4. In their early history, the Anasazi used baskets for all these purposes. Later they developed pottery.

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But the change from basketmaking to pottery was so important that it began a series of secondary changes. 5. To cook food in a basket, the women first filled the basket with ground corn mixed with water. They then built a fire. 6. But many stones could be heated on the fire and then dropped into the basket of food, so it would cook. The stones heated the food quite well, but soon they had to be taken out of the food and heated again. 7. But although the men brought home the idea of pottery, they did not bring home any instructions on how to make it. Anthropologists have discovered pieces of broken pottery made according to different formulas. 8. Because the Anasazi had solved the problem of cooking and storing food, they could now enjoy a more prosperous, comfortable period of life. Acupuncture There are many forms of alternative medicine which are used in the Western world today. One of the most famous of these is acupuncture, which is a very old form of treatment from China. It is still widely used in China today, where it is said to cure many illnesses, including tonsillitis, arthritis, bronchitis, rheumatism and flu. The Chinese believe that there are special energy lines through the body and that the body's energy runs through these lines. When a person is ill the energy in his or her body does not run as well as normal, perhaps because it is weaker or it is blocked in some way. The Chinese believe that if you put very fine needles into the energy line, this helps the energy to return to normal. In this way the body can help itself to get better. The acupuncturist puts the needles into special places along the energy line and some of these places can be a long way from the place where the body is ill. For example it is possible to treat a bad headache by putting needles into certain places on the foot. It may surprise you to know that it does not hurt when the acupuncturist puts the needles into your body. People who have had acupuncture say that they felt nothing or hardly anything. Western doctors at first did not believe that acupuncture could work. Now they see that it not only can work but that it does work. How and why does it work? No one has been able to explain this. It is one of nature's mysteries. I Just Fall in Love Again Dreaming, I must be dreaming Or am I really lying here with you Baby you take me in your arms And though I'm wide awake I know my dream is coming true And oh I just fall in love again Just one touch and then it happens every time And there I go I just fall in love again and when I do I can't help myself I fall in love with you Magic, it must be magic The way I hold you and the night just seems to fly Easy for you to take me to a star Heaven is that moment when I look into your eyes And oh I just fall in love again Just one touch and then it happens every time And there I go I just fall in love again and when I do I can't help myself I fall in love with you Can't help myself I fall in love with you

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Lesson 13 Lesley: Ah ... it's such a lovely day. It reminds me of last week, doesn't it you? Fiona: Oh don't! I mean that was just so fantastic, that holiday! Lesley: I love that city, you know. Fiona: I do too. Really, it's got something about it, a certain sort of charm ... Lesley: Mm, and all that wine and good food ... Fiona: And so cheap. Right, I mean, compared to here ... Lesley: Yes, although the shops are expensive. Fiona: Mm, yes. Lesley: I mean, really I bought nothing at all. I just ate and ate and drank and drank. Fiona: I know. Wasn't that lovely? Lesley: Yes, and I, I go there. I like listening to the people talking, sitting outside drinking wine. Fiona: Yes. Could you understand what they were saying? When they were speaking quickly, I mean. Lesley: Well, it is difficult, of course. And then I liked that tower, too. Fiona: You liked that tower? I'm not sure about it, really. (No) It's very unusual, right in the centre of the city. Lesley: True, but there's a lovely view from the top. Fiona: Oh, you went right up, didn't you? (Mm, yes) Oh no, I didn't. Lesley: Of course you didn't. Fiona: I remember that day. We weren't together. Lesley: No, that's right. (Mm) You went down by the river, didn't you? Fiona: That's it. Oh, walking along the river and all the couples (Yes) and it's so romantic ... (Is it true) and the paintings too ... Lesley: They do have artists down by the river, do they? (Yes) Oh, how lovely! Fiona: Oh, it really is super. Lesley: Yes. Oh, I think we ought to go back there again next year, don't you? Fiona: I do, yes. (Mm) If only just to sample some more of the wine. Lesley: It'd be lovely, wouldn't it?

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Fiona: Yes. (Doorbell rings.) Peter: Hello, John. Nice to see you. Come in. How are you? John: Fine, thanks. Peter. And how are you? I expect your patients are keeping you busy at this time of year? Peter: Ah, well. I can't really complain. Let me take your coat. There we are. Well, now, I don't think you've met Ann Patterson, have you? Ann, this is John Middleton. He's the local schoolteacher. Ann: Oh! How do you do? John: How do you do? Ann: Well, that's very interesting. Perhaps you'll be looking after my son. Peter: Yes, that's right. Ann and her family have just moved into the old barn, up by the village hall. They're in the process of doing it up now. Ann: Yes, there's an awful lot needs doing, of course. (Doorbell rings.) Peter: Er, please excuse me for a moment. I think that was the doorbell. John: Well, if I can give you a hand with anything ... I'm something of a handyman in my spare time, you know. I live just over the road. Ann: That's very kind of you. I'm an architect myself, so ... Oh, look! There's someone I know, Eileen! Eileen: Ann, fancy seeing you here! How's life? Ann: Oh, mustn't grumble. Moving's never much fun though, is it? Anyway, how are things with you? You're still at the same estate agent's. I suppose? Eileen: Oh yes. I can't see myself leaving, well, not in the foreseeable future. Ann: Oh, I quite forgot. Do you two know each other? John: Yes, actually, we've met on many an occasion. Hello, Eileen. You see, we play in the same orchestra. Ann: Oh, really? I didn't know anything about that. Eileen: Yes, actually, just amateur stuff, you know—once a week—I come down from London when I can get a baby-sitter for Joanna. Paul: Er ... excuse me, I hope you don't mind my butting in. My name's Paul Madison. I couldn't help overhearing what you said about an orchestra. John: Come and join the party. I'm John Middleton. This is Ann Patterson and Eileen ... or ... I'm terribly sorry. I don't think I know your surname? Eileen: Hawkes. Pleased to meet you, Paul. You play an instrument, do you?
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Paul: Yes, I'm over here on a scholarship to study the bassoon (loud yawn from Ann) at the Royal Academy of Music for a couple of years. Ann: Oh, I am sorry. It must be all that hard work on the barn ... Paul: Well, anyway ... First speaker: I'm a night person. I love the hours, you know? I like going to work at around six at night and then getting home at two or three in the morning. I like being out around people, you know, talking to them, listening to their problems. Some of my regulars are always on the lookout for ways that they can stump me. Like last week, one of them came in and asked for a Ramos gin fizz. He didn't think I knew how to make it. Hah! But I know how to make every drink in the book, and then some. Although some of the nights when I go in I just don't feel like dealing with all the noise. When I get in a big crowd it can be pretty noisy. People talking, the sound system blaring, the pinball machine, the video games. And then at the end of the night you don't always smell so good, either. You smell like cigarettes. But I like the place and I plan on sticking around for a while. Second speaker: If I had to sit behind a desk all day, I'd go crazy! I'm really glad I have a job where I can keep moving, you know? My favourite part is picking out the music—I use new music for every ten-week session. For my last class I always use the Beatles—it's a great beat to move to, and everybody loves them. I like to sort of educate people about their bodies, and show them, you know, how to do the exercises and movements safely. Like, it just kills me when I see people trying to do situps with straight legs—it' so bad for your back! And ... let's see ... I—I like to see people make progress—at the end of a session you can really see how people have slimmed down and sort of built up some muscle—it's very gratifying. The part I don't like is, well, it's hard to keep coming up with new ideas for classes. I mean, you know, there are just so many ways you can move your body, and it's hard to keep coming up with interesting routines and ... and new exercises. And it's hard on my voice—I have to yell all the time so people can hear me above the music, and like after three classes in one day my voice has had it. Then again, having three classes in one day has its compensations—I can eat just about anything I want and not gain any weight! Third speaker: What do I like about my job? Money. M-O-N-E-Y. No, I like the creativity, and I like my studio. All my tools are like toys to me—you know, my watercolours, pen and inks, coloured pencils, drafting table—I love playing with them. and I have lots of different kinds of clients—I do magazines, book covers, album covers, newspaper articles—so there's lots of variety, which I like. You know, sometimes when I start working on a project I could be doing it for hours and have no conception of how much time has gone by—what some people call a flow experience.I don't like the pressure, though, and there's plenty of it in this business. You're always working against a tight deadline. And I don't like the business end of it—you know, contacting clients for work, negotiating contracts, which get long and complicated. Fourth speaker: Well, I'll tell you. At first it was fun, because there was so much to learn, and working with figures and money was interesting. But after about two years the thrill was gone, and now it's very routine. I keep the books, do the payroll, pay the taxes, pay the insurance, pay the bills. I hate paying the bills, because there's never enough money to pay them! I also don't like the pressure of having to remember when all the bills and taxes are due. And my job requires a lot of reading that I don't particularly enjoy. I can have to keep up to date on all the latest tax forms, and it's pretty dull. I like it when we're making money, though, because I get to see all of my efforts rewarded. TV Interviewer: In this week's edition of 'Up with People' we went out into the streets and asked a number of people a question they just didn't expect. We asked them to be self-critical ... to ask themselves exactly what they thought they lacked or—the other side of the coin—what virtues they had. Here is what we heard.

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Jane Smith: Well ... I ... I don't know really ... it's not the sort of question you ask yourself directly. I know I'm good at my job ... at least my boss calls me hard-working, conscientious, efficient. I'm a secretary by the way. As for when I look at myself in a mirror as it were ... you know ... you sometimes do in the privacy of your own bedroom ... or at your reflection in the ... in the shop windows as you walk up the street ... Well ... then I see someone a bit different. Yes ... I'm different in my private life. And that's probably my main fault I should say ... I'm not exactly—oh how shall I say? —I suppose I'm, not coherent in my behaviour. My office is always in order...but my flat! Well...you'd have to see it to believe it. Chris Bonner: I think the question is irrelevant. You shouldn't be asking what I think of myself ... but what I think of the state of this country. And this country is in a terrible mess. There's only one hope for it—the National Front. It's law and order that we need. I say get rid of these thugs who call themselves Socialist Workers ... get rid of them I say. So don't ask about me. I'm the sort of ordinary decent person who wants to bring law and order back to this country. And if we can't do it by peaceful means then ... Tommy Finch: Think of myself? Well I'm an easy-going bloke really ... unless of course you wind me up. Then I'm a bit vicious. You know. I mean you have to live for yourself don't you. And think of your mates. That's what makes a bloke. I ain't got much sympathy like with them what's always thinking of causes ... civil rights and all that. I mean ... this is a free country inning? What do we want to fight for civil rights for? We've got them. Charles Dimmak: Well ... I'm retired you know. Used to be an army officer. And ... I think I've kept myself ... yes I've kept myself respectable—that's the word I'd use—respectable and dignified the whole of my life. I've tried to help those who depended on me. I've done my best. Perhaps you might consider me a bit of a fanatic about organization and discipline—self-discipline comes first—and all that sort of thing. But basically I'm a good chap ... not too polemic ... fond of my wife and family ... That's me. Arthur Fuller: Well ... when I was young I was very shy. At times I ... I was very unhappy ... especially when I was sent to boarding-school at seven. I didn't make close friends till ... till quite late in life ... till I was about ... what ... fifteen. Then I became quite good at being by myself. I had no one to rely on ... and no one to ask for advice. That made me independent ... and I've always solved my problems myself. My wife and I have two sons. We ... we didn't want an only child because I felt ... well I felt I'd missed a lot of things. 1. Bert is a natural listener. He can lose himself in conversation with friends or family. Bert has a few very close friends, and he works hard to keep his friendships strong. 2. One means of contact with friends is the regular exercise that Bert gets. He plays handball and swims with a friend twice every week. Besides that, he tries to stay in shape with morning exercises. Bert enjoys the exercise that he gets for its own sake as well as for the fact that it has kept him healthy all his life. 3. In general, Adam has very few hobbies. He used to enjoy collecting coins and reading, but now can never find enough time. He has practically no release from his job and usually brings some work home with him. 4. Like many modern Americans, neither man is very religious. Both belong to a church, but the religious services are not a sustaining part of their lives. But the difference in their spiritual makeup is nonetheless remarkable. 5. Adam does not enjoy much self-confidence. He has never spent the time to think problems through carefully or to teach himself to think about other things. As a result, he is not a particularly creative problem solver. He spends quite a lot of time in compulsive, repetitive nervous activity which only frustrates him more.
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6. Heart attack victims who have tried to change their behaviour after their first heart attack report that Type B behaviour has given them a new sense of peace, freedom, and happiness. Not for anything in the world would they return to their old lifestyle, which held them trapped like prisoners in an unhappy world of their own making. Lesson 14 Here is a summary of the news. No general election yet says the Prime Minister. Five people die in an earthquake in central Italy. And £1/4 million is stolen from a security van. In a speech in the city of London last night, the Prime Minister announced that there will be no general election in the near future. Talk of a quick election was pure speculation, she said. A general election would be held when it was in the best interests of the nation to do so. In central Italy, several small towns and villages are still cut off by avalanches following the earthquake during the night which killed five people. It was central Italy's strongest earthquake for several years and hundreds of people have been made homeless. In Rome, as well as in Florence, Naples and Perugia, gas pipes were broken, windows shattered and electric cables thrown onto the streets. Thieves got away with almost £1/4 million after a security van was ambushed in central London early this morning. The security van was rammed by a lorry as it was taking a short cut through a narrow street off Piccadilly. Three masked men then threatened the driver and his assistant with shotguns and forced one of them to unlock the van. The thieves made their escape in a car parked nearby. This car was later found abandoned in south London. The driver of the van and his assistant were badly shaken but not seriously hurt. The flight recorder of the DC10 airliner which crashed in the Antarctic a fortnight ago has shown that the plane was flying normally just before impact. All two hundred and fifty-seven people on board the aircraft died when it hit the side of a volcano. The investigation into what happened is still going on. Voting is taking place today in the Euro-Constituency of London SouthWest. This by election for the European Parliament is being held because of the death of the previous member, Mr. Harold Friend. At the last election Mr. Friend had a majority of 17,000 over his nearest opponent. Talks on a formula for ending the strike at Independent Television get under way in London this afternoon. Looking forward to the meeting, the General Secretary of the Association of Cinematograph, Television and Allied Technicians, Mr. Albert Tapper, said it was taking place on the basis of new proposals from the companies. He hoped it would lead to a basis for negotiations but he refused to speculate on the chances of success. Fifteen people are to appear in court in Manchester today, following disturbances on a train bringing football supporters back from matches in London. Eye witnesses report that the trouble began when groups of rival supporters whose teams had both been playing London clubs began to insult each other. After fighting had broken out police boarded the train just outside Manchester and arrests were made. British Rail have announced that they are considering withdrawing all soccer specials operating from Manchester. Interviewer: Tell me Mrs. Clark, how did you come to be a bearded lady? Mrs. Clark: Well, it all began when I started growing a beard. Interviewer: Mm ... and when was that exactly? Mrs. Clark: Just after my fourth birthday, I believe. Interviewer: Really? As early as that? Didn't you see a doctor?

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Mrs. Clark: Oh, yes, my parents took me to dozens of specialists. Interviewer: And what did they have to say? Mrs. Clark: They just told me to shave. Interviewer: That's all the advice they could give? So you started shaving? Mrs. Clark: Well, I was too young to be allowed to use a razor, and electric razors weren't even thought of in those days, so my dad used to shave me once a week before going to church on Sundays. Interviewer: And when did you stop shaving? Mrs. Clark: Oh, that would have been when I was around fifteen. You see it was growing at an enormous rate, something like five inches a day, I mean you could almost see it growing, and it was so thick. I mean a razor or scissors were no use. Interviewer: So you ... let it grow? Mrs. Clark: Well, it was taking so much time trying to keep it down and I was just wasting my time fighting a losing battle. So I thought ... I'll just let it grow ... and that's when I came to work in the circus. I was spotted by a talent scout. Interviewer: Do you ... ever cut your beard now? Mrs. Clark: Oh, yes every week I chop off a few feet. I have to cut it or I fall over it if I don't remember to wrap it around my waist. Interviewer: (Laughs) What about the circus? How did you find it at first, being stared at all day? Mrs. Clark: Well, I must admit it was a bit unnerving at first ... what with people gaping at you as though you were a goldfish in a bowl. I used to feel like saying. 'It's all right, dear, it's not that unusual, you know. It's only a bit of extra hair. It's not another head or something.' But you get used to the pointing and laughing in the end. Don't hardly notice it any more. Even the jokes don't upset me now. It's a bit boring in fact, after thirty years, just sitting here all day being stared at. But still there's always the breaks. and then the Ten-Foot Woman and the Midget from next door come in for a cup of tea and a chat, that passes the time nicely. Interviewer: Would you say there were any advantages to having a fifteen-foot long beard? Mrs. Clark: Well, my husband says it keeps his toes warm on cold nights. Paul: Anyone want another Coke or something? James: I think we're all drinking Paul ... thanks just the same. Darley: I was thinking ... What would you youngsters do without the youth centre? You'd be pretty lost, wouldn't you? Paul: Huh! It's all right I suppose. But I'm telling you ... we don't need no bloody youth club to find something to do. Me ... well ... I only come when there's a dance on. Them berks what come all the time ... well ... they need their heads examined. If I want to drink ... well there's the pub, isn't there. Mrs. Brent: But how old are you Paul? Sixteen? You can't drink in pubs—it's illegal.
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Paul: No barman's ever turned me out yet. Anyway ... thanks for the drink. What about a dance, Denise? Denise: I don't mind. Paul: Come on then. Finchley: Er ... Would you care to dance, Mrs. Brent? Mrs. Brent: Thank you ... but no. The music isn't of my generation. You know ... the generation gap. When I was young I'd never have dared speak as Paul just did. Especially with a clergyman present. James: What sort of world do you think we live in Mrs. Brent? It's part of my job to know people ... and especially young people ... as they are. Mrs. Brent: Please don't misunderstand me. I only thought it offensive. If my own son ... James: Oh, I'm used to it. In a sense I feel it's a kind of compliment that ... Darley: Compliment? James: Don't get me wrong. Paul feels free to express himself with me just as he would with his friends. He accepts me as a kind of friend. Finchley: And really the so-called generation gap is a myth you know. Teenagers aren't really so different. As a teacher I find them quite traditional in their attitudes. Darley: But look at the way they dress ... and their hair! James: You haven't got the point I think. Those things are quite superficial. I agree with Mr. Finchley ... Basically their attitudes are very similar to those of my generation. Darley: So you approve of the kind of language we heard from Paul just now ... James: Now I didn't say that. Anyway the concepts of 'approval' and 'disapproval' tend to over simplify matters. Every generation creates its ... its own special language ... just as it creates its own styles in clothes and music. Mrs. Brent: It's just that ... er ... the styles and habits of today's teenagers are so ... well basically ... so unacceptable. Finchley: You mean unacceptable to you. Mrs. Brent: No ... I mean unacceptable to the rest of society. Darley: When you come to think of it ... I mean I'm always on at my boy about his clothes ... James: So you find them unacceptable too. Darley: No ... just let me finish. I was about to say that in fact his clothes are very practical ... very simple. Finchley: Anyway ... the generation gap is non-existent. I mean ... the idea of teenagers ... of a teenage generation that ... which has rejected the values of its parents for a sort of mixture of violence and lethargy ... well ... it's totally unrealistic.

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Mrs. Brent: I do wish you had a teenage son or daughter of your own, Mr. Finchley. Finchley: But I have more contact with them ... Mrs. Brent: I'm not implying that you have no understanding of their problems. Finchley: My contact with them ... as a teacher of English ... is close. You see we have regular discussions ... and they very often carry on after school and here at the youth centre. You'd find them interesting. You could come and sit in sometime if you like. Darley: That'd be interesting. Mrs. Brent: I'd be too embarrassed to say anything. Finchley: I don't mean there's any need for you to take part in the discussion. Just listen. And you'd realize I think just how traditional their attitudes are. James: For example? Finchley: For example ... you probably wouldn't think so but the majority have ... a firm belief in marriage ... and in the family. Darley: Those are things I've never talked about with my boy. Finchley: And one very clear ... very notable thing is that they're always looking for opportunities to help others ... Mrs. Brent: Well, Tony doesn't help much in the house ... Finchley: ... to help others that is who really need help. Not just helping with the washing-up, Mrs. Brent. Anyway ... another point that's come out of the discussions is that nearly all of them—about 90 per cent I should say—get on well with their parents. Mrs. Brent: Oh but I ... Finchley: Most disagreements seem to be over hair and general appearance. James: And we've called those superficial. Finchley: Exactly. Darley: I like the idea of sitting in on a discussion. I'll take you up on that. Finchley: Fine. And Mrs Brent. As you would find it embarrassing ... Mrs. Brent: Well I ... I didn't really mean embarrassing. It's just that ... you know ... Finchley: There's a book you ought to read ... published by The National Children's Bureau. It's called Britain's Sixteen-Year-Olds. I'll lend you my copy. Mrs. Brent: That's very kind of you. Look, I'd better be going. From the way my son's dancing he'll be at it all night. Darley: Have you got a car, Mrs. Brent?
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Mrs. Brent: No. There's a bus. Darley: Then please let me give you a lift. Mrs. Brent: I wouldn't want to take you out of your way. Darley: Not at all. Anyway ... we have to take an example from the youngsters, don't we? Helping those in need I mean ... Well ... we'll say good night ... Voices: Good night. 1. How was trade conducted, then, without money to pay for goods? The answer is by bartering. Bartering is the process by which trade takes place through the exchange of goods. Money is not used as payment. Instead, one good is traded for another good. 2. As trade became more common as a result of people's interdependence upon one another, it was necessary to develop or invent a more convenient method of payment. Consequently, a new form of exchange medium, money, was introduced into society. 3. Of course, the evolution from a total barter society to one that was totally monetized did not occur overnight. In fact, today there are still societies that are not monetized, although they account for an insignificant amount of world trade. In the interim between a barter world and a monetized world, both systems operated together. 4. As I stated earlier, money has a specific value, but due to certain conditions, the money—or currency, as money is referred to—of some countries is more valuable than that of other countries. 5. It is difficult to give examples of barter deals because in most cases the terms of the contract are not disclosed. In some cases, we don't hear about barter transactions simply because they work so well. If one company has arranged a profitable exchange, it will be very quiet about it so that its competitors will not come in and try to make a better deal. 6. It is unlikely that the world will revert to a totally barter-oriented existence, but until the economic disorder that is present in today's world is remedied, bartering will probably become increasingly important as an exchange medium. Lesson 15 A: Did you hear on the news today about that ... uh ... murderer who was executed? B: I can't believe it. A: Yeah. That's the first time in ten years that they've used capital punishment. B: I just can't believe in our society today that they would actually kill another human being. Nobody has the right to take another person's life. A: Oh, I don't agree. Listen, I think capital punishment is—it's about time it came back. I think that's exactly what killers deserve. B: No, they don't deserve that. Because once you're killing a killer, you're the killer, too. You become a killer as well. A: No, listen. You take a life, you have to be willing to give up your own. And also, I think that

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if you have a death penalty it will prevent other people from killing. I think it's a good deterrent. B: I don't think it's a good deterrent at all. My goodness gracious. I mean, first of all, are you sure the person you've convicted to death is really guilty? A: Well, I think that's a very rare ... very rare incidence. B: I don't think it's rare, (I don't think it's ...) with all the cracker jack lawyers we have today, (Well, no ... I ...) and the judicial system the way it is. A: I think it's a rare incidence, and I think it's more important to get rid of the ... the bad seed, you know? B: But you don't get rid of it. You rehabilitate somebody like that. (Oh ...) You don't eliminate, you rehabilitate. A: Listen, studies show that criminals are never really rehabilitated. When they're ... when they come out of prison they just go back to a life of crime, and they're hardened by that crime. B: Because the rehabilitation process has to be more than just what's in jail. I mean, (Oh ... well.) when you're in jail you do have to work, but when you're out of jail there has to be an extensive program. We have to expand on the idea till it works. A: I don't agree. Listen—and, anyway, the jails and the prisons are already very crowded, and we have to pay, the taxpayers. Our money goes to maintaining murderers' (I ...) lives. B: I agree with you. That's why it's important to look at the problem on a much larger scale. The real problem is a social problem. (What ... no ...) There are other problems that cause people to kill. Look at poverty, drugs, discrimination. A: Some people are just bad. They're just evil and there's nothing you can do. B: No, there ... it is ... no, it isn't true. There's rehabilitation. (No.) And they ... we're all responsible it ... for ... to humanity. That's one of the reasons ... A: Well, but in the meantime you have to take care of the people who have already committed ... B: I agree with you there. A: Preventative is different, but ... B: I agree with you there. Announcer: On 'TV Magazine' tonight we're looking at people who have given up regular jobs and high salaries to start a new way of life. First of all, we have two interviews with people who decided to leave the 'rat race'. Nicola Burgess spoke to them. Nicola: This is the Isle of Skye. Behind me you can see the croft belonging to Daniel and Michelle Burns, who gave up their jobs to come to this remote area of Scotland. Daniel was the sales manager of Hi-Vita, the breakfast cereal company, and Michelle was a successful advertising executive. Michelle, can you tell us what made you give up everything to come here? Michelle: Everything? That's a matter of opinion. A big house and two cars isn't everything! Dan and I both used to work long hours. We had to leave so early in the morning and we came home so late at night, that we hardly ever saw each other. We should have come here years ago, but we were earning such big salaries that we were afraid to leave our jobs. In the end we had so little time together that our marriage was breaking up. So two years ago, we took a week's holiday in the Scottish Highlands.
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We saw this place and we both fell in love with it. It was for sale, and we liked it so much that we decided to give up our jobs, and here we are! Nicola: How do you earn a living? If you don't mind me asking. Michelle: We don't need very much. We keep sheep and goats, grow our own vegetables. We've got a few chickens. It's a very simple life, and we're not in it for profit. We're still so busy that we work from five in the morning until eight at night, but we're together. We're happier than we're ever been and we're leading a natural life. Nicola: There must be some things you miss, surely. Michelle: I don't know. We knew such a lot of people in London, but they weren't real friends. We see our neighbours occasionally and there's such a lot to do on the farm that we don't have time to feel lonely. At least we see each other now. Nicola: The motor-bike I'm sitting on is a very special one. Special because it's been all the way round the world. It belongs to Luke Saunders, who has just returned to England after a three year motor-cycle journey. Luke, what led you to leave your job and make this trip? Luke: I worked in a car factory on the assembly line. All I had to do was put four nuts on the bolts that hold the wheels on. It's done by robots now, and a good thing too! The job was so routine that I didn't have to think at all. I bought this Triumph 750 cc bike second-hand, fitted two panniers on the back and just set off for Australia. Nicola: What did you do for money? Luke: I had a bit of money to start with, but of course it didn't last long and I had to find work where I could. I've done so many different things—picked fruit, washed up, worked as a mechanic. Nicola: How did people react to you? In India, for example. Luke: Everywhere I went, the people were so friendly that problems seemed to solve themselves. There was such a lot of interest in the bike that it was easy to start a conversation. You know, often you can communicate without really knowing the language. Nicola: Did you ever feel like giving up, turning round and coming home? Luke: Only once, in Bangladesh. I became so ill with food poisoning that I had to go to hospital. But it didn't last long. Nicola: You've had such an exciting time that you'll find it difficult to settle down, won't you? Luke: I'm not going to. Next week I'm off again, but this time I'm going in the opposite direction! See you in about three years' time! Here is an extract from a radio talk on the work of Sigmund Freud by Professor Eric Watkis: Sigmund Freud developed his system of psychoanalysis while he was studying cases of mental illness. By examining details of the patient's life, he found that the illness could often be traced back to some definite problem or conflict within the person concerned. But he discovered, too, that many of the neuroses observed in mentally ill patients were also present, to a lesser degree, in normal persons. This led him to the realization that the borderline between the normal and the neurotic person is not nearly as clearly marked as was once believed. In 1914 he published a book called The Psychopathology of Everyday Life. This book goes a long

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way towards explaining some of the strange behaviour of normal, sane people. A glance at Freud's chapter headings will indicate some of the aspects of behaviour covered by the book: Forgetting of proper names Forgetting of foreign words Childhood and concealing memories Mistakes in speech Mistakes in reading and writing Broadly, Freud demonstrates that there are good reasons for many of the slips and errors that we make. We forget a name because, unconsciously, we do not wish to remember that name. We repress a childhood memory because that memory is painful to us. A slip of the tongue or of the pen betrays a wish or a thought of which we are ashamed. In these days when every would-be doctor or writer has access to Freud's accounts of his research, it is worth pausing and remembering the remarkable scope and originality of his ideas. Cheese is one of those foods that we tend to take for granted as always having been with us, and it's odd to think that someone somewhere must have discovered the process that takes place when micro-organisms get into milk and bring about changes in its physical and biochemical structure. Obviously, we don't know who discovered the process, but it's thought that it came from South-West Asia about 8,000 years ago. Early cheese was probably rather unpalatable stuff, tasteless and bland in the case of the so-called 'fresh cheeses', which are eaten immediately after the milk has coagulated, and rough tasting and salty in the case of the 'ripened' cheeses, which are made by adding salt to the soft fresh cheese and allowing other biochemical processes to continue so that a stronger taste and a more solid texture result. The ancient Romans changed all that. They were great pioneers in the art of cheese-making, and the different varieties of cheese they invented and the techniques for producing them spread with them to the countries they invaded. This dissemination of new techniques took place between about 60 BC and 300 AD. You can still trace their influence in the English word 'cheese', which comes ultimately from the Latin word 'caseus', that's C-A-S-E-U-S. Well, things went on quietly enough after the Roman period with the cheese producers in the different countries getting on with developing their own specialities. It's amazing the variety of flavours you can get from essentially the same process. At this stage in history, people weren't aware in a scientific way of the role of different micro-organisms and enzymes in producing different types of cheese. But they knew from experience that if you kept your milk or your 'pre-cheese' mixture at a certain temperature or in a certain environment, things would turn out in a certain way. The Roquefort caves in France are an example of a place that was used for centuries for the ripening of a certain sort of cheese, before people knew exactly why they produced the effect they did. In the nineteenth century, with the increasing knowledge about micro-organisms, there came the next great step forward in cheese-making. Once it was known exactly which micro-organisms were involved in the different stages of producing a cheese, and how the presence of different micro-organisms affected the taste, it was possible to introduce them deliberately, and to industrialize the process. Cheese started being made on a large scale in factories, although the small producer working from his farm dairy continued to exist and still exist today. Cheese-making moved very much into the world of technology and industrial processes, although, because the aim is still to produce something that people like to eat, there's still an important role for human judgement. People still go round tasting the young cheese at different stages to see how it's getting on, and may add a bit of this or that to improve the final taste. Whatever the scale of production, there is still room for art alongside the technology. 1. All cultures change, even modern ones. As a matter of fact, change occurs most rapidly in modern cultures, since science brings us so many new discoveries every day. It is rather difficult to follow these changes clearly, since they happen so fast. The civilization that I will discuss today is easier to observe. 2. No formal history was written for these early Indians, but Navajo Indians who came along later
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found evidence of their great civilization. The Navajos called these prehistoric people 'the Anasazi', which means, 'the Ancient Ones'. 3. Descendants of the Anasazi still live in the Southwest, and many aspects of their culture are similar to ancient times. Today these people are called Pueblo Indians. 4. There are four different time periods in the development of the Anasazi. Scientists have looked for the one most important theme in this story, a kind of unifying idea to organize all the facts. The most critical and influential improvement in their lives was the way they used containers to cook, store, and carry food and water. 5. The most important job of the man in this society was to learn, teach, and perform the religious ceremonies associated with farming. Women worked in the fields and prepared all the food. Women also wove baskets out of yucca fibers. 6. We don't know what the final problem was. It might have been enemy attack, sickness, lack of rain, or over-farmed soil. But in the year 1300 the last of the Anasazi left the cliff dwellings, never to return again. They left behind their beautiful pueblos, which still stand as a monument to them. Lesson 16 BBC interviewer: It's probably true to say that women have been affected more than men by recent changes in the way we actually live. Over a hundred years ago people began to question whether men were really so much wiser, stronger, altogether more sensible and simply better than women as the laws of the country made out. In the end women got the vote, and very recently—in 1975—the Sex Discrimination Act was passed. But it's doubtful whether legislation has changed the way we women actually think. A lot is heard about the dilemma of women's two roles. How can a woman be a wife and mother and have a full-time job as well? In this new series we are going to try to find out what people are really thinking and feeling about this problem, and how it affects their personal lives. In the studio with me today is Mrs. Marina Spiden, who recently experienced the problem of having too much to do at home. With Mrs. Spiden are her husband Brian, her mother Mrs. Vera Cresswell and Mr. Tom Penman, their local newsagent. Mrs. Spiden ... tell us what happened will you? Mrs. Spiden: Well ... you just said it ... the problem of having too much to do at home. I do an afternoon job so I have to get the housework and shopping ... er ... done in the morning. And one morning you see ... er ... I just couldn't stand it no more. The ... the baby was bawling her head off. Jimmy—that's my little boy ... he's two—had thrown the radio out of the window ... Interviewer: Really! Mrs. Spiden: Yes really ... The dog ... you know ... had made a ... a mess on the carpet. And there was Brian—my husband—there he was snoring a way on the settee. Didn't lift a finger he didn't ... not a finger to help me. Mr. Spiden: Now now love ... Don't get all her up about it again ... I mean that's your side of the story ... Interviewer: Of course Mr. Spiden ... We'd like to hear your side later. So ... what did you do about it?

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Mrs. Spiden: Well ... What do you do when you've got something you're fed up with or ... or ... you don't want like ... You put them up for sale don't you? And that's exactly what I did do. Put the whole damn lot of 'em up for sale. Interviewer: The family you mean. Mrs. Spiden: Yes ... the family ... including the dog. Mr. Penman: She came into my shop that very day and 'Tom', she says, 'I've just about had enough of it. I'm sick of slaving for a husband what sleeps all day. So here you are,' she says. And she gives me an advert on a card to put up in the window of the paper shop. Interviewer: What did it say? Mr. Penman: I've got it here. Interviewer: Read it for us will you? Mr. Penman: 'For Sale—One house-trained dog, one reasonably trained boy of two years, one baby girl of two weeks and one man that needs training. Any offers considered. Apply within.' Interviewer: And were there any offers? Mrs Cresswell: It was me what wrote that advert. You see ... I live with Marina and Brian ... Mr Spiden: She and her dog ... Mr. Penman: Oh yes. Caused quite a stir it did. I should say I had inquiries from ... from about a couple of dozen housewives in all. Interviewer: And what offers did they make? Mr. Penman: Well one woman offered 25p. She said that's all a man was worth. Interviewer: What about you Mr. Spiden? What was your reaction to the advertisement? Mr. Spiden: Well ... you can imagine ... My wife told me about it but I thought she was joking. Little did I realize ... I was bloody furious when I saw it there. It wasn't till next morning. We live upstairs of the paper shop and when I come down to go on my milk round ... Interviewer: Yes of course ... you're a milkman ... Mrs. Spiden: That's right. I often have a dekko at the adverts Tom puts up. And when I saw that one sort of ... staring me in the face ... I nearly blew me top. Interviewer: What did you do? Mrs. Cresswell: I'll tell you what he did. He came and blamed me for everything. Mr. Spiden: Well it was you ... wannit ... that egged her on. It was you that wrote the advert. Mr. Penman: It was a big joke really. Just that Brian took it all the wrong way. Know what he did? When he come off his milk round he barges into the shop and he says, 'Take that bloody advert out and put one in for me. Ask some kind taxi-driver or someone to come and take my mother-in-law back to Birmingham.'
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Mr. Spiden: But it's all blown over now ... innit. It's done us a world of good in a way. We're the best of friends again. Even the dog started to ... Interviewer: I'm going to talk to you now about the suffragette movement. Were you yourself ever a suffragette? Mrs. Bruce: No, I did not approve of suffragettes. I did not want to have the vote. I felt the man of the house should be in charge of that section. And the woman, of course, to look after the home and the children. I think that voting was unnecessary, at that time. But I'm not going to say now, that perhaps it has had its advantages. Interviewer: How common was your attitude at the time that the suffragettes were being militant? Mrs. Bruce: Oh, I was very much against them. I'd be highly insulted if anybody called me a suffragette. I remember walking with my governess down Downing Street just past Number 10 and they chained themselves to the railings. Of course, I had a good laugh but I thought it wasn't going to be me. Interviewer: Were they a popular movement in their day? Mrs. Bruce: Well, with a certain number of course. And they tried very hard and eventually they got the vote, er through their efforts, so I suppose their efforts were good in quite a lot of ways. Er, I think women in Parliament—there aren't many, but those that've been there have done a lot of good. Interviewer: So you think in the long term ... Mrs. Bruce: In the long term, no harm was done. As long as their demonstrations were peaceful. Interviewer: Do you think it would matter very much if women didn't, hadn't achieved the vote, if they hadn't got the vote at all and still didn't have it? Mrs. Bruce: I don't think it would've made a great deal of difference, no, but there are certain things they've done—those that've been Members of Parliament—that have been very useful in helping women in their jobs, in other vocations. I think it's good that it happened. But I wish it happened a little bit more peacefully, perhaps. Interviewer: What sort of things can you remember, what other sorts of demonstrations do you remember? Mrs. Bruce: Marching, they were marching. But of course those were much more peaceful days, nobody interfered with their marches. There were a few boos here and there and a lot of clapping. Yes. Interviewer: Did you, did you actually know any suffragettes yourself? Mrs. Bruce: Well, my friends, my close friends, were not suffragettes but I had one or two friends, not very close friends, that were. And we used to have great arguments and I used to say I didn't want the vote, I don't want to vote. Interviewer: How did they react to that? Mrs. Bruce: They didn't like that. They said I ought to join the movement but I said, no I don't want to vote. Interviewer: But, and yet you've done so many exciting things. You've done so many things that in your day, were probably the exclusive preserve of the man

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Mrs. Bruce: Well, yes. But voting didn't make any difference because that's a political thing, voting, I never, I don't care about women entering into politics particularly. Ah, no harm's been done with the few that have entered the House of Commons but, in fact, some have done a great deal of good. But that's quite different to beating men at their own job. Now that's nothing to do with votes. Now, for instance, I always got a great thrill on the race track at Brooklands, if I could beat, well, Sir Henry Seagrave, for instance, in a race, I never did beat him but I did beat Frazer Nash, a famous racing driver in a race, and I was thrilled to death. I thought that was super. Interviewer: So you don't mind actually joining men in their world of work and sport but you're happy to leave politics to them. Mrs. Bruce: No. I would rather really leave politics to them. Jan: Changes are very gradual. They're too slow. I mean if you sit under a tree long enough the apple'll fall off and you can eat it but sometimes you've got to stand up and do something. You've got to ... Um, I think the law is there to protect people. Because women were being discriminated against, it was necessary for the law to stop that, um, at least to some extent. But you can't change the way people think. Duncan: People's discrimination is based on the fact ... a lot of it, that they don't think women are capable of making decisions or have any intelligence at all. I mean a lot of people believe that ... and if that ... provided ... once that's proved wrong, that removes the valid grounds for the discrimination and you know you ... the belief is then unjustified. You've got to stamp it out. I mean, it's as simple as that. Keith: But just in the same way that if I want to become a managing director, I have to look at the company in which I work and prove certain elements of my behaviour or ... or my skills to these people, so must women. Jan: Yes, but if they're not given the chance, then how can they? I mean it's very sad that the law has to be there at all. I mean that you have to say to somebody who's employing someone you must give ... you must interview men and women ... it, it seems a great shame ... you have to tell people to do that. It's also a great shame that you have to tell people not to go around murdering other people. I mean, the law's there because people do stupid things. Duncan: As I say, the law is ... is not that you have to sort of ... I mean you basically all you have to do is give women the right to apply and the right to be considered in the same way as everybody else and if the law was effective as it should be, there'd be nothing wrong with that. I mean, what's wrong with giving women the chance to apply for a job and giving them the right to be considered on equal terms with men. Keith: Women could always ... women could always apply. Duncan: That's not true, though. I mean there are employers who just would not consider them. David: A woman would not apply if the job was ... if the job advertisement was couched in such terms. Keith: I mean ... the leading example ... Duncan: I mean the whole point about the ... an advertisement asking for a draughtsman being against the terms of the act, is that it gives the imp ... it's implied that only men will be considered and that's why that would be a legal advertisement if you put at the bottom, um, applications from men and women will be considered ... the same with postmen and all the other jobs. David: Interesting point. How important is the language, Jan, do you think? Jan: I ... it's symbolic. Um, I personally don't find it particularly important. Er, if you have a
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meeting and you call the man or the woman who chairs the meeting the chairman, it just doesn't matter I don't think at all. 1. When a teacher or lecturer recommends a student to read a book it's usually for a particular purpose. The book may contain useful information about the topic being studied or it may be invaluable for the ideas or views that it puts forward, and so on. In many cases, the teacher doesn't suggest that the whole book should be read. In fact, he may just refer to a few pages which have a direct bearing on the matter being discussed. 2. On Many occasions, however, the student does not come to the library to borrow a book, or even to consult a book from the shelves. He may well come to the library because it provides a suitable working environment, which is free of charge, spacious, well-lit and adequately heated. 3. Learners of English usually find that writing is the most difficult skill they have to master. The majority of native speakers of English have to make an effort to write accurately and effectively even on those subjects which they know very well. The non-native learner, then, is trying to do something that the average native speaker often finds difficult himself. 4. Students, however, often work out a sentence in their own language and then try to translate it in this way. The result is that very often the reader simply cannot understand what the student has written. The individual words, or odd phrases, may make sense but the sentence as a whole makes nonsense. The student should, therefore, always try to employ sentence patterns he knows are correct English. 5. Many students seem to think that simplicity is suspect. It is, on the contrary, a quality which is much admired in English. Most readers understand that a difficult subject can only be written up 'simply' if the writer understands it very well. A student should, therefore, organize all his points very carefully before he starts to write. 6. Non-native speakers of English, like their native counterparts, usually find that the opportunity to participate in group discussions is one of the most valuable aspects in their whole academic programme. But in order to obtain full value from this type of activity the student must be proficient in asking questions. If he isn't, then any attempt to resolve his difficulties may lead to further confusion, if not considerable embarrassment. Lesson 17 Here is a summary of the news. Shots are fired in a south London street by escaping bank robbers. Four rock fans die in a stampede at a concert Chicago. And how an Air France Concorde was involved in the closest recorded miss in aviation history? Shots were fired this morning in the course of an 80 m.p.h. chase along Brixton High Road in London. A police constable was injured by flying glass when a bullet shattered his windscreen as he was pursuing a car containing four men who had earlier raided a branch of Barclays Bank at Stockwell. Police Constable Robert Cranley had been patrolling near the bank when the alarm was given. The raiders made their getaway in a stolen Jaguar which was later found abandoned in Croydon. Officials of the bank later announced that £16,000 had been stolen. Four people were killed and more than fifty injured when fans rushed to get into a stadium in Chicago yesterday where the British pop group Fantasy were giving a concert. The incident occurred when gates were opened to admit a huge crowd of young people waiting outside the stadium for the sale of unreserved seat tickets. People were knocked over in the rush and trampled underfoot as the crowd surged forward. The concert later went ahead as planned with Fantasy unaware of what had happened. A police spokesman said that they had decided to allow the concert to proceed in order to avoid further trouble. There has been criticism of the concert organizers for not ensuring that all the tickets

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were sold in advance. Roy Thompson, leader of Fantasy, said afterwards that the whole group was 'shattered' when they heard what had happened. They are now considering calling off the rest of their United States tour. The United States Air Force has admitted that a formation of its fighters and an Air France Concorde recently missed colliding by as little as 10 feet. The Air Force accepts the blame for what was the closest recorded miss in aviation history. According to the Air Force spokesman, when the Concorde was already 70 miles out over the Atlantic, on a scheduled flight to Paris from Dulles International Airport, Washington, four US Air Force F-15s approached at speed from the left. The lead plane missed the underside of Concorde's nose by 10 feet while another passed only 15 feet in front of the cockpit. Forest fires in the South of France have claimed the life of another fireman as they continue to rage in the hills between Frejus and Cannes. Fanned by strong westerly winds the flames are now threatening several villages and many holiday homes have had to be abandoned. The French army was called in yesterday to assist the fifteen hundred fire fighters that have so far been unable to contain the spread of the blaze. A demonstration against race prejudice drew thousands of people to central London this morning. It was organized by the Labour Party and the Trades Union Congress under the banner 'United against Racialism'. The march was led by several leading Labour Party and Trades Union officials. It was a column that stretched for over two miles and it took the demonstrators nearly three hours to cover the distance from Speakers' Corner to Trafalgar Square. There were representatives from more than twenty major unions, as well as community workers and various ethnic groups. By the time the march reached Trafalgar Square an estimated fifteen thousand people had joined it. Heathrow Airport Police are investigating how a mailbag containing nearly £750,000 worth of jewels went missing between Geneva and London. The mailbag was believed to be on its way to a London dealer from a jeweller in Geneva five weeks ago, but it was not realized it was missing until the Post Office reported the fact to Scotland Yard two days ago. The mailbag contained a diamond, an emerald and two rubies valued at £635,200 plus a number of stones of lesser value, according to a police spokesman at Heathrow. Football. The draw for the semi-final of the F.A. Cup was made earlier today. Liverpool will play Manchester City while Arsenal will meet Nottingham Forest. And that's the end of the news. Today I would like to tell you about the effects of old age on health. Actually today a lot of improvements have taken place in the care of old people and old people's health is not nearly so bad as it used to be. Probably many of the fears that people have of growing old are greatly exaggerated. Most people, for example, dread becoming senile. But in fact very few people become senile. Perhaps only about 15% of those over 65 become senile. Actually a much more common problem is in fact caused by we doctors ourselves. And that is over-medication. Nearly 80% of people over 65 have at least one serious illness, such as high blood pressure, hearing difficulty or heart disease. And very often to combat these they take a number of drugs and of course sometimes there are interaction among those drugs as well as simply being too many. And this can cause a lot of complications from mental confusions, very commonly, to disturbance of the heart rhythm. So this is a problem that doctors have to watch out for. Probably the most ignored disorder among old people is depression. Maybe about 15% of older people suffer from this condition. A lot of it is caused by this over-medication which we mentioned. Although it is better now for old people, we have to admit that the body does change as we grow older. The immune system starts to decline and there are changes in metabolism, lungs, the senses, the brain and the skin. So what should an old person do to counter-act these changes? He or she should eat a balanced diet—not too much fat—chicken or fish should be eaten rather than eggs or beef. Eat more high fibre and vitamin rich foods, such as vegetables and fruit. The old person should give up smoking if he hasn't already done so. He should also do regular exercise—at least half an hour, three times a week. No section of the population can benefit more from exercise than the elderly. Carl: I hope I'm not interrupting your work, Mr. Thornton. You must be very busy at this time of the day. Paul: Not at all. Come in, come in, Mr. Finch. I'm just tasting a few of the dishes we'll be serving
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this morning. Carl: That looks interesting. What exactly is it? Paul: That one is fish—in a special sauce. One of my new creations, actually. Carl: I'm looking forward to trying it. Paul: I do hope you've enjoyed your stay with us. Carl: Very much, indeed. We both find it very relaxing here. Paul: Well, I'm sure there's lots more you'd like to ask, so, please, go ahead. Carl: Thanks. I notice that you have a sort of team of helpers. How do you organize who does what? Surely it's difficult with so many talented people? Paul: Everyone contributes ideas, of course, and to a certain extent shares in the decision-making. We all have our different specialities and different ways of doing things, but that's a great advantage in a place like this. If there is any disagreement, I have the final word. After all, I own the business and I'm the boss. But it happens very rarely. I'm glad to say. Carl: Have you had them with you for long? Paul: Not all of them, no. Alan's been with me for about five years. I used to have a restaurant on the east coast. Then I got the offer to do a lecture tour of Australia and New Zealand, you know, with practical demonstrations, so I sold the business, and then Alan and I looked around for two young chefs to take with us. Tom and Martin have been working for me ever since (Laughs.) Chefs are not a problem, but I'm having a lot of trouble at the moment finding good, reliable domestic staff. Carl: How long did the tour last? Paul: We were away for over two years in the end because more and more organizations wanted to see the show, and one thing led to another. Carl: Had you been considering this present venture for long? Paul: For some time, yes. During the tour I began to think it might be interesting to combine the show idea with a permanent establishment. And so here we are. Carl: And what made you choose this particular spot? Paul: Quite a few people have been surprised—you're not the first. It does seem a bit out of the way, I know, but I didn't want to start up in London. There's far too much competition. Then I decided to go for a different type of client altogether—the sort of person who wants to get away from it all; who loves peace and quiet, and beautiful scenery but also appreciates good food. When I saw the farmhouse I couldn't resist it. I was brought up not far from here so everything just fell into place. Carl: To go back to the food, Paul. Do you have a large selection of dishes to choose from or are you always looking for new ideas? Paul: Both. A lot of the dishes had already been created on the tour, but I encourage my staff to experiment whenever possible. I mean I can't keep serving the same dishes. The people who come here expect something unusual at every course, and some guests, I hope, will want to return.

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Carl: I know two who certainly will. Paul: It's very kind of you to say so. Is there anything else you'd like to know? Carl: As a matter of fact, there is. Your grapefruit and ginger marmalade tastes delicious. Could you possibly give me the recipe? Paul: It isn't really my secret to give. It belongs to Alan, but I'm sure if you ask him he'll be glad to oblige you—as long as you promise not to print it in your magazine! Shelagh: Um, it's another one of my adventures as a tourist, um, finding out things you really didn't expect to find out when you went to the place! I went to Pompeii and of course what you go to Pompeii for is, er, the archaeology. Liz: To see the ruins. Shelagh: To see the ruins. And I was actually seeing the ruins but, um, suddenly my attention was caught by something else. I was just walking round the corner of a ruin, into a group of trees, pine trees, and I was just looking at them, admiring them and suddenly I saw a man halfway up this tree, and I was looking at him so all I could see was his hands and his feet and he was about 20 or 30 feet up. I thought, 'Goodness, what's going on here. Has he got a ladder or hasn't he?' So I walked round to see if he had a ladder. No, he had just gone straight up the tree. Liz: He'd shinned up the tree. Shelagh: He'd shinned up the tree. Like a monkey, more or less, except he was a rather middle-aged monkey ... He was, er, he was all of 50 and (Oh God), what's going on here? Anyway, I walked a bit further and saw other people either up trees or preparing to go up trees, and then I noticed a man standing there directing them, a sort of foreman, and began to wonder what on earth was going on, and then on the ground I saw there were all these polythene buckets and they were full of pine cones and of course what they were doing was collecting pine cones, and I thought, 'Well, how tidy of them to collect pine cones to stop the ruins being, um, made, um, made untidy with all these things.' Then I saw there was a lorry ... full of pine cones ... This was getting ridiculous ... They were really collecting them in a big way. So I, um, asked the, er, foreman what was going on and he said, 'Well you know, um, pine nuts are extremely sought after and valuable in the food industry in Italy.' Liz: For food (Yeah). Not fuel! I thought you were going to say they were going to put (burn) them on a fire. Yes. Shelagh: Well, they might burn the, er, cones when they've finished with them but inside these cones are little white things like nuts and, er, I realized that they're used in Italian cooking quite a lot in, er, there's a particular sauce that goes with spaghetti, em, from Genova, I think, called 'pesto' in which these nuts are ground up and of course they come in cakes and sweets and things like that. Liz: So it's quite a delicacy. Shelagh: It's quite a delicacy. And of course I'd never thought of how they actually got them 'cos you can't imagine having a pine nut farm. So what he said happens is that private firms like his buy a licence off the Italian State for the right to go round places like Pompeii—archaeological sites and things—and systematically collect all the pine cones that come off the trees and similarly in the, in the forests. Liz: And of course they have to go up the tree because by the time it's fallen the, the food isn't any good.
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Shelagh: That's right. They're pulling them down and he said they were very good at, um, recognizing which ones were ready and which ones were a bit hard and etc. And each of them had a sort of stick with a hook at the end which they were using to pull the pines off, off the trees but clearly it wasn't enough to sit around and wait till they fell down. You, you had to do something about it. There they were. So that was, er, the end of my looking at the ruins for about half an hour. I was too fascinated by this, er, strange form of er, agriculture. Liz: Well, what you don't intend to see is always the most interesting. Shelagh: Much more interesting. 1. In all humility, I accept the nomination ... I am happy to be able to say to you that I come to you unfettered by a single obligation or promise to any living person. (Thomas Dewey 24/06/48) 2. I'll never tell a lie. I'll never make a misleading statement. I'll never betray the trust of those who have confidence in me. And I will never avoid a controversial issue. Watch me closely, because I won't be any better President than I am a candidate. (Jimmy Carter 13/11/75) 3. I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult, or expensive to accomplish ... But, in a very real sense, it will not be one man going to the moon. If we make this judgement affirmatively, it will be an entire nation ... I believe we should go to the moon. (John F. Kennedy 25/05/61) 4. Those of us who loved him, and who take him to his rest today, pray that what he was to us, what he wished for others will some day come to pass for all the world. As he said many times, in many parts of this nation, to those he touched and who sought to touch him: "Some men see things as they are and say 'Why?' I dream things that never were and say 'Why not?'". (Edward M. Kennedy (08/06/68) 5. Because if they don't awake, they're going to find out that this little Negro that they thought was passive has become a roaring, uncontrollable lion right in right at their door—not at their doorstep, inside their house, in their bed, in their kitchen, in their attic, in the basement. (Malcolm X. 28/06/64) 6. I guess I couldn't say that er I wouldn't continue to do that, because I don't want the Carter Administration, and because I don't want Secretary Vance er to have to take the blame for the decisions that I felt that I had to make, decisions which I still feel were very much in the interest of this nation, er I think it best that I remove myself from the formal employ of the government er and pursue er my interests in foreign and domestic policy as a private citizen. (Andrew Young 15/08/79)

Lesson 18 Host (Michael Parkhurst): Good evening, and welcome again to the 'Michael Parkhurst Talkabout'. In tonight's programme, we're looking at the problem of energy. The world's energy resources are limited. Nobody knows exactly how much fuel is left, but pessimistic forecasts say that there is only enough coal for 450 years, enough natural gas for 50 years and that oil might run out in 30 years. Obviously we have to do something, and we have to do it soon!

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I'd like to welcome our first guest, Professor Marvin Burnham of the New England Institute of Technology. Professor Burnham. Prof. Burnham: Well, we are in an energy crisis and we will have to do something quickly. Fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are rapidly running out. The tragedy is that fossil fuels are far too valuable to waste on the production of electricity. Just think of all the things you can make from oil! If we don't start conserving these things now, it will be too late. And nuclear power is the only real alternative. We are getting some electricity from nuclear power stations already. If we invest in further research now, we'll be ready to face the future. There's been a lot of protest lately against nuclear power—some people will protest at anything—but nuclear power stations are not as dangerous as some people say. It's far more dangerous to work down a coal mine or on a North Sea oil-rig. Safety regulations in power stations are very strict. If we spent money on research now, we could develop stations which create their own fuel and burn their own waste. In many parts of the world where there are no fossil fuels, nuclear power is the only alternative. If you accept that we need electricity, then we will need nuclear energy. Just imagine what the world would be like if we didn't have electricity—no heating, no lighting, no transport, no radio or TV. Just think about the ways you use electricity every day. Surely we don't want to go back to the Stone Age. That's what will happen if we turn our backs on nuclear research. Host: Thank you, Professor. Our next guest is a member of CANE, the Campaign Against Nuclear Energy, Jennifer Hughes. Jennifer Hughes: Right. I must disagree totally with Professor Burnham. Let's look at the facts. First, there is no perfect machine. I mean, why do aeroplanes crash? Machines fail. People make mistakes. What would happen if there were a serious nuclear accident? And an accident must be inevitable—sooner or later. Huge areas would be evacuated. And they could remain contaminated with radioactivity for years. If it happened in your area, you wouldn't get a penny in compensation. No insurance company covers nuclear risks. There are accidents. If the nuclear industry didn't keep them quiet, there would be a public outcry. Radioactivity causes cancer and may affect future generations. Next, nuclear waste. There is no technology for absolutely safe disposal. Some of this waste will remain active for thousands of years. Is that what you want to leave to your children? And their children's children? A reactor only lasts about 25 years. By the year 2000 we'll have 'retired' 26 reactors in the UK. Next, terrorism. Terrorists could hold the nation to ransom if they captured a reactor. In the USA the Savannah River plant, and Professor Burnham knows this very well, lost (yes, 'lost') enough plutonium between 1955 and 1978 to make 18 (18!) atom bombs. Where is it? Who's got it? I consider that nuclear energy is expensive, dangerous, and evil, and most of all, absolutely unnecessary. But Dr. Woodstock will be saying more about that. Host: Thank you Jennifer. Now I'm very pleased to welcome Dr. Catherine Woodstock. She is the author of several books on alternative technology. Catherine Woodstock: Hello. I'd like to begin by agreeing with Jennifer. We can develop alternative sources of power, and unless we try we'll never succeed. Instead of burning fossil fuels we should be concentrating on more economic uses of electricity, because electricity can be produced from any source of energy. If we didn't waste so much energy, our resources would last longer. You can save more energy by conservation than you can produce for the same money. Unless we do research on solar energy, wind power, wave power, tidal power, hydroelectric schemes etc, our fossil fuels will run out, and we'll all freeze or starve to death. Other countries are spending much more than us on research, and don't forget that energy from the sun, the waves and the wind lasts for ever. We really won't survive unless we start working on cleaner, safer sources of energy. Host: Thank you very much, Dr. Woodstock. Our final speaker, before we open the discussion to the studio audience, is Charles Wicks, MP, the Minister for Energy. Charles Wicks: I've been listening to the other speakers with great interest. By the way, I don't agree with some of the estimates of world energy reserves. More oil and gas is being discovered all
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the time. If we listened to the pessimists (and there are a lot of them about) none of us would sleep at night. In the short term, we must continue to rely on the fossil fuels—oil, coal and gas. But we must also look to the future. Our policy must be flexible. Unless we thought new research was necessary, we wouldn't be spending money on it. After all, the Government wouldn't have a Department of Energy unless they thought it was important. The big question is where to spend the money—on conservation of present resources or on research into new forms of power. But I'm fairly optimistic. I wouldn't be in this job unless I were an optimist! Mal Carrington: Good morning. Welcome to "The years to Come". I'm Mal Carrington, and every week at this time Channel 5 brings you information on life in the future from an expert in the field. Today's expert is Dr Reginald Healy from MIT, the famous Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Good morning, Dr Healy. Welcome to The years to come. Dr Healy: Thank you. Mal Carrington: Well, what are your predictions about the world? What is it going to be like in the year 2000? Dr Healy: Hum, if present trends continue, I'm afraid the world in 2000 will be more crowded and more polluted than the world we live in now. Mal Carrington: Yes, however, food production is constantly increasing. Don't you think we will be able to cope with the increase in world population? Dr Healy: I don't think so. Even though production is constantly increasing, the people of the world will be poorer than they are today. For hundreds of millions of the desperately poor, the supply of food and other necessities of life will not be any better. And for many they will be worse, unless the nations of the world do something to change the current trends. Mal Carrington: What is your estimate of world population in AD 2000. Dr Healy: Well, already, world population is about 5,000 million. If present trends continue, that is with the number of births by far exceeding the number of deaths in 2000 the world population could approach 6,500 million people. Mal Carrington: How many people are born every day? Dr Healy: About 250 every minute, but only 100 people die. This means there is an increase of 216,000 people per day, and ninety per cent of this increase is in the poorest countries. Mal Carrington: That's worrying! And what about energy? Will there be enough oil to satisfy our needs in the year 2000? Dr Healy: During the 1990s, world oil production will reach the maximum and the price of oil will begin to increase. At the end of the century, the available supplies will not be sufficient for our needs. So at least part of these needs will have to be met by alternative sources of energy. Mal Carrington: Yes, water is becoming a problem too. Dr Healy: Yes, unfortunately. Water shortage will become more severe in the future, and due to the increase of births there will be enough water only for half of the population. Mal Carrington: Which of the present trends do you think will continue over the next decade?

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Dr Healy: Well, significant loss of the world's forests will continue over the next ten years as the demand for wood for fuel and manufacturers increases. Also atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and other chemicals is expected to increase at rates that could alter the world's climate due to the 'greenhouse effect'. Mal Carrington: The 'greenhouse effect'? Could you explain what the 'greenhouse effect' is? Dr Healy: Sure. Well, the amount of carbon dioxide in the air is progressively increasing and it traps more of the heat of the sun in the lower atmosphere. This has a warming effect which could change the climate and even melt the polar ice caps, which would cause disastrous flooding. Mal Carrington: I see. Is this the only effect of carbon dioxide? Dr Healy: No, it isn't. Carbon dioxide and other chemicals which derive from the use of fossil fuels will also increase the quantity of acid rain which is already damaging or even destroying plants, trees and other parts of our environment. Also, there will be a dramatic increase in the number of species becoming extinct. Hundreds of thousands of species will be lost because of the loss of their habitat. Mal Carrington: That's appalling! What about nuclear plants? Aren't they a constant menace to life on our planet? Dr Healy: Definitely. And apart from the more obvious danger of accidents, like the one at Chemobyl, there's the problem of the disposal of nuclear waste, that is the waste which is produced by nuclear power stations. Mal Carrington: Oh, yes. I know that some of the materials keep their radioactivity for hundreds or thousands of years. Dr Healy: Yeah, for example, strontium 90 needs storing for 500 years, being kept cool all the time. Plutonium-239 may need storing for up to half a million years! Mal Carrington: So, what is going to happen to the Earth in the next few years? Will we be able to reverse this trend towards destruction? What is your prediction? Dr Healy: Well, I don't want to be pessimistic, but I'm afraid that if this trend doesn't change within five or ten years we won't be able to do very much to save the earth. Mal Carrington: Well, that's a warning that we all need to take seriously. And with that warning, we end part one of this week's The years to come. We'll be back soon after the break. Mal Carrington: Here we are again with "The years to Come". Now I'd like to tell you about and to show you the pictures of an exciting new project which is the result of the cooperation of scientists, engineers and technicians from virtually all over the world. Towards the end of the 90s, a bright new celestial body will appear in the night sky like an immense shining star, fully visible from 38 degrees north or south of the equator. It will be a space station, Freedom. The idea for Freedom originated in the USA, but eleven other nations have agreed to contribute a few of the station's many parts. The space station is not going to be launched into orbit in one piece—the thousands of parts which make up Freedom are going to be assembled directly in space. Twenty trips by the shuttle and two rockets will be needed to deliver Freedom, piece by piece, into a low orbit around the Earth. Then, 250 miles above the Earth, construction crews are going to bolt together the space station's many components. The first batch of parts is going to be launched in 1995. By the end of 1996, the first crew of eight is going to enter the living module to begin what NASA hopes will be a continuous human presence in space. The station has been designed to remain occupied and operational for up to thirty years—a whole generation of living in space. Considering that the first man-made object reached orbit just thirty years ago, that will be quite an accomplishment. The design of a space station must
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combine the excitement of space with the necessity for safety and comfort. Freedom will be the best solution to date and will also be the most complex computerized house ever built—either on Earth or in space. There will be accommodation for eight people and each crew member will have his or her own room, a shower, a toilet, exercise equipment, a washing machine, a pantry, and a sick bay. Add a television, video, phone and computer to each of the eight private sleeping rooms, then top it off with the best view on Earth. Is this some wild new 'luxury house' of the future? Exactly. Life on board will also be brightened by a plan to fill twenty percent of the larder with fresh refrigerated fruit, vegetable and dairy products. Behind every space station lies the dream that is at least 120 years old: a colony in space. Freedom is not going to be that colony, for it will always depend on the Earth for supplies. But it is going to be the place where scientists discover how to establish healthy and productive human habitation in space. When new technology is developed to make it less risky, we will see more civilians in space. So an eighteen-year-old can look forward to visiting space by his or her sixty-eighth birthday, in 2050. And that's the end of this week's programme. Tune in next week for another edition of The years to come. The years to come is a Channel 5 production and this is Mal Carrington. 1. Two years ago, ... when I landed on your soil, I said to the people of the Philippines. 'Whence I came I shall return.' Tonight, I repeat those words. I shall return. (Douglas MacArthur 17/03/44) 2. I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day, even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin, but by the content of their character. (Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. 28/08/63) 3. One thought him indestructible, so over-powering was he in his energy, warmth and his deep faith in man's inherent goodness. For 25 years he had been my friend, my older brother, my inspiration and my teacher. (Henry Kissinger 02/02/79) 4. I have said this before, but I shall say it again, and again, and again. Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars. (Franklin D. Roosevelt 30/10/40) 5. I have never been a quitter. To leave office before my term is completed is abhorrent to every instinct in my body. But, as President, I must put the interests of America first. America needs a full-time President and a full-time Congress. Particularly at this time, with problems we face at home and abroad. To continue to fight through the months ahead for my personal vindication would almost totally absorb the time and attention of both the President and the Congress in a period when our entire focus should be on the great issues of peace abroad and prosperity without inflation at home. (Richard M. Nixon 08/08/74) 6. In the past several months I have been living in purgatory. I have found myself the recipient of undefined, unclear, unattributed accusations that have surfaced in the largest and the most widely circulated organs of our communications media. I want to say, at this point, clearly and unequivocally: I am innocent of the charges against me. (Spiro T. Agnew 29/09/73) Killing Me Softly With His Song I heard he sang a good song

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I heard he had a And so I came to And there he was A stranger to my

style see him to listen for a while. this young boy eyes

Strumming my pain with his fingers Singing my life with his words Killing me softly with his song Killing me softly with his song Telling my whole life with his words Killing me softly with his song I felt all flushed with fever Embarrassed by the crowd I felt he found my letters and read each one out loud I prayed that he would finish But he just kept right on Strumming my pain with his fingers Singing my life with his words Killing me softly with his song Killing me softly with his song Telling my whole life with his words Killing me softly with his song He sang as if he knew me in all my dark despair And then he looked right through me as if I wasn't there And he just kept on singing Singing clear and strong Strumming my pain with his fingers Singing my life with his words Killing me softly with his song Killing me softly with his song Telling my whole life with his words Killing me softly with his song Lesson 19 Presenter: This week's financial talk will be given by our property expert, James Milligan, who is here to tell us about some surprising new developments in the London area. James Milligan: Good afternoon. Not so very long ago it would have been really unusual to pay £1 million for a house. Unfortunately this is no longer so. Decline in the real value of money over the past few years has made property values rocket. The cheap house is a thing of the past. Now, the sale of a £1 million house no longer causes surprise, nor is it likely to be the subject of a newspaper article. What exactly can we expect to get for £1 million today? Well, first of all, space, of course. Living in large cities has made us all tired of living in those cramped little houses and flats built just after the war. We now want space; space to live and relax in, preferably with a garden. And this, of course, is what puts the price up. Another reason for needing space is the fact that we have larger families growing up under one roof and even quite small children demand their own room these days, while teenagers may demand an extra room where they can entertain their friends privately. Also the trend of going out to eat is dying out due to rising prices of restaurant and transport, so people are once more beginning to entertain and dine at home, which requires a larger dining room. There are numerous new developments in London at the moment which can provide all this and more—if you have the money! At the moment the most fashionable places seem to be the Barbican, St John's Wood, Morgan's
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Walk in Battersea. People wanting quiet in the evening tend to prefer the Barbican situated in the business heart of the city and therefore fairly free of traffic in the evenings, although several theatres have opened there lately. The Barbican is also for those who like living high up, accommodation being situated mostly in tower blocks. St John's Wood, on the other hand, is favoured mostly by upper-middle class families who prefer a detached house surrounded by a walled garden, thus ensuring their privacy. Gardens of course tend to raise the price of a property. Those not interested in gardening can choose from the grand mansions in Battersea where you get a wonderful view of the Thames and are still only a few minutes away from London's theatres and shops. Look around and take your pick. Oh ... just make sure that you have that million pounds first! Interviewer: Now you're the First Lady of Jazz; probably the greatest blues singer the world has ever known. Just what is it that makes you sing as you do? Singer: I don't know; one night it's a little bit slower, the next night it's a little bit lighter. It's all according to how I feel. I never feel the same way twice. The blues is a mixed up sort of thing. There's two kinds of blues; there's happy blues and there's sad blues. I don't think I ever sing the same way twice. Interviewer: And how did you become a jazz singer in the first place? Singer: Well, it was all by accident really. You see, I wanted to be a dancer so I went along to try out, you know, to an audition and I was just a kid, I didn't know how to dance at all. So I kept doing the two steps I did know over and over until they told me to get off the stage. But I guess the pianist felt sort of sorry for me because he called me back and asked me if I could sing. Huh, 'Course I can sing, man,' I told him; 'I've been singing all my life. What the hell use is that?' And then he asked me to sing a blues song, St Louis Blues, I think it was, and I just kept on singing and he just kept on playing, and in the end I had a job. That was on West 42nd Street. Now that was the street for jazz in those days. And slowly I became known; people started coming to see me rather than just to listen to the orchestra, and that's how it started. I mean, it began like that and it's just been going on ever since. Interviewer: You've never looked back and you've been successful ever since? Singer: Well, it wasn't quite as easy as it sounds. I mean, when I started out I didn't know anything, I mean like chords and sharps and flats. I just sang. But if you're going to sing jazz you have to know these things. And people were very nice and kind to me and they slowly taught me what key I had to sing each song in. And that's how I really became a professional musician. I mean, the beginning was just luck, but if you want to stay at the top you really have to know your job. You have to know what you're doing and you have to know how to be able to change it to go with the public's taste; with the changing fashions. Otherwise you find yourself out of work and back on the streets where you started from. Interviewer: But surely, you never needed to go with the fashions? I mean, you've always been popular. Singer: Well, that's true up to a point. And if you're good enough you can even change the fashions. I've never done that. I've always sung what I wanted and if they didn't like it, they didn't have to buy it. I've never made a fortune from my music because I won't sing just any damn thing. I choose what I want to sing. But anything I do sing is part of my life. So it has to be important to me before I'll sing it. I think this is why people like my music; they know that whatever I say in my songs I really believe and this means something to them and helps them in their lives. I'm not a rich pop singer and never wanted to be. And there's been a lot of scandal attached to my life. Some of it's true; some of it's not. But at least I've always been my true self in my music and I'll always stay that way. I think a guy called Shakespeare once wrote 'Unto thine own self be true and thou canst not then to any man be false'. Well, that's how I feel when I'm singing my songs. You may like them,

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you may hate them, but nobody can say that I'm not singing from deep down inside myself. I won't ever sing anything I don't believe in although, as I said, it's never the same way two nights running: it may be happy one night and sad the next. It's all according to how I feel. And now I'm feeling the need for a drink of something strong; I've got four hours on stage tonight and that really takes it out of you, believe me. Interviewer: Go right ahead and thank you for the interview. Singer: That's OK. Here's a couple of tickets; come and see the show. Now first we must identify the parts of this home computer system. Before we can set up the system, we must all know what the names of the different parts of the computer are and what they do. So first I'm going to tell you the names of the parts and what they are used for in a home computer system. First, and most important of all, is your instruction manual. Can you all see that? The instruction manual is the book of instructions—it tells you how to set up your system and then how to use it. OK? Next, the monitor. The monitor is the part that everyone can recognize immediately because it looks just like a television. The monitor shows you the information you have typed in on the screen. You can change the information, move it around or take it away, while it is on the screen. Right? Now, when you have finished working with your information and you want a copy of this on paper, then you have to use the printer. The printer prints out on paper what you have on the monitor screen. Then you have a copy of your work on paper. Now the keyboard. The keyboard contains the actual computer and it looks just like a typewriter. Each piece on the keyboard is called a key. You have keys for letters (a, b, c etc.) and keys for instructions to the computer. You have to be able to type if you want to use a computer properly. Now what have we got left? Ah yes, the 2 floppy discs and the disc drive. The disc drive is quite simple—it's the part of the system that operates the floppy discs, we say it powers the floppy discs. You put the floppy discs into the disc drive and the disc drive makes them work. So finally, the two floppy discs. You need two because the first one contains the programme—that is, the instructions—and the second is where you type in your information and where the program works on this information. So you really work on the second floppy disc: then, when you are ready to print, the printer takes everything from the second floppy disc and prints out what you have done. Now, is that clear? Are there any questions? There's no doubt that the computer has enlarged man's working capacity as well as his intellectual capacity enormously. Er ... but it brings with it dangers to match the benefits. Now by this, I mean danger to physical and mental well-being of the people who work at computer terminals, not the dangers to personal privacy or national or industrial security. There's one very alarming set of statistics which come from a survey done in the UK on 800 pregnant women, who happened to use computer terminals for a major part of their working day. In no less than 36% of the subjects there was some severe abnormality during the pregnancy, enough to make a termination necessary. Now these figures compare significantly with a control group of pregnant women of the same age but who did not work with computer terminals. The incidence of severe abnormalities in their case was only 16%. This survey confirms similar investigations carried out in Denmark, Canada, Australia and the USA. Now, no one yet has a clear idea about the exact connection between working with computer terminals and the problems with pregnancy, but the figures at least suggest that there's, well, a cause for alarm. In more general terms, increased stress and disturbances to vision have been noted in workers exposed for long periods to the video screen, and in many countries trade unions of workers involved with computers have laid down their own guidelines to protect members' health. Erm ... for instance, rest periods, or a change of activity from time to time are recommended, and the terminal should be placed so that there's a source of natural light, and something else to look at, erm, no blank walls behind the terminal, in other words, so that the operator has a chance to rest his eyes from time to time. Ironically, it seems that it's not only those who work with computers who are at risk. Er ... there's perhaps more danger for people who use computers for interest or pleasure in their own homes. Now, it's obviously not possible to impose in the privacy of people's homes the sort of safeguards
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that can be applied in the working environment. Most people get so fascinated by what they are doing that they stay in front of the screen for hours on end; some are real fanatics! But they're also using their computers in environments which are not specially designed. Er they may be dusty or hot, and not particularly well-lit on the whole. An English magazine for computer enthusiasts recently ran its own survey. The readers were invited to send in an account of any health problems they felt were connected with the use of their computers. Er, interestingly, a long list emerged of complaints both serious and less serious, ranging from constipation because of the long hours spent in sedentary ac ... inactivity, and backache due to crouching over an inconveniently positioned keyboard, um, right through to a general sense of fatigue owing to having puzzled over a problem for longer than was sensible. The visual disturbances mentioned above were also very common. Some readers who already suffered from short sight found that the condition had worsened, and a rarer complaint, but still one suffered by a significant number, was an itching of the face, which in some cases became a form of dermatitis. It seems that this is due to the electrostatic field of the video screen attracting dust from the atmosphere, which irritates exposed skin. And ... this is an example of a complaint which is rare in the work situation because there is usually some form of air-conditioning, and quite simply not so much dust and fluff in the air as in a normal home. Precautions for both types of terminal users remain essentially the same. So, first of all, make sure that there's an altermative source of light from that of the screen itself. Secondly, rest your eyes frequently, if possible looking at something in the distance to give them a change from the close focus used on the screen. Thirdly, make sure the screen is properly tuned; a shaky or fuzzy image can cause nausea or headaches. Fourthly, make sure your seat and working area are designed so that you're sitting in a comfortable position, not er ... screwed up or bent over. And finally, get up regularly and walk about the room. Better still, go out into the fresh air occasionally. Sitting still for hours on end is the best way to encourage a thrombosis in the legs, as well as not being particularly good for the digestion. These are all common-sense precautions, but how many home-computer owners wrapped up in the intricacies of some programing problem, or fascinated by some game, are going to remember to use their common sense? Does a generation of short-sighted, constipated, hunched, migraine sufferers with skin problems and circulatory troubles await us? 1. Of course, scientists have always had their pet theories, and historically all of the following have been linked as companions to heart disease: first, a high level of fat and cholesterol in the diet; second, cigarette smoking; third, physical inactivity; fourth, being overweight; and fifth, high blood pressure. 2. There are some similarities between the two men. Both are married, have grown children, are in their mid-fifties, and have been very successful in their business careers. Both are hard workers and have achieved a position of financial security and responsibility in their jobs. Their professional lives are not easy for either of them. But life for Adam has been full of tension, and hostility, whereas for Bert, life has been much more enjoyable. 3. Adam always seems to be fighting time, trying to do more things in a day than he previously has done. If situations beyond his control cause delays in his schedule, he becomes angry and hostile. He resents people who are not on time or who do not move as quickly as he does. It is very important to him that he fill up every minute with some kind of productive activity. 4. However, Bert shows an opposite tendency. Once work is behind him for the day, he devotes himself to three or four interesting hobbies. In addition to his regular physical exercise, he is an enthusiastic reader. He prefers history and historical novels. His special interest is the Second World War, and he prizes all the new information which he can gather about that time period. He also enjoys gardening and likes to fix things around the house. He has a very complete tool collection which he uses to improve his house.

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Lesson 20 Principal: Well it looks to me as if we shall have to fit him in somewhere. What does Monday morning look like? Secretary: Well, Monday morning is extremely busy. You've got all the short list interviews. Principal: Oh goodness. And how long do they go on for? Secretary: Well, the last one is due at ... to come at 10 o'clock and will probably go on through until 10:30. Principal: And then? Secretary: Then you've got your Japanese agent and you did tell him you'd probably take him out to lunch. Principal: Yes, well can't pass that up ... erm ... what's Tuesday morning look like? Secretary: Tuesday morning is also very full. You've got a committee meeting, starts at 9:30 probably won't finish until 12:30. Principal: Huh-Huh. And lunch? Secretary: Lunch is with your publisher. Principal: Oh yes. And I do remember that I've got something in the afternoon ... erm ... from the examining board, haven't I? I've got... Secretary: Yes. At 2:30. You're expecting the chief examiner (Oh) regarding the review report. Principal: Oh yes. And I've got ... I've got somebody's parents coming. Secretary: Yes, at 4 o'clock Johan Blun's parents are coming. Principal: And there ... isn't there a meeting, a principal's meeting after ... anyway he didn't want to be that late ... erm ... well, let's have a look at Monday afternoon. What have we got then? Secretary: Well the lunch with the Japanese agent is probably likely to last until 2:30. (Mm-Mm) At 2:30 you've got the lawyer regarding the planning permission. Principal: Oh, I've ... yes ... and? Secretary: Well at 3:30 there's a tutorial with Maria Rosa ... Principal: Oh well hang on ... erm ... look what we can do ... you ... if you could give the lawyer a ring and ask him if he can fix it, the appointment, for Wednesday and if he can't make Wednesday, later in the week. It's not absolutely vital that I should do it then. And give Maria Rosa a ring also if you can contact her, otherwise you can tell her when she arrives and ... erm ... I can give I can definitely give her ... I've got Wednesday clear, haven't I? So ... erm ... (Yes) I can give her a tutorial on Wednesday morning (Yes) and that gives us two hours so you could ring the Cultural Council and fix it for then. His name's Mr. Dennis I think, isn't it? Secretary: Yes. So I'll ring him and tell him you're expecting him at 2:30 on Monday afternoon. Principal: OK then.
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Secretary: Fine. Thank you. At 7:20 pm on May 6th 1937, the world's largest airship, the Hindenburg, floated majestically over Lakehurst airport, New Jersey, after an uneventful crossing from Frankfurt, Germany. There were 97 people on board for the first Atlantic crossing of the season. There were a number of journalists waiting to greet it. Suddenly radio listeners heard the commentator screaming 'Oh, my God! It's broken into flames. It's flashing ... flashing. It's flashing terribly.' 32 seconds later the airship had disintegrated and 35 people were dead. The Age of the Airship was over. The Hindenburg was the last in a series of airships which had been developed over 40 years in both Europe and the United States. They were designed to carry passengers and cargo over long distances. The Hindenburg could carry 50 passengers accommodated in 25 luxury cabins with all the amenities of a first class hotel. All the cabins had hot and cold water and electric heating. There was a dining-room, a bar and a lounge with a dance floor and a baby grand piano. The Hindenburg had been built to compete with the great luxury transatlantic liners. It was 245 metres long with a diameter of 41 metres. It could cruise at a speed of 125 km/h, and was able to cross the Atlantic in less than half the time of a liner. By 1937 it had carried 1,000 passengers safely and had even transported circus animals and cars. Its sister ship, the Graf Zeppelin, had flown one and a half million kilometres and it had carried 13,100 passengers without incident. The Hindenburg was filled with hydrogen, which is a highly flammable gas, and every safety precaution had been taken to prevent accidents. It had a smoking room which was pressurized in order to prevent gas from ever entering it. The cigarette lighters were chained to the tables and both passengers and crew were searched for matches before entering the ship. Special materials, which were used in the construction of the airship, had been chosen to minimize the possibility of accidental sparks, which might cause an explosion. Nobody knows the exact cause of the Hindenburg disaster. Sabotage has been suggested, but experts at the time believed that it was caused by leaking gas which was ignited by static electricity. It had been waiting to land for three hours because of heavy thunderstorms. The explosion happened just as the first mooring rope, which was wet, touched the ground. Observers saw the first flames appear near the tail, and they began to spread quickly along the hull. There were a number of flashes as the hydrogen-filled compartments exploded. The airship sank to the ground. The most surprising thing is that 62 people managed to escape. The fatalities were highest among the crew, many of whom were working deep inside the airship. After the Hindenburg disaster, all airships were grounded and, until recently, they have never been seriously considered as a commercial proposition. David: Hello Peggy. What are you doing going through all those newspapers? Peggy: Oh hallo David. I'm trying to find a flat and I've got to go through all these advertisements. I just can't find anything good. David: Are you wanting to share or do you want a flat on your own? Peggy: Well, you know Sara and Mary? I'd really like to share with them. David: Well, I know of an empty flat. I don't know if you'd like it though. It's on the number ten bus route in Woodside Road. Number 10 I think it is. Peggy: Oh, I know Woodside Road and the ten bus is the one that brings me to work. Would be a marvellous place. How many rooms has it got? David: Well, it's got a kitchen and a bathroom. Um, apart from that I think it's got two bedrooms and a sitting-room. Peggy: Two bedrooms. Mm. Well, I suppose two of us could share, or one of us could sleep in the sitting-room. How much is the rent?

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David: I think they want £21 a week for it. Peggy: Twenty-one. Oh, that's fine, that would be £7 each. I don't really want to spend more than £7. David: No, but you see the trouble is it might be a bit noisy. Woodside Road is really quite busy. It's on the bus route after all. With all that traffic going past I don't know if you'd really like it. Peggy: Oh, that doesn't matter. We'd be out all day. It'd be marvellous to be on the ten bus route, we wouldn't have to walk at all and we'd get to work so quickly. Oh thanks so much David. I must go and tell Sara and Mary. David: Well, I hope it's what you want. Peggy: Oh yes, thanks a lot. David: That's all right. Rod: Mm, it's not a bad size room, is it? Liz: Oh, it's great! It's lovely. Oh, and look at that fireplace! Oh, we can have the two chairs right in front of the fireplace there in the middle of the room and toast our feet. Rod: The first thing we ought to do is just decide where the bed's going. Liz: Oh, well ... (So) what about right here next to the door (yes) sort of behind the door as you come in? Rod: Yes, that's a good idea—just as you come in, just in that corner there. Liz: Yes. Well now, let's think. What else? Rod: What else is there? Erm ... well there's that huge wardrobe of yours ... (Mm) that's got to go somewhere. Liz: What about over here—you know—across from the fireplace there, because then, in that little corner where it ... where the wall goes back ... look, over there. (Mm) That'd do, wouldn't it? Rod: Ok, well we'll put the wardrobe there then. (Yes) OK? So the wardrobe's opposite the fireplace. Liz: Er ... (OK) what about your desk? (Er) Where are you going to put that? Rod: Er ... I need lots of light, so I think in that far corner in between the two windows, OK? Liz: Oh, I see in the corner there, (Yes) yes. (Erm) Yes, that'd be good. Rod: So the desk goes there. Liz: So you'd have your chair with your back to the fireplace? (Yes) Yes, that'll be all right. Rod: Yes. And there's (yes) the chest of drawers. Liz: Oh, that'd be nice in between the two windows there, right in the middle. (Yes) It really ... come on, I know you're going to like it. (OK) Come on, let's shove it over there. (I mean) I bet ... I er ...
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Rod: I knew you'd ask me to move it. Liz: Come on. Let's go. Rod: OK. Let's go then. All right. Liz: Nearly there! That's got it. Rod: God, what on earth have you got in there? Liz: Well, there's nothing much in there. I emptied it ... most of it out. Rod: Oh God, my back hurts! Liz: There! Wait a minute. Let me stand back and have a look. Rod: Yes, it's not bad ... sticks out a bit. Liz: No, it's fine. (OK) What about the TV? Where are we going to put that? Rod: Er ... it's really got to go in the opposite corner, hasn't it? (Mm) Opposite the desk, that is. Liz: Oh, you mean in the corner between the windows and the fireplace? (Yes) Yes. Rod: And then the stereo, er ... the amplifier underneath the television and then the two speakers one on either side of the fireplace. Liz: Yes, that'd be good. (Erm) Well lovely! So it'll all fit in beautifully! (Yes) What else ... what else have we got? Rod: It's the er ... there's the bookcase, isn't there? Erm ... Liz: Oh Lord ... where'll we put that? Rod: Well, as you come in the door, er ... immediately on the er ... left-hand side ... Liz: Oh along that wall there you mean? Rod: Because that's ... there's just about enough space there. There's about two feet, so it shouldn't stick out too much, no. Liz: Yes, it's not very wide is it? So you come in the door (Yes) and then the bookcase is right there on the left. (Yes) There's a long way from your desk, though. Rod: Well, exercise'll do me good, won't it? Er ... table lamp. Well, we can just put that er ... Liz: On the chest of drawers. (Yes) When it's ... (Mm) Yes. That'd be nice. Rod: And no matter who wants to use it, you know. Liz: Yes. Oh this is going to be lovely. When are we going to get it all in? Now?

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Rod: Er ... no, not now. Let's just go to the kitchen and er ... sort that out and have a cup of tea, eh. Liz: Oh, haha, good. (Right) Yes, I haven't seen the kitchen. Come on. Rod: Come on then. Let's go. 1. Another use for Landsats is to find fresh water. In dry areas such as deserts, Landsat photos may show black areas that indicate water or they may show red areas that indicate healthy plants. People who are trying to find water in these dry areas can save time by looking in the places that are black or red on the Landsat pictures. 2. The fifth use is to warn us of natural disasters, such as the damage done by large forest fires, melting ice near the North and South Poles, and lines in the earth where earthquakes might happen. 3. Many experts believe that we must turn to the sun to solve our energy needs. Solar energy is clean and unlimited. It is estimated that the amount of solar energy falling on the continental United States is 700 times our total energy consumption. It's possible to convert, or change, this energy for our use, but the cost is the major problem. The federal government is spending millions of dollars to find ways to convert, or change, sunshine into economical energy. By the year 2000, solar technology could be supplying about 25 percent of the United States' energy needs. 4. The major expense involved in a solar heating system is the purchase cost of all the parts of the system and the cost of their installation. The approximate cost to buy and put a solar heating system into a three-bedroom house at present varies from $7,000 to $12,000. This is a one-time cost that can be financed over many years. This finance charge may be more expensive than heating with oil at the present prices.

Lesson 21 Stuart: What did you do last night then? Did you work all night? Judy: Yes, I did some work (Yes) but erm ... I watched a bit of TV ... (Uh-huh) got to relax, you know. Stuart: Did you watch the football? Judy: No, no I didn't. I can't bear football. Stuart: Really? Judy: Yes. I really hate it. (Yes) Well, actually, just before the football came on, I switched over (Yes) just to ... just to protest. Stuart: What did you see then? Judy: Well, I saw the programme before ... just the end of a film (Uh-huh) that was on before the football. It looked quite good actually. It's a shame I didn't erm ... switch on earlier. It was some kind of love story ... with Dustin Hoffman, you know, the erm ... Stuart: The Graduate? Judy: That's it. The Graduate. Stuart: Yes. I know. I've seen that. (Yes) Yes, good ... good film.
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Judy: Yes, and nice music. (Mm-mm) And then, when the football came on I turned over. Stuart: Terrible, terrible! Judy: I hate it! I really can't stand it. Stuart: It was a great game! Judy: Yes? (What did) Who was playing? Stuart: England of course. (Oh) What did you see then that was more important than football? Judy: Foxes. Yes, a good programme on foxes. (Uh-huh) Yes, they spent ages watching these foxes in a house. (Yes) They were watching them all night and these little baby foxes ... it was tremendous. Stuart: Yes, sounds all right. Judy: Yes, it was good; better than football ... and then, then I turned over, back to the other channel (Mm-mm) to see who won the football, but I missed it and I just saw the beginning of the News and packed up and went to bed. Stuart: Well, I'm sorry you missed it. It was a good game. Judy: Yes? Who did win? Stuart: England, of course. Who do you think? (Ah) Six nil. (Yes) Yes. Judy: Must have been quite good then! Stuart: Yes, it was good, actually. It was very good. (Mm) Commentator: It's Carter to serve—he needs just one more point. He serves. AND SMITH MISSES! WHAT A GREAT SERVE! ... So the championship goes to 19-year-old Harry Carter. Who d've believed it a week ago? Poor old Smith just shakes his head in bewilderment. Well, well! What a way to finish it off! ... And now I'll hand you over to Peter Plumber, who's on court waiting to interview the two finalists. Plumber: Thank you, David. Well Harry, congratulations on a marvellous victory. You were on tremendous form. Carter: Thank you, Peter. Nice of you to say so. You know, well, I think I won because, well, I just knew all along I was in with a good chance. Plumber: Yes, you certainly were pretty convincing today, but what about the earlier rounds? Any nervous moments? Carter: Well, you know, I was a bit nervous against Jones when he took the lead in the second set, but then ... er ... Plumber: Yes, that was in the quarter-finals, wasn't it? And of course you met Gardener in the next round, didn't you? Er ... the score was ... er ... 6-4, 7-5, wasn't it? Carter: Yes, that was quite a tough match, I suppose, but ... er ...

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Plumber: Anything else you'd like to add? Carter: Well, I would like to say how sorry I am for John Fairlight not making it past the quarter-finals. He's unbeatable, you know, on his day, and ... er ... I'd also like to say what a terrific job the officials here have done you know, the ballboys and linesmen and umpires and so on. You know ... er ... lots of players have been complaining, but ... er ... Plumber: Well, that's great. Harry, Well done again. And now let's have a quick word with the runner-up to the title, Mark Smith. If you just stand over here, Mark ... that's right ... Well, bad luck, Mark. It wasn't really your day, was it? I mean, what a terrible final set! Anyway, the less said about that the better, as I'm sure you'll agree. Smith: Yeah, but you know, I did pretty well to beat Hutchins in the semis and ... er ... what's his name? ... Brown in the quarter-finals. And, I mean, what a terrible umpire, eh? I mean, half of Carter's points were on ... er ... doubtful decisions, weren't they? Plumber: Well, that's probably a bit of an exaggeration, but anyway it's time for us to leave the tournament now at the end of a tremendously exciting week, and I hand you back to the studio in London. Chairman: Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen, I declare the meeting open, and I take it you all have a copy of the agenda, so we'll take the minutes of our last meeting as read and get straight down to business. Now, the proposal before you is that we should see if we can reduce the size of the Olympic Games in any way and thereby ease the burden placed on the host city. We all know that each time we hold the Games this burden increases because of the vast undertaking it is to host them. Today, however, I only want to sound out your opinion of this proposal, so this is really no more than an exploratory meeting. Mrs. Armstrong: Could I say something straight away, Mr. Chairman? Chairman: Yes, Mrs. Armstrong. Mrs. Armstrong: I can't accept your proposal at all on the grounds that I feel that to reduce the size of the Olympic Games would seriously damage their character, detract from their universal appeal and penalize certain countries if we start arbitrarily throwing things out before ... Herr Müller: Yes, Mrs. Armstrong, if I may interrupt you for a moment. I think we all sympathize with your point of view, but we mustn't overlook the main point of this meeting put forward by the Chairman, which is to see if we can cut down the programme a bit, without in any way damaging the overall appeal of the Games, so let's not reject the proposal out of hand before we've had a chance to discuss it. Mrs. Armstrong: Very well, Herr Müller, but I'd like to state here and now that I'm totally opposed to any reduction in the number of events in the Games. Chairman: Your objections will be noted, Mrs. Armstrong, but to get back to the point of the meeting, could I hear from the rest of you what you feel? Sr. Cordoba, for example, what's your opinion? Sr. Cordoba: Reluctant as I am to alter the composition of the Olympic Games, I can see the point that in terms of space and financial demands, the host city is subjected to a lot of difficulty. The costs seem to soar phenomenally every time we stage the Olympics, so we might be able to make one or two savings here and there. There is, for instance, quite a strong lobby against boxing because of its apparently violent nature so I did wonder if ... Mrs. Armstrong: But that is one of the most popular sports in the world, and one of the oldest. Sr. Cordoba: Agreed, but people get a lot of boxing on their television screens all the year round, so I was just thinking that we might be able to drop that from the programme. Football, too, is another thing which already enjoys a lot of television coverage, and as it takes up a lot of space accommodating
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all the football pitches, mightn't we also perhaps consider dropping that too? Mrs. Patel: Mr. Chairman ... Chairman: Yes, Mrs. Patel. Mrs. Patel: I wholeheartedly endorse what Sr. Cordoba said about boxing and football. In my opinion we should concentrate on some of the more unusual sports which are rarely seen on our screens such as fencing and archery, for a change, since it is on TV that the majority of people watch the Games. Herr Müller: Perhaps we could cut out hockey along with football because, relatively speaking, that too takes up a lot of space, as measured against its universally popular appeal. Mrs. Patel: I can see your point, Herr Müller, and as one of the basic tenets of the Olympic Games is individual excellence, I feel we ought to concentrate on those sports which really are a true test of the individual, I, therefore, suggest we cut out—that is, if we go ahead with this idea—the team games such as basketball, volleyball, football and hockey. Mrs. Armstrong: But then you're sacrificing some of the most interesting items in the programme. People like to watch team games as well as take part in them; it'll be very dull without them. Chairman: I think Mrs. Armstrong has made a very valid point. We ought to keep some of the team games, although I am inclined to agree with what has been said about football. Sr. Cordoba: There's one thing I would like to say about this and that is to suggest that we could remove from the programme sports like sailing and canoeing and possibly the equestrian events, where the test is not so much of the stamina of the competitor but of his skill in handling the boat or whatever. Mrs. Armstrong: What about the pentathlon, then? Riding is one part of that, so we are going to need facilities to cater for that in any case, so why not use them for horse-riding as well—or do you think we should axe that too? Chairman: Well, let's not get too heated about it, as this is only a preliminary discussion about possibilities and we are not yet in a position to make any final decisions. I will, however, briefly summarize what has been said so far, as I understand it. Mrs. Armstrong is totally opposed to reducing the size of the Games in any way at all. There is one body of opinion in favour of removing from the Games those sports which are already well represented in other international contests and in the media. Another strand of thought is that we should concentrate on individual excellence by cutting out the team games featured in the programme, and Mrs. Patel suggested we ought to focus attention on the more unusual sports in the programme which do not normally gain so much international attention. Sr. Cordoba also brought up the idea that we could drop boxing because of its seemingly violent nature. There was also an opinion voiced that we might exclude events where the skills of a competitor in handling a horse or yacht, for example, were being tested, rather than the stamina of the individual himself, as is the case with, say, athletics. Well, it is quite clear that we shall need to discuss this further, but in the meantime I think we'd better move on to something else ... 1. The houses they lived in were not meant to be permanent dwellings; as a matter of fact, we have no remaining evidence of their houses. Probably in the summertime they lived up on the mesa top near their fields, in temporary structures made of poles and brush. In winter they most likely moved down to the caves in the cliffs for warmth and protection against the snow. 2. People were experimenting and changing their methods of potting; the broken pieces are evidence of the steps in the process.

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The first attempt at pottery came as women mixed clay, a kind of dirt, with water to make pots. When the clay dried, however, it crumbled and fell apart. Clearly this would not work. The second idea was to add extra material to bind the clay together: grass, straw, or pieces of bark. This held the pot together very well until it was set on the fire. Then the binding material burned up, leaving a pot full of holes. Again the Anasazi women tried to find the secret of success. They added sand or volcanic grit to the clay to make it harder, and they baked the pots before using them. This final step proved to be successful, and it is the basic method which is still used today. 3. The pots which the women made this way were far superior to baskets for carrying, cooking, and storing food and water. Now the people could add beans, a rich source of protein, to their diet. Water could be stored safely over long periods. Life became much easier, and so effort could now be spent on other developments. 4. Their culture developed to its height, and the main improvement was in housing. The earlier pit houses were modified to one-story row houses, made with pieces of stone. Several separate buildings stood near each other like a small village. Some villages were as large as several hundred rooms and could contain as many as a thousand people. The name for this kind of house and for these Indians is "Pueblo", which is the Spanish word for "village". Christine: Harry, as an American, have you noticed any strong class distinctions in English society since you've been here? Harry: Strong class distinctions? Yes, they haven't changed at all—that's what—that's what amuses me—in fifteen years or fourteen years—that the stratification is exactly the same as it was when I first came. It's extraordinary that it pervades everything. Anna: What is class distinction? Because I don't know whether it's what job they do or ... Harry: It's people's accents. In Pygmalion, you know, it goes back to, as soon as you open your mouth in England you're immediately you know placed. Anna: Do you mean that there aren't different accents in America? Harry: Not—of course there are different accents—but they're not as—they're not nearly as clearly defined. Anna: But I mean, don't—doesn't a certain strata of American society use perhaps more slang than another one? More correct? Harry: Not the way they do in England. In England they seem to really stick together. I mean I went the other week for the first time in my life to a point-to-point and I couldn't believe what I found. There I was in the middle of Lincolnshire and we went through muddy fields and suddenly we came upon this parking lot with nine thousand Range Rovers in it and everyone going 'Oh, hello darling. How are you?' you know and it was hilarious I mean and they were all you know this meeting of the clan and that certainly doesn't happen in America and all those people spoke the same way. Barrie: But that—yes, I live in the middle of the country in the south and I must say when I moved there I noticed—I mean of course I'd been aware of class before that but I had no idea that the lines between them were so rigid. I lived on an estate of a very big and successful farm until recently, and so the farm of course was run by the landed gentry who all went hunting and to point-to-point and all the rest of it. I lived next door to the groom who was—who despised them because they did all this and he had to just get the horses ready, um but at the same time he was terribly fond of them and they of him and there was all this sort of paternalistic attitude to the country workers that still goes on. I was staggered and nobody knew where to put me because I was living in a tied cottage that was tied to the farm, um but because I didn't work with any of them they were all uneasy with me. Most peculiar.
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Christine: But I think you raise a very good point there Barrie because you're in fact talking about yourself not fitting into either of these two extremes and I'd like to ask Harry again how many classes he can see very clearly defined. Barrie: In England? Christine: In England, yes. Harry: Well, I guess, three off the top of my head. I mean not counting immigrants and foreigners. Yes, I mean there's the middle class is the most snobbish of all it seems to me. You know, they're the most aware of the whole system really because they're upwardly mobile usually you know they hope to be, and they're the ones—I mean the upper class are what I find extraordinary—they seem to be totally uninhibited for the most part. I think it's extraordinary. I mean I'm not passing any moral judgements on them but it still exists ... John: Because they've got the confidence ... Anna: ... and the money ... Barrie: ... confidence and the money ... John: Well no, I don't think money's much to do with it actually. Anna: How can you change it? I mean how would you change it? Harry: I'm not saying it should be changed ... Anna: No, no, no, no. I don't—I mean people do say that it should be changed. Politicians say that we should have total equality which I don't believe you can ever have in anything. Harry: Well there should be equality of opportunity. I mean at least it's a nice ideal to have, isn't it? Public school was hard compared to what I'd had before, day school on the reservation and a year at Sequoyah Government School. I almost flunked eighth grade at the public school, and it was a miracle that I passed. I just didn't know a lot of things, mathematics and stuff. I survived it somehow. I don't know how, but I did. The man who was head of the department of education at the Agency was the only person outside of my family who helped me and encouraged me to get an education. He understood and really helped me with many things I didn't know about. For a long time the white public school for the Big Cypress area would not let Indian children attend. A boy and I were the first Big Cypress Indians to graduate from that school. He is now in the armed forces. After I graduated from high school, I went to business college, because in high school I didn't take courses that would prepare me for the university. I realized that there was nothing for me to do. I had no training. All I could do was go back to the reservation. I thought maybe I'd go to Haskell Institute, but my mother was in a TB hospital, and I didn't want to go too far away. I did want to go on to school and find some job and work. So the director of education, at the Agency said, maybe he could work something out for me so I could go to school down here. I thought bookkeeping would be good because I had had that in high school and loved it. So I enrolled in the business college, but my English was so bad that I had an awful time. I had to take three extra months of English courses. But that helped me. I never did understand why my English was so bad—whether it was my fault or the English I had in high school. I thought I got by in high school; they never told me that my English was so inferior, but it was not good enough for college. It was terrible having to attend special classes.

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At college the hardest thing was not loneliness but schoolwork itself. I had a roommate from Brighton, one of the three reservations, so I had someone to talk to. The landlady was awfully suspicious at first. We were Indians, you know. She would go through our apartment; and if we hadn't done the dishes, she washed them. We didn't like that. But then she learned to trust us. College was so fast for me. Everyone knew so much more. It was as though I had never been to school before. As soon as I got home, I started studying. I read assignments both before and after the lectures. I read them before so I could understand what the professor was saying, and I read them again afterwards because he talked so fast. I was never sure I understood. In college they dressed differently from high school, and I didn't know anything about that. I learned how to dress. For the first six weeks, though, I never went anywhere. I stayed home and studied. It was hard—real hard. (I can imagine what a real university would be like.) And it was so different. If you didn't turn in your work, that was just your tough luck. No one kept at me the way they did in high school. They didn't say, "OK, I'll give you another week." Gradually I started making friends. I guess some of them thought I was different. One boy asked me what part of India I was from. He didn't even know there were Indians in Florida. I said, "I'm an American." Things like that are kind of hard. I couldn't see my family often, but in a way that was helpful because I had to learn to adjust to my new environment. Nobody could help me but myself. Well, I graduated and went down to the bank. The president of the bank had called the agency and said he would like to employ a qualified Indian girl. So I went down there, and they gave me a test, and I was interviewed. And then they told me to come in the following Monday. That's how I went to work. I finished college May 29, and I went to work June 1. I worked there for three years. In the fall of 1966, my father and the president of the Tribal Board asked me to come back to Big Cypress to manage a new economic enterprise there. It seemed like a dream come true, because I could not go back to live at Big Cypress without a job there. But it was not an easy decision. I liked my bank work. You might say I had fallen in love with banking. But all my life I had wanted to do something to help my people, and I could do that only by leaving my bank job in Miami. Being the person I am, I had to go back. I would have felt guilty if I had a chance to help and I didn't. But I told my daddy that I couldn't give him an answer right away, and I knew he was upset because he had expected me to jump at the chance to come back. He did understand, though, that I had to think about it. He knew when I went to live off the reservation that I had had a pretty hard time, getting used to a job, getting used to people. He knew I had accomplished a lot, and it wasn't easy for me to give it up. But that's how I felt. I had to think. At one time it seemed to me that I could never go back to reservation life. But then really, through it all, I always wished there was something, even the smallest thing, that I could do for my people. Maybe I'm helping now. But I can see that I may get tired of it in a year, or even less. But right now I'm glad to help build up the store. If it didn't work out, if the store failed, and I thought I hadn't even tried, I would really feel bad. The basic thing about my feeling is that my brothers and sisters and nieces and nephews can build later on in the future only through the foundation their parents and I build. Maybe Indian parents don't always show their affection; but they have taught us that, even though we have a problem, we are still supposed to help one another. And that is what I am trying to do. Even when we were kids, if we had something and other kids didn't, we must share what we had ... By the age of nine, girls were expected to take complete care of younger children. I too had to take care of my little brother and sister. I grew up fast. That's just what parents expected. Now teenagers don't want to do that, so they get angry and take off. Head Start and nurseries help the working mothers because older children don't tend the little ones anymore. The old ways are changing, and I hope to help some of the people, particularly girls about my age, change to something good. There are people on the reservation who don't seem to like me. Maybe they are jealous, but I don't know why. I know they resent me somehow. When I used to come from school or from work back to the reservation, I could tell some people felt like this. I don't think that I have ever, ever, even in the smallest way, tried to prove myself better or more knowing than other people. I have two close friends here, so I don't feel too lonely; but other people my age do not make friends with me. I miss my sister, and I miss my roommate from Miami. My two friends here are good friends. I can tell them anything I want. I can talk to them. That's important, that I can talk to them. That's what I look for in a friend, not their education, but for enjoyment of the same things, and understanding. But
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there are only two of them. I have not been able to find other friends. The old people think I know everything because I've been to school. But the old people don't have the kind of experience which allows them to understand our problems. They think that it is easy somehow to come back here. They think there is nothing else. They do not understand that there are things I miss on the outside. They do not understand enough to be friends. They are kind, and they are glad that I am educated, but they do not understand my problems. They do not understand loneliness ... 1. One wonders how, then, these students have arrived at such a false conclusion. One reason, of course, may be that they're science students. Scientific terms generally possess only one, precisely defined, meaning. It is, in fact, exactly this quality that makes these words distinctive in English, or indeed in any other language. Another reason could be the way in which these students were taught English. For example, long vocabulary lists are still an important feature in the foreign language learning programmes of many countries. On one side of the page is the word in English; on the other side a single word in the student's native language. 2. Practically all the students think that every word in English had an exact translational equivalent in their own language. Again this is a gross distortion of the truth. Sometimes a word in the student's native language may not have an equivalent in English at all, which may have to employ a phrase as a translation. Sometimes one word in the student's language may be translated by one of two possible words in English. The difficulty that many students have with the two verbs 'do' and 'make' is an example of this. Often the area of meaning covered by one word in the student's language may be wider or narrower than the area of meaning covered by a corresponding word in English. This sometimes happens with the naming of colours, where most students would expect an exact correspondence between their language and English. The borders between the primary colours of the spectrum are, however, drawn at different places in different languages. Translation, in fact, is a particularly difficult thing to do well. It certainly can't be done by matching single words from one language by single words from another. At first, those computer scientists who attempted to construct an automatic translation machine made this mistake. The machines often produced nonsense. 3. What, then, is the best way to increase one's vocabulary in a foreign language? This can be answered in three words. Firstly, observation: the unknown word should be observed in its context; in other words, the neighbouring words and the grammatical construction should be noted. A good dictionary should be referred to and examples of the usage of the word should be noted. Secondly, imitation: the student should use the new word in appropriate contexts, imitating the examples he has noted. Finally, repetition: he'll need to practise using the word several times before he's confident that he can use it correctly; in other words, repetition is necessary if the new word is to 'stick', and especially if it is to enter the student's active vocabulary. Lesson 23 Interviewer: Hello. My name's Hudson. Dick Hudson. Applicant: I'm Pamela Gable. Interviewer: Well, take a seat, please. Miss Gable—it is Miss, isn't it? Thought so. Well, let me just check that I've got these particulars right. Your surname is Gable, spelt G-A-B-L-E, and your first names are Pamela Ann ... Fine. You live at 147 Collington Road, Croydon ... your telephone number is 246 8008 ... you were born on July 8th, 1965, and ... that's about it ... OK? Fine ... Let's see ... what are you working with at the moment? Applicant: I'm the personal assistant to the manager of a modelling agency. Interviewer: Oh, really? And what does that involve?

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Applicant: A bit of everything, really. I have to keep the accounts, write a few letters, answer the telephone, look after bookings and engagements and that sort of thing. Interviewer: You work with people a lot, do you? Applicant: Oh yes. I have to look after all the models who work for us, you know, keep them happy, lend an understanding ear to their heartaches, you know. Interviewer: Have you ever done anything to do with hotels or conferences—hotel management, for instance? Applicant: No, not really. I did work for a short time as a courier for a tour operator, taking foreigners on guided tours of London. Perhaps that's the sort of thing you mean? Interviewer: Yes, I think it is. Do you speak any languages? Applicant: Yes, I do. I speak French and Italian—you see, I spent several years abroad when I was younger. Interviewer: Oh, did you? That's very interesting. And what about any exams you've taken? Applicant: Well, I left school at 16. You know, there didn't seem to be any point in staying on somehow; I was sure I could learn much more by getting a job and a bit of experience and independence. Interviewer: So you have no formal qualifications at all? I see ... Well, I don't suppose it matters. Applicant: Um ... I was wondering if perhaps you could tell me a bit more about the job? You know, it said in the ad that you wanted a go ahead girl with car and imagination, but that's not very much to go on. Interviewer: No, it isn't. Well, we run conferences, and your job as conference coordinator would be, well, much the same as the one you have now, I suppose. Meeting people, transporting them from one place to another, making sure they're comfortable, a bit of telephoning, and so on. Applicant: It sounds like just the sort of thing I want to do. Interviewer: There is the question of salary, of course. Applicant: Well, my present salary is 8,000 pounds, so I couldn't accept any less than that. Especially if I have to use my car. Interviewer: Ah! We have something like 7,500 in mind, plus of course a generous allowance for the car. But look, if I were you, I'd take some time to think about this. Perhaps you'd care to have a quick look round the office here, see if you like the look of the people who work here. Applicant: What do you think I should do then ...? Ann: When did you discover that you had this talent for hypnosis, Dr. Parker? Dr. Parker: When I was a final year medical student, actually. I'd been reading a lot about it and decided to try it myself on a few friends, you know—using certain well-tried techniques. Ann: And you were successful. Dr. Parker: Well, yes. I was amazed at how quickly I was able to do it.
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Ann: Could you tell me more about these techniques? Dr. Parker: Certainly. My method has changed very little since I started. To begin with, I get the subject to lie comfortably on a sofa, which helps to relax the body. You see, in order to reach a person's mind, you have to make him forget his body as much as possible. Then I tell him to concentrate on my voice. Some experts claim that the sound of the voice is one of the most powerful tools in hypnosis. Ann: Do you have an assistant with you? Dr. Parker: Yes, but only as a secretary. He always sits well in the background, taking notes and looking after the recording equipment. Then I tell the subject not to think about what I'm saying but just to accept it. Ann: Don't you use a swinging watch or flashing lights? Dr. Parker: No. At first I used to rely on the ticking of a clock—some say that boring, repetitive sounds help—but now I simply get my patient to stare at some object in the room. At this point I suggest that he's feeling sleepy and that his body's becoming so relaxed that he can hardly feel it. Ann: Be careful, Dr. Parker, I'm beginning to feel very drowsy myself. Dr. Parker: Don't worry. I won't make you do anything silly, I promise. Ann: What you're saying, then, is that you want to control your patient's mind, and that to do this you have first to take care of the body. Dr. Parker: Yes. You see, the aim of the session is to make the patient remember in great detail an experience which has caused him a lot of pain and suffering, and by doing that to help him to face his problems. Ann: I've heard a person's memory is far more powerful under hypnosis. Dr. Parker: Indeed it is. Some of the things that patients are able to remember are just incredible. Ann: Would you mind giving me an example? Dr. Parker: Not at all. During a session, it's standard procedure to take a patient back in time slowly, pausing at certain times in his life and asking a few questions. Ann: To, sort of, set the scene before you go deeper. Is that what you mean? Dr. Parker: That's it exactly. Well, once, I took a thirty-five-year-old lady back to the age of eight—in fact, I told her it was her eighth birthday and I asked her what day it was. I later checked a calendar for that year and she was right—it was a Tuesday. She even told me who was at her party, their names, what they were wearing and about the presents she received. I mean, can you remember even your last birthday? Ann: I couldn't even tell you what day my birthday fell on this year. Dr. Parker: Precisely. And when I asked her to write down her address at that time, the handwriting was in a very immature style. I later compared it to a sample from some old school exercise books her mother had kept and it was identical. Ann: Dr. Parker, that's an amazing story.

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Dr. Parker: I've taken patients back to their first year and a few even further than that ... but that's another story, unless you've got plenty of time ... These days it's hard enough to find a suitable job, let alone get as far as an interview. Dozens of people every day scour the Situations Vacant columns of the press, send off their curriculum vitae or application form, and wait hopefully to be summoned for an interview. Now this, apparently, is where a lot of people fall down, because of their inadequacy at completing their application forms, according to Judith Davidson, author of Getting a Job, a book which has recently come on the market. This book, as the title suggests, is crammed full of useful tips on how to set about finding yourself work in these difficult times. Our reporter, Christopher Shields, decided to look into this apparent inability of the British to sell themselves, and he spoke to Judith Davidson about it. Judith: Very often a job application or a curriculum vitae will contain basic grammatical or careless spelling mistakes, even from university graduates. Then those that do get as far as an interview become inarticulate or clumsy when they try to talk about themselves. It doesn't matter how highly qualified or brilliant you may be, if you come across as tongue-tied and gauche, your chances of getting a job are pretty small. Christopher: Judith Davidson lectures at a management training college for young men and women, most of whom have just graduated from university and gone there to take a crash course in management techniques. One of the hardest things is, not passing the course examinations successfully, but actually finding employment afterwards, so Judith now concentrates on helping trainees to set about doing just this. Judith: Some letters are dirty and untidily written, with finger marks all over them and ink blots or even coffee stains. Others arrive on lined or flowered or sometimes scented paper—none of which is likely to make a good impression on the average business-like boss. Christopher: This apparent inability of many people to make that initial impact with an employer by sending him an application which will stand out from the rest and persuade him you're the right one for the job prompted an enterprising young man, called Mark Ashworth, a recruitment consultant himself, to start writing job applications for other people for a fee, as a sideline. He told me he got the idea in America where it's already big business, and in the last few months alone he's written over 250 c.v.s. He feels that 80 per cent of job applications received by personnel managers are inadequate in some way. Mark: Many people simply can't cope with grammar and spelling and don't know what to put in, or leave out. Sometimes people condense their work experience so much that a future employer doesn't know enough about them. Then, on the other hand, some people go too far the other way. To give you an example, one c.v. I once received in my recruiting role was getting on for thirty pages long. Christopher: Mark has an initial interview with all his clients in which he tries to make them think about their motivation and why they've done certain things in the past. He can often exploit these experiences in the c.v. he writes for them, and show that they have been valuable preparation for the job now sought. He also believes that well-prepared job history and a good letter of application are absolutely essential. Mark: Among the most important aspects of applications are spelling, correct grammar, content and layout. A new boss will probably also be impressed with a good reference or a letter of commendation written by a former employer. The type of c.v. I aim to produce depends largely on the kind of job being applied for. They don't always have to be slick or highly sophisticated, but in certain cases this does help. Christopher: Judith Davidson thought very much along the same lines as Mark. In her opinion, one of the most important aspects of job applications was that they should be easy to read ...
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Judith: ... Many applicants send in letters and forms which are virtually unreadable. The essence of handwritten application is that they should be neat, legible and the spelling should be accurate. I stress handwritten because most employers want a sample of their future employee's writing. Many believe this gives some indication of the character of the person who wrote it. Some people forget vital things like putting their own address or the date. Others fail to do what's required of them by a job advertisement. Christopher: Judith believes that job seekers should always send an accompanying letter along with their application form stating clearly why their qualifications make them suitable for the vacancy. Judith: Personal details have no place in letters of application. I well remember hearing about one such letter which stated, quite bluntly, I need more money to pay for my flat. No boss would be impressed by such directness. Christopher: She added that the art of applying for jobs successfully was having to be learnt by more and more people these days, with the current unemployment situation. With as many as two or three hundred people applying for one vacancy, a boss would want to see only a small fraction of that number in person for an interview, so your application had to really outshine all the others to get you on the short list. 1. (Literature) We may note in passing that, although Dr Johnson's friend and biographer, Boswell, was a Scotsman, Johnson despised, or pretended to despise, Scotsmen in general. He once said that the best thing a Scotsman ever saw was the high road to England. In his famous dictionary, Johnson defined oats as 'a grain which in England is generally given to horses, but in Scotland supports the people'. He did not condemn all Scotsmen, however. Once he commented on a distinguished nobleman who had been born in Scotland but educated in England, saying that much could be made of a Scotsman—if he was caught young. 2. (Geography: American Indians) The first important point to note about the American Indians is that, in spite of their name, they are in no way related to the peoples of India. This confusion arose, as you probably know, because of a mistake on the part of Christopher Columbus. When he landed in America he thought that he had in fact discovered India. This mistake has been perpetrated, that is kept alive, ever since by the name he gave them. If they are related to any Asian group it is to the Mongols of Northern Asia. Many experts believe that the ancestors of the present American Indians emigrated from Northern Asia across the Bering Strait between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago. 3. (Science: methods of scientific discovery) A good illustration of how scientific discoveries may be made accidentally is the discovery of penicillin. Alexander Fleming was a bacteriologist who for fifteen years had tried to solve the problem of how to get rid of the disease—carrying germs or microbes in the human body without causing any dangerous side-effects. Fleming was an untidy worker and often had innumerable small dishes containing microbes all around his laboratory. One day, one of the dishes was contaminated with a mould, due to the window having been left open. Fleming noticed that the mould had killed off the microbes, and it was from similar moulds that the miracle drug penicillin was finally developed. Of course, only a brilliant scientist like Fleming would have been able to take advantage of this stroke of luck, but the fact remains that the solution to his problem was given to him, literally, on a plate. 4. (Psychology: memory) What I want to emphasize to you is this: that people remember things which make sense to them or which they can connect with something they already know. Students who try to memorize what they cannot understand are almost certainly wasting their time.

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Lesson 24 Brigid: Mrs. Kellerman, why is it that some children perform much better than others at school? Mrs. Kellerman: Obviously, it can't be denied that certain children are brighter than others, but it's not as simple as that. A lot of emphasis is placed on intelligence measured by tests—so-called I.Q. tests, which only measure certain types of intelligence. Brigid: Such as? Mrs. Kellerman: Basically linguistic and numerical skills—or reading and mathematics, to put it plainly—which is unfortunate because some children are bound to suffer. A good example was a friend of mine's son who was kept out of the top class at school because of his average I.Q.—that's around 100. His father, though he had no idea his son was going to be an architect, always said he was a clever child. Apparently he was able to picture things in his mind and draw accurately at a very early age. The point is that his university life might not have been so difficult if his ability had been recognized sooner. Brigid: What you're saying, then, is that some children have abilities that are not easy to measure, that aren't appreciated by many schools. Mrs. Kellerman: Precisely. And if these skills are not spotted sufficiently early, they cannot be developed. That's why, in my view, there are so many unhappy adults in the world. They are not doing the things they are best at. Brigid: What are these other kinds of intelligence, and how can we recognize them in our children? Mrs. Kellerman: Well, take musical talent. Many children never get the chance to learn to play an instrument but, while they might not become great artists or composers, they may get a lot of pleasure and satisfaction. Musically gifted children are fascinated by all kinds of sounds—car horns, animal noises and so on. And they can easily recognize tunes and sing them in key. Brigid: How can a parent encourage them? Mrs. Kellerman: Sing to them and teach them new songs. Buy a piano or even a cheap instrument such as a recorder. If you can afford it, send them to lessons as soon as possible. Play recordings of different instruments to them. Brigid: What about a child who is good at sport? Could that be described as a form of intelligence? Mrs. Kellerman: Most certainly. We psychologists call it 'motor', or bodily, intelligence. These children move gracefully and handle objects skillfully. A child who finds it easy to take things apart and use various tools may well become an engineer with the right encouragement. We should give them models to make and take them to science museums. However, unless these children are also good with words and numbers, they will probably not do well in school examinations. Brigid: Is there anything a parent can do to help in this case? Mrs. Kellerman: Yes. It may be worth spending money on private lessons. But, you know, hardly anyone is good at everything. In my opinion a child should be judged on his individual talents. After all, being happy in life is putting your skills to good use, no matter what they are. Teacher: I think there are a lot of reasons why it's good for children to read. Er ... Not just reading for pleasure, but all of the subjects, no matter what subject it is, involve some reading, even if it's just art. (Mmm.) They have to read the directions to do an art project, and ... ah. Social Studies they have to read. Science they have to read. And the more they read, ah, the easier, ah, the more their vocabulary will expand, and the better the ... they'll do in their other subjects. Erm ... Also
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for, for pleasure, erm, es, er, especially here in Puerto Ordaz where there aren't very many things to do. In ... instead of being out doing something they shouldn't be doing, ah, they can choose reading as a hobby. Erm ... It also improves their language tremendously. I can read a composition that a student has written that has, that reads a lot and I know, er, that he reads a lot by his use of the language and his vocabulary and a lot of advanced sentence structure that someone of that age normally would not, er, be able to handle. Erm ... What else? Erm ... Sometimes children who have very limited experiences, whose families don't get out very much, er, maybe not have enough money, er, ah, just stay at home a lot, have real limited experiences and by reading they can expand their experiences about what happens in the world and I've had children who, in a reader, see a picture, an exercise and they see a picture of a lion and they don't know what it is, because either their parents haven't read to them, or they haven't read books, or they haven't been out. And if they haven't been to a zoo to see an actual lion they could have read in a book, or had their parents read to them about, er, lions. And they miss the, the problem, because they may, once you tell them what it is, explain, they can do the exercise, but because they didn't know, didn't have the experience, they weren't able to do it. Erm ... er ... For survival later, too. If you can't read, erm, a cook-book or a, a manual to, to repair things, you're lost in that you have to rely on someone else to, always. And you're not, er, independent. Interviewer: What is it good for children to read? Teacher: I think children should read everything, that, er, not just limit it to mystery books, or just to science fiction. In fact there are some children who, who say, 'No, no. I just want to read science fiction,' but, er, I think they should read, er, from different areas. Er ... The newspaper, magazines. The School subscribes to, even though it's a small school, we've gotten in the budget approved to have fifteen magazines come in, and during their Silent Sustained Reading time can read magazines. Erm ... if ... Anything that's written down, I think they should read. Whether a sign or newspaper, textbook, everything, and not just limit it to one or two things. Erm ... I think a lot of parents disagree that children, they say if they're reading comic books they're wasting their time, but if I have a child who's a poor student, if he'll read a comic book, er, I'm happy because he's reading something. Or if he's, while he's eating breakfast he's reading the back of the cereal box he's still reading something and I wouldn't take it away from him and say, 'Stop wasting your time,' Because that is a step to go on to further reading and if you limit it to certain areas, then that will, it sometimes, it will stifle them and they'll stop reading completely. And they'll say, 'If I can't read the comic book then I don't want to read anything.' But reading the comic book could, erm, they say, 'Well I enjoyed this and I understood this, er, I think I'll try something else,' and that expands their reading. And they can learn something from a comic book. Erm ... It's also important, erm, if a student, if, a lot of the kids want to play games and they don't, it's a new game they don't know how to play, if they can't read the instructions, then they won't be able to play the game. Or, if they have a new toy, erm, if they can't read the instructions, they could possibly break the toy, and, by not learning how to use it properly. Ever since you started to school, and perhaps before, you have been given tests. One type of test you have probably taken is an intelligence test, a test designed to determine your ability to learn or your ability to change behavior on the basis of experience. It is not just test-givers who make judgements about intelligence, however. Most of us make educated guesses or inferences about how smart or intelligent a person is from the way he does certain things. We usually call people intelligent if they learn quickly, know answers to a lot of questions, and can solve difficult problems. When a psychologist studies intelligence, there are many questions that he wants to answer. But the first question he must ask is: What is intelligence? Most people think of intelligence as one ability. We say, "Ann is smart". But is intelligence really that simple? Is it only one ability? In trying to understand these questions, it might be helpful

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to look at athletic ability. If Mitch is a good basketball player, do we say that he is a good athlete? What if he is poor in baseball? What if he can't play football? Even if a person is good at sports, is he equally good in all of them? This is the same kind of problem we have when we ask, "What is intelligence?" What if Estelle is very good in math, but very poor in spelling? Is she intelligent or unintelligent? Maybe there is not just one kind of intelligence, but several different kinds. You probably know people who are very good in some subjects, but not good in others, and it is likely that you are the same way. You find some subjects easier than others and you do better in them. Most people are like that—they are not equally good in everything. In trying to understand the nature of intelligence, a psychologist tries to find out how various abilities are related to each other. To do this, he devises intelligence tests which have several parts—each part measuring a different ability. The kinds of abilities that these tests measure include: 1. How well words can be defined and understood; 2. How well arithmetic problems can be done; 3. How well facts can be remembered. Are these abilities related to each other? If a student is good at solving arithmetic problems, will he also be good at remembering facts? If he can define and understand a lot of words, will he also be good in arithmetic? To find the answers to these questions, the psychologist correlates the scores from each part of the test. A correlation is a mathematical way of finding out if these abilities are related to each other. If two abilities are correlated, it means that if you are good at one, you will probably be good at the other—or, if you are poor at one, you will probably be poor at the other. When two abilities are not correlated, it means that they are not related to each other—they do not go together. It means that being good at one has nothing to do with being good at another. For example, success in mathematics is not correlated with success in playing baseball. Some people who are good baseball players are good in math—others are not. Think of all the mental and athletic abilities shown by your friends and schoolmates. Can you think of some abilities and skills that seem highly correlated? Can you think of some abilities which do not seem to be correlated? Why do you think some abilities are correlated and others are not? There are many factors to keep in mind about intelligence tests. It is especially important to realize that intelligence tests measure how well you do at the time you take the test, but not how well you could do. There are many reasons why a student might not do well on a test in school. A person may do poorly on an intelligence test because he did not have a proper education and not because he is stupid. Also, some of the problems and questions of intelligence tests are not fair to certain groups of people. For example, suppose that the problems and questions on a test are about ice cream cones, baseball, automobiles and hot dogs. How would a student from another country, where these things do not exist, do on this test? Could he do as well as an average American boy? What if you took an intelligence test which asked questions about the hibachi, tempura and saki? Any Japanese boy could answer these questions, but you probably couldn't. Does this mean that you are not intelligent? No matter how intelligent a person is, he will not be able to answer questions about things he has never seen or heard of. When a test has a lot of "unfair" questions, do the results tell us much about a person's intelligence? Why not? Some questions would be "unfair" to almost all American test takers. How can you tell if a test question is "unfair"? Here is one to consider: Which of the following four musical instruments is different from the others in an important way: VIOLIN, SITAR, KOTO, TRUMPET. What makes this question unfair to most American boys and girls is that two of the four words are from foreign languages. The test taker has no way of knowing what they mean. Therefore, if you don't know what a word means, how can you decide that it is, or is not, different from the other words? The same question can be made into a fair intelligence-test question. It can be done very easily by adding pictures next to each word and asking the question again. To find out if the question without pictures is "unfair", ask people to answer it. Do not let them see the picture next to each word. Ask them why they gave the answer they did. Now show them the question with the pictures. Do the people who are questioned give correct answers more frequently the first time, without pictures, or the second time, with pictures? In what ways do the pictures help people answer the question? Is it true that the question without pictures is "unfair" and the one with pictures is "fair"? Can you think of a question that would be
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fair to boys and girls all over the world? Intelligence is partly measured by the ability to put information together and use it to answer questions. How does this apply to the question on musical instruments? Can the most intelligent person you know answer this question: What colour hair does each author of this book have? 1. (Politics) When a party is elected to Parliament in Britain it may not stay in power for more than five years without calling an election. But—now this is an important point—the Prime Minister may 'go to the country', that's to say call an election at any time before the five years are up. This is important because it gives the Prime Minister in Britain a lot of power—he can choose the best time to have an election for his own party. In many other countries the timing of an election is fixed—it must take place on a certain date every four years, or whatever, and this means that in these countries the President or Prime Minister cannot choose the most convenient time for himself, the way a British Prime Minister can. 2. (Medicine) One of the most dramatic examples of the effect of advances in medical knowledge is the building of the Panama Canal. In 1881 work was started on this canal under the supervision of De Lesseps, the Frenchman who built the Suez Canal. The project had to be abandoned after mosquito-borne diseases of yellow fever and malaria had claimed 16,000 victims among the workers. At the beginning of this century, the area was made healthy by spraying the breeding waters of the mosquitoes with petroleum. Work was able to be started again and the canal was finished in 1914. 3. (Sport) By the way, since we have mentioned the Olympic Games, you may be interested to know the following curious fact about the ancient Olympic Games as compared to the Modern Olympics. The ancient games were held every four years without interruption for over 1,000 years. The modern games have already been cancelled three times, in 1916, 1940 and 1944, because of world wars. 4. (Zoology) Although it is not strictly speaking relevant to our topic, perhaps I might say something about sharks since they are in the news quite a lot these days. Sharks have got a very bad reputation and probably most people think that all sharks are killers. This is not the case. In fact, the largest sharks of all, I mean the Whale Shark and the Basking Shark, are usually harmless to man. Moon River Moon river wider than a mile I'm crossing you in style some day Old dream maker You heart breaker Whenever you're going I'm going your way Two drifters, off to see the world There's such a lot of world to see We're after the same rainbow's end Waiting round the bend My Huckleberry friend Moon river and me Lesson 25 Mary: On holiday, one summer, we were camping, of course, (Yes, of course) er, and had been to Italy and, er, back into France (Yeah) and, at the border, we had an awful lot of trouble finding the passport and (Mm) the this and the that, (Mm) to move over from Italy to France, erm, so I was rather disappointed

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a, at the mess we'd made of it and, as we travelled on into France, I spent the rest of that day tidying up the car (Mhm) and I very carefully put into one folder the passports, the tickets, travellers' cheques and all our currency (Yeah) and it was all beautifully packed so that we wouldn't be caught in this position again of not being able to find (Mhm, Mhm) anything. Erm, we eventually decided to stop in a town where we knew there was a campsite and in the town we stopped at a garage, really to ask the way to the campsite, (Mm) but while we were there we thought, well, we'll get some petrol, erm, and, er, ask the question at the same time. (Yeah) Erm ... the man put the petrol in the car and, with all efficiency, I took out the folder (Yeah) with the money in it (Mhm) and paid for the petrol and then we went on our way. The campsite was about two or three miles away. Er, when we got to the campite, we went into the office and one of the things one usually carries as a camper is a little sort of card, erm, a camping ticket, if you like, and, er, I ... Tom: What's that for? Mary: Well, one gets reduced rates for being a (Oh, I see) member of a camping club, (Mm) or something like that. Erm, and I went to get it from the folder, properly packed folder, (Mm) and I could not find the folder! (Oh, God!) We had everything out of the car, all over the floor on the grass, erm, and each one of us was sure we, er, had seen it somewhere since the garage. And we finally had to say to these people, 'We are very sorry, we have no money, no card, no nothing' And ... Tom: How much money was involved? Mary: Well, all our holiday money, you know. Some hundreds of pounds, in travellers' cheques and some in currency, you see, a few pounds ... Tom: And passports? Mary: And passports, and tickets for the boat (God!) Erm, so we said we'd go to the police station. So back we went to the town. And we all went into the police station. Erm, and a very friendly policeman said, 'Well, I can do nothing about it. Your best bet is to see the British Consul, er, in the city.' Erm, well this was on a Saturday afternoon and it was five o'clock and he told us that we would be able to get into the, er, Consul on Monday morning when they opened, which didn't encourage us too much. (Quite!) Then it suddenly struck us that somebody must have taken this money, at the garage, (Ah, of course) so back we went the garage (Mhm) and we thought that as we stood talking to the man asking 'Where do you go to the campsite?', someone else had obviously stolen our folder. Tom: That was the last time you'd had it ...? Mary: Yes, indeed, (Mm) you see, erm, that was the last time that we could all agree (Mm) that we must have had it. (Mhm) So, er, John distracted the man's attention and I went into the man's office and went all through his papers on his desk (laughter) looking for it. It was a sort of green-coloured folder (Yeah) which one should have found easily (Yeah) and it wasn't there. And then we saw an old woman across the road, sitting on a window-ledge, and I was sure she was sitting on our folder because something green was sticking out underneath her. And we had to try and work out some way of moving er, to see. And eventually we persuaded her by asking her to give us directions and she stood up to speak to us. But it wasn't our folder at all she was just sitting on a little green mat (Oh) obviously to keep herself clean. Erm ... and we were feeling pretty desperate by now, (I bet you were. Yeah) so back we went to the campsite and we were going to beg, 'Please, may we stay tonight and worry (Mm) about it tomorrow?' (Mm) you see. And when we got back they said, 'There's been a phone call. Would you go to this address? Er, someone has found your folder.' So ... Tom: How would anybody who'd found your folder (have) phoned, the fact, the campsite? Mary: Right. Well, this is what we discovered. We were w, worried, because someone might have found it (Mm) and we might get our passports, but what about our money, you know. (Quite, yeah) So we went to the address, (Mhm) and it was a little cycle-repair shop, kept by two brothers. And they told us
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that they had seen us driving up the road to the campsite. We had swung round a corner (Mm) and the folder had flown off the top of the car! (Cor) We'd obviously left it (Yes) there, at the garage. And it had fallen at their feet. (Good heavens!) They saw the tent and camping stuff (Yeah) on top of the car. (Mm) They saw which way we were going. (Mm) They guessed we were going to the campsite, because it (Mm) was just a country lane (Mm) and they telephoned! Weren't we lucky? And (Gosh!) when we got there they said, er, 'Would we check that everything (Mm) was there.' (Mm) And certainly everything was there, (mm) nothing gone. And we were so pleased, we'd only got one piece of, erm, French currency—it was on large-value (Mm) note (Mm)—a number of pounds. (Mm) Erm, and we knew that we had to live till Monday, (Yeah) so we asked them if they would change this note for us. Erm, and the man sent a small boy to another shop to get change (Yes) and he came back with two equal value notes, (Oh yes) he'd split it in half (Mm) if you like. So we gave them half (Yeah) and we went back to the campsite and put up our tent and installed ourselves and then we went out and spent the other half on a celebration. Erm, and er, of course, we had no money all day Sunday (Yes) and had to spend the day eating bread and si ... Tom: But you felt rich, because you'd got everything back. Mary: Indeed, we were so relieved ... Tom: How terribly lucky, though! What a lucky story! Lesley: Oh Jackie, I've had such a terrible day. You just won't believe. Jackie: You look exhausted. What on earth have you been doing? Lesley: Oh, I've been such a fool! (Oh) You just wouldn't believe what I've done. Jackie: I would, I would. Come on ... (You won't) Where've you been? Lesley: I'm dying to tell someone. I've been down to London (Uh-huh) you see. (Uh-huh) OK, I thought I'd be very sensible, so I'd drive down to the Underground on ... on the outskirts of London, leave the car and go in by Tube. All right? (Er ... what you) Very sensible. (Yes) Yes? (OK) OK. So I drove down to London (Uh-huh) and I parked my car by the Tube station and I got the Tube into London. (Uh-huh) Fine! All right? (Well, sounds like it) so far, so good. (Yes) Right. Came back out of London ... (Uh-huh ... and you er ... forgot the car?) Got out of the Tube. No, no, I didn't forget the car. (Oh) I couldn't find the car, Jackie. (You're joking) It'd gone. (You're kidding) No, no, really, it'd gone. I walked out ... happily out of the Tube, you know, over to where it was (Mm) and I looked and it was a red Mini and mine's green, so (Oh on!) I thought 'Oh no'. So having panicked a bit, I rang the police, you see, and this lovely, new little policeman ... a young one (Yes, all shiny and bright) came out to help. That's it yes ... buttons shining ... (Yes) big, smile ... came down to help, so I said 'I've lost my car. It's been stolen' and I took him to see it and everything and ... Jackie: You mean where it wasn't. Lesley: And sure enough, it wasn't ... yes, well, right ... and it wasn't there. And then he coughed a bit and he went very quiet ... (Oh dear) and he took me back into the Tube station (Oh dear) and out the other side into the other car park ... and there was my car, Jackie (Oh Lesley) parked in the other Tube station car park, the other side of the station, because there are two exits, you see, so I walked out of an exit (Yes) not knowing there were two and it was in the other one. Jackie: Oh Lesley. And was he ever so cross? Lesley: He was livid, Jackie. (Really) He really ... he went on and on at me and I didn't know what to do. It was (Oh dear) just frightful. I just ... I went red and just shut up and said 'Sorry' all

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the time. Jackie: Jumped in your car and (Oh yes) and left. Lesley: Oh, it was awful. I'm never doing that again ever. Today we're going to look at some aspects of life—or perhaps it would be more correct to say 'death' in Ancient Egypt. Egypt has always fascinated ordinary people as well as scholars engaged in the serious study of the past. To most of us it's a land of mystery and magic. In particular, the custom of preserving the bodies of important people, especially of kings and queens, has quite a hold on the popular imagination. How many thrillers and horror films are based on the idea of finding a mummy in the secret tomb of a lost king, who in the case of horror movies usually comes to life again! In earlier times the subject exerted a more sinister fascination—so-called 'mummy dust'—the powdered remains of dead Egyptians—was thought to be an essential ingredient in many magical spells and medical remedies—a case of the cure being worse than the disease? This of course led to a great demand for mummies both inside and outside Egypt, and even to an industry of making 'false mummies' to sell to unsuspecting foreigners. This continued well into the 19th century. Even when, at that time, tighter controls were exerted by the Egyptian authorities, many mummies were still sold on the Black Market, and even some of the mummies that were acquired for museums for scientific purposes were bought clandestinely. These days, archaeologists and anthropologists have more moral scruples about the way they treat the dead—even those who have been dead for thousands of years. That's one reason why—even though new techniques of analysis can reveal fascinating information, there is some hesitation about carrying out 'autopsies' on too many mummies in an indiscriminate way. Besides the ethical question, there is the practical one that any analysis must involve at least some degree of destruction. The studies that have been made in recent years have therefore for the most part been of mummies which were already in poor state of preservation, and the investigators have tried to do the minimum damage possible—taking only tiny samples of tissue for analysis, or using non-destructive means of study such as X-rays. At the end of each study, it is now customary to restore the mummy to a state of 'decent burial'. In this way, the scientists involved have tried to satisfy both their curiosity and their consciences. In a moment, I'm going to ask Dr Albert Simons, a noted expert on Egyptian archaeology, to give us an overview of some recent studies and what they have revealed ... Burglaries The figures for burglaries have risen alarmingly over the last few years and are now quite appalling. Let me quote you a few statistics about break-ins. A house is burgled in Britain now about every two minutes, and over the past three years the number of burglaries reported to the police has risen by approximately 50,000 to well over 400,000 this year. The insurance companies report that last year alone household burglary losses rose by 27 per cent over the previous year to £138.2 million, and I believe one or two companies are refusing to provide burglary cover in what we might call high-risk areas. There are, nevertheless, half a dozen measures which can be taken against burglaries, which I will briefly outline for you. It really only requires some basic common sense and a small outlay, combined with a little knowledge of the way a burglar thinks and operates. You have to put yourself in his position, really. Most burglars are opportunists looking for an easy break-in, so don't make things simple for them. Don't advertise the fact you're out or away, or be careless about security. Even if you're just popping out for a quarter of an hour, don't leave doors and windows open or unlocked. A burglary can take less than ten minutes. This time element leads me to my second main point, that where a house is hard to get into and will take a long time to do so because you've fitted good locks and bolts on your exterior doors and windows or even burglar alarms, the chances are that the burglar will move on to somewhere easier. There are plenty of these, I can assure you. Milk bottles left on the doorstep, papers by the front door, garage doors wide open, curtains drawn in the daytime or un-drawn at night are all indications. For comparatively little you can buy a programmed time-switch that'll turn on and off a light at
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appropriate times. Not all burglaries happen while you are out, of course. You should always be wary of callers at the door who say, for example, that they've come to read the gas meter; always check their credentials, and if in doubt don't let them in. It's also a good idea to keep a record of serial numbers on electrical equipment, radios, TVs and so on, or even to take photographs of valuable jewellery, antiques or pictures. Any further tips I may not have mentioned can always be got from your local police station, where you should ask to speak to the Crime Prevention Officer. In the final analysis I think I should say that when it comes to fitting security systems and the like you've really got to strike a balance between the cost of what you spend on installing the system and the value of the property you're trying to protect. Lesson 26 Interest in sport in Britain is widespread, as is indicated by the huge crowds which attend such occasions as the Football Association Cup Final at Wembley Stadium, international rugby matches at Twickenham, Murrayfield or Cardiff Arms Park, the Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Championships and so on. Not only do millions watch these matches on television but there is also growing enthusiasm for active participation in sport and recreation in the country as a whole. People find they have more free time on their hands nowadays, so there is a duty on the part of government to make opportunities and facilities available. Apart from the professional side of it, there is increasing enthusiasm for amateur sport, which has led to a growth in interest in climbing, rambling, boating and other water-based sports, as well as keep fit, and movement and dance activities. Probably the most popular spectator sport is Association Football, which dates back to the nineteenth century and is controlled by separate football associations in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. There are well over 400 clubs affiliated to the English Football Association or FA and some 37,000 clubs to regional or district associations. The main clubs in England and Wales belong to the Football League, 92 in all, and the 38 Scottish clubs belong to the Scottish League. They play in four divisions in England and three in Scotland. During the football season, attendances total some 27 million. Local authorities provide facilities to cater for a wide range of indoor and outdoor activities; these include such things as golf courses, swimming pools and leisure centres. Total expenditure in the country as a whole on sport and outdoor recreation came to well over £500 million last year. Naturally, publicly maintained schools have to provide by law for the physical education of the pupils, and sometimes these facilities are also extended to the whole community for use out of school hours. I'd like now to say a word or two about water-based sports. Activities on canals, rivers, lakes and reservoirs are becoming increasingly popular and for this we must thank the British Waterways Board, which as part of its work maintains 1760 km of cruising waterways for navigation, about 960 km of other waterways and some 90 reservoirs. In addition to the facilities which are provided by local authorities, such as the sports centres and golf courses I mentioned earlier, we mustn't forget the local voluntary clubs such as rugby, cricket, tennis, golf and so on. Some clubs are even attached to local businesses and cater for the needs of a firm's employees, and in fact some companies are actively encouraging their staff to take advantage of the facilities provided. I've even heard of employees being given time off in the middle of the working day to do a little sport, a practice which is, I believe, already quite popular in the United States. 'A healthy mind in a healthy body', as the saying goes, so perhaps this is what is in the minds of these employers. This phrase of course applies very much to the young and, as I said before, all publicly maintained schools must by law provide for the physical education of their pupils. This covers gymnastics, team games, athletics, dancing and swimming. Every school, except those solely for infants, must have a playing field, or the use of one, and most secondary schools have their own gymnasium as well. Some have other amenities such as swimming pools, sports halls and halls designed for dance

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and movement. Sports and recreation facilities are likewise provided at universities, some of which have their own physical education departments, and there are also so-called 'centres of sporting excellence' at universities and other colleges enabling selected young athletes to develop their talents but which also provide for their educational needs. Chairperson: Good evening ladies and gentlemen. It's nice to see so many of you here. Well, I'd like to introduce our two guests this evening: Mr. Andrew Frobisher, who has spent many years in Malaysia in the 1950s and 60s and knows the country very well indeed. And, on my right, Dr. Harry Benson who's an agricultural economist. Benson: Good evening. Frobisher: Good evening. Chairperson: Well, erm ... the purpose of this evening is to find out more about that fascinating substance, rubber, and the effects that it has on that fascinating country, Malaysia. Erm erm ... I believe erm ... er Mr. Frobisher, erm ... that Malaysia is at the same time an extremely rich and rather poor country. Erm ... how is this possible? Frobisher: Yes, well, that's quite true, Monica. Malaysia's population is by now over 12 million, and er per head o ... on paper the citizens are richer than those of the UK. But ... Benson: But of course that wealth is not so evenly distributed. In fact in 1981, it was estimated that 37% of the population were below the poverty line ... Frobisher: Yeah, well ... whatever that means ... and anyway shouldn't it be, er, was below the poverty line. Benson: Yes, of course. Sorry, Andrew. Frobisher: Yes, well, erm ... as I was saying, er ... much of Malaysia's wealth is based on rubber. Now, I remember my planting days ... Benson: Yes, yes, yes yes you're quite right there Andrew. Rubber represents about 20% of the Gross National Product and 30% of export earnings. (Er yes I ...) This puts Malaysia in a very good position internationally since rubber is an example of what we might call a 'post-industrial industry'. Frobisher: Well, what do you what do you mean by that? I ... Chairperson: Er ... excuse me ... yes, what does that mean? Frobisher: What is a post-industrial erm ... society? Benson: Most manufacturing industries are based on fossil fuels, for example, coal and oil. Now, the problem is that these will not last forever. They are finite. Sooner or late they will run out! Now, rubber is a natural product. The energy source involved in its creation is sunlight. Now sunlight, we hope, will outlast coal and oil, and best of all, sunlight is free. So, it is much cheaper to produce natural rubber which as we all know comes from trees, than to use up all those fossil fuels, both as fuels and as raw materials, in making synthetic rubber in factories. Rubber is one of the world's strategic products, so you can see what a good position Malaysia is in, and it would help if she could produce more ... Chairperson: Er ... well, what stands in the way then? Frobisher: Ah. Well, well it's the way they go about cultivating it. You see, I remember in my day just after ...
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Benson: Yes, most people have this image of vast estates, centrally run, but that's just not the case, even if almost a quarter of the population is involved, one way and another, with the production of rubber ... Frobisher: Yeah well, that's if you count the families ... Nenson: Oh yes, yes, yes almost 3 million people are involved, but the picture is a very fragmented one. Do you realize that there are 2 million hectares of land under cultivation for rubber in Malaysia, but that 70% of this area is divided amongst small-holders—half a million of them—who between them produce 60% of the country's rubber? Frobisher: Well, there's nothing wrong with that i ... in terms of quality of life, though I remember (yes, quite right ...) just after the war there was ... Benson: Yes, quite right. But being a smallholder does present problems. For example, when it comes to replacing old trees—you'll know about this Andrew—and the average useful life of a rubber tree is about 30 years, (yes, yes,) this can cause financial problems for the small farmer. The problem is being tackled, however, by some very enlightened insurance schemes available to the small-holder which can give him help through the difficult years. After all, the new trees take some years to mature and start producing rubber. Frobisher: Yes, indeed they do. I ... I ... Benson: Look. I've got an overhead projection here, which I think will be useful to make the various problems and their solutions clearer to us all. Frobisher: Overhead projection. There wasn't anything wrong with the blackboard in my time, you know ... Benson: No, but this is clearer and neater and up-to-date. So, here you see a summary of the position of rubber in Malaysia's economy and here is the first problem, and the solution that has been found through these insurance schemes. Chairperson: Hm, yes, I see. That's really very clear. Benson: Now for the second and really major problem. Frobisher: And may I ask what that is? Benson: Boredom and fatigue. Frobisher: Boredom and fatigue? What? Chairperson: What do you mean by that? Benson: Well, as with so many societies, the young people are leaving the land for the cities, leaving no one behind to carry on their parents' business. The root cause seems to be simply, boredom. Rubber is just not that entertaining a product to be involved with. It is labour-intensive in the extreme. Each tree on a plantation has to be tapped, by hand, every other day. Chairperson: Tapped? Benson: Yes. Forbisher: Yes, well, we ...

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Benson: Yes. The trunk is cut and the latex that comes out is collected in a cup. This is collected on the next day. 400 trees per day is the average figure per worker, which means 800 trees under the care of each worker, ten hours a day. Now, as I said previously, the main problem is that of the boredom. The work is not only hard, it is also mind-blowingly tedious. Frobisher: So, ha ... have you got any suggestions to make things more interesting for them? Benson: Well, not so much me, but the Malaysians are doing some very good work in this field. One idea is to make the work on the plantations more varied, and profitable, by introducing other products which are compatible with continuing to grow rubber trees. Chairperson: Yes for example? Benson: Well, the most promising line seems to be to encourage small-holders to raise livestock which can live amongst the trees. Frobisher: Yes, yes, I, I hear they've started trying raising chickens and turkeys. Benson: Yes, yes, indeed. I have another OHP at this point. Frobisher: Erm ... OHP? Benson: Overhead projection ... Frobisher: Ah. Benson: Anyway, you can see here the different types of animals that have been tried. At first sight, chickens seemed ideal. After all, they did originate as jungle birds. However, hmm excuse me, so far the profits on chickens have proved disappointing. The turkey seemed an excellent choice, since it could live amongst the tress living very well off the seeds of the rubber trees, which lie scattered all over the forest floors and are put to no other use ... Frobisher: Yes, yes ... but, but the turkey, it's hardly an established part of the Malaysian diet! Benson: Exactly! So far the most successful candidate has been the sheep. Frobisher: Sheep? Benson: Now ... Sheep. Sheep will eat the weeds, which will save the cultivator money and work, and they are a source of meat which is acceptable both to Hindus and Muslims. Frobisher: Yes, well, that's most important in multicultural Malaysia. Benson: Yes, yes, and of course they can also be used for their milk, their wool and their skins. Frobisher: Yes, of course ... Mmm. Benson: And now, as you can see on my OHP ... Chairperson: Well, erm ... thank you both very very much to both our guests ... Well, what lies ahead for Malaysia? Can her researchers and scientists continue to find ways of increasing the rubber yield? Can the labor-intensive and tedious life of the rubber plantation be made interesting and varied enough to capture the young people's interest and stop the migration to the cities? Well, I'm sure we've all enjoyed and learned a lot from huh what both our guests have had to say. Huh we look forward to the next meeting in the series 'Other lands, other problems' which will be on Monday next. That's at 8:15 and do please come on time.
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Frobisher: Hmm. Pushy bastard. Some of the Problems Facing Learners of English Today I'd like to talk about some of the problems that students face when they follow a course of study through the medium of English—if English is not their mother tongue. The purpose is to show that we're aware of students' problems, and that by analysing them perhaps it'll be possible to suggest how some of them may be overcome. The problems can be divided into three broad categories: psychological, cultural and linguistic. The first two categories mainly concern those who come to study in Britain. I'll comment only briefly on these first two and then spend most of the time looking at linguistic difficulties which apply to everyone wherever they are learning English. Some of the common psychological problems really involve fear of the unknown: for example, whether one's academic studies will be too difficult, whether one will fail the examinations, etc. All students share these apprehensions. It's probably best for a student not to look too far ahead but to concentrate day-by-day on increasing his knowledge and developing his ability. The overseas student in Britain may also suffer from separation from his family and possible homesickness; enjoyment of his activities in Britain and the passage of time are the only real help here. Looking now at the cultural problems, we can see that some of them are of a very practical nature, e.g. arranging satisfactory accommodation: getting used to British money (or the lack of it!). British food and weather (neither is always bad!). Some of the cultural difficulties are less easy to define: they are bound up with the whole range of alien customs, habits and traditions—in other words, the British way of life. Such difficulties include: settling into a strange environment and a new academic routine; learning a new set of social habits, ranging from the times of meals to the meanings of gestures; expressing appropriate greetings; understanding a different kind of humour; and learning how to make friends. Being open-minded and adaptable is the best approach to some of the difficulties listed here. The largest category is probably linguistic. Let's look at this in some detail. Most students will have learnt English at school, but if they've already been to college or university in their own countries they'll have studied mostly in their own language except, perhaps, for reading some textbooks and journals in English. In other words, they'll have had little everyday opportunity to practise using English. When foreign learners first have the opportunity to speak to an English-speaking person they may have a shock: they often have great difficulty in understanding! There are a number of reasons for this. I'll just mention three of them. Firstly, it seems to students that English people speak very quickly. Secondly, they speak with a variety of accents. Thirdly, different styles of speech are used in different situations, e.g. everyday spoken English, which is colloquial and idiomatic, is different from the English used for academic purposes. For all of these reasons students will have difficulty, mainly because they lack practice in listening to English people speaking English. Don't forget, by the way, that if students have difficulty in understanding English-speaking people, these people may also have difficulty in understanding the students! What can a student do then to overcome these difficulties? Well, obviously, he can benefit from attending English classes and if a language laboratory is available use it as much as possible. He should also listen to programmes in English on the radio and TV. Perhaps most important of all, he should take every available opportunity to meet and speak with native English-speaking people. He should be aware, however, that English people are, by temperament, often reserved and may be unwilling to start a conversation. Nevertheless, if he has the courage to take the initiative, however difficult it may seem to be, most English people will respond. He will need patience and perseverance! In addition to these problems regarding listening and understanding, the student probably has difficulty in speaking English fluently. He has the ideas, he knows what to say (in his own language) but he doesn't know how to say it in English. The advice here will seem difficult to follow but it's necessary. Firstly, he must simplify his language so that he can express himself reasonably clearly: for example, short sentences will be better than long ones. Secondly, he must try to think in English, not translate from his mother tongue. This'll only begin to take place when his use of English becomes

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automatic: using a language laboratory and listening to as much English as possible will help. In general, he should practise speaking as much as possible. He should also notice the kind of English, and its structure, that educated people use, and try to imitate it. Lesson 27 Interviewer: I understand you're interested in holistic medicine. Can you explain what holistic medicine is? Vivienne: OK. Holistic medicine, um, takes into consideration the whole of the person. Now what this means in, in most holistic systems is regarding the person as a physical entity, a mental or emotional person, and also even their spiritual side of them. Um, it also includes looking at the body as a whole rather than looking at individual parts of the body, and as a way of explaining this, we could look at conventional medicine as producing people who are like a cardiologist, who looks at a heart, um, a brain specialist, a person who deals with bones, er, etc. So what we've tended to do in conventional medicine is break things down to a point where we're actually only looking at one part of the person and we're not actually relating terribly well that part to the rest of the body, whereas holistic medicine insists that if there is a problem, er, with your right foot, that is going to somehow, um, affect your entire body. Interiewer: Um, your speciality is acupuncture. Er, is that a part of holistic medicine? Vivienne: Acupuncture is very much a holistic system. Um, traditionally the Chinese regarded the person very much as a whole entity and acupuncture itself works on an energy system basically, and in a very simplified way, it's saying that, er, you have an energy system within your body and when that energy becomes blocked or tainted in some way, then you will manifest certain symptoms and the things that we look at in conventional medicine as things like arthritis or rheumatism are, to the Chinese, merely an imbalance of the energy. So, in this way, they may say to you, well, yes, you have rheumatoid arthritis but we're going to actually look at your energy balance and rebalance you, and, as a result, your symptoms should disappear. Interviewer: Um, is acupuncture essentially a form of preventative medicine? Vivienne: Traditionally, it was, very much. Um, in fact, traditionally, in China, people only used to pay the doctor while they were well and they used to go to their doctor fairly regularly on, you know, maybe four or five times a year, and they would only pay the doctor when they were kept well. And if they got sick, they didn't pay the doctor. And the doctor had various methods of which acupuncture was one, diet was another, exercise was another, er, of ensuring that the person lived a right life style and their emphasis was on if you're living a right life style, if you're living in tune with the laws of the universe, going to sleep when it's dark, waking up when it's light, working, resting, doing all these things properly, then you won't get sick. Unfortunately, our way of looking at life in the West is very different in that we tend to struggle on in spite of our headache and not take terribly much notice of our body when things are not quite right and we tend to struggle on until we fall over and we get carted off to hospital in an ambulance. And so, acupuncture in the West, unfortunately, in a way, has come to be not the preventative medicine that it could be because we're not taking responsibility enough for ourselves in going along and making sure that we stay well. Janice: So you really believe that clothes carry a kind of message for other people and that what we put on is in some way a reflection of what we feel? Pauline: Oh yes, very much so. People are beginning now to take seriously the idea of a kind of psychology of clothing, to believe that there is not just individual taste in our clothes but also a thinking behind what we wear which is trying to express something we may not even be aware of ourselves. Janice: But surely this has always been the case. We all dress up when we want to impress someone, such as for a job interview with a prospective employer; we tend to make an effort and put on something smart.
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Pauline: True, but that's a conscious act. What I'm talking about is more of a subconscious thing. Take for example the student who is away from home at college or university: if he tends to wrap himself up more than the others, this is because he is probably feeling homesick. Similarly, a general feeling of insecurity can sometimes take the form of over-dressing in warmer clothes than are necessary. Janice: Can you give any other examples of this kind? Pauline: Yes. I think people who are sociable and outgoing tend to dress in an extrovert way, preferring brighter or more dazzling colours—yellows, bright reds, and so on. In the same way, what might be seen as a parallel with the animal kingdom, aggressive clothes might indicate an aggressive personality or attitude to life. Think about the threat displays used by animals when they want to warn off opponents. Janice: Do you think the care—or lack of it—over the way we actually wear our clothes has anything to tell us? Pauline: Yes, indeed. The length, for example, of a man's trousers speaks volumes about his awareness of his own image. Or, if his trousers are at half-mast, all sort of hanging down, this probably means he's absorbed by other things. Janice: Really. Pauline: Or, to give you other examples, often minority groups, who have perhaps failed to persuade with words, tend to express themselves by wearing unconventional, or what some might consider outrageous clothing, as a way of showing their thoughts and feelings are different from the rest, and so they find an outlet in this way. Janice: That surely spills over into other things as well. Pauline: Oh yes, indeed. Haircuts, jewellery, kinds of fabric used—these things can all be a form of rebellion. But to get back to clothes, I would like to add that a whole lot about our personality is conveyed in our clothes and the way we look—aggressiveness, rebelliousness, happiness, sadness, and so on. These can all be interpreted. Think of the ageing pop star who may be pushing middle age, he'll keep on dressing up like a rebel to try to prove he's 'with it' still, and in touch with his young fans and current trends. Janice: Do you think that at work clothes and general appearance have any significance? Pauline: Definitely. We've already spoken about job interviews a bit, and it's interesting to note that in a recent survey it was suggested that employers prefer young executives to stick to grey, black and dark blue suits if they are men, and classical outfits and dresses in sober colours if they are women, perhaps because they feel this is a reflection of a more responsible and sober attitude to work and will also project this image to customers. Janice: Do you subscribe to this opinion? Pauline: I personally think that too much conservatism defeats the object of the clothes industry. They want to create new fashions and colour to sell clothes, so I can't really say that I go along wholeheartedly with it. There should be room for manoeuvre, leaving people scope to express their individuality in what they are wearing. We've all seen them on TV commercials, looking out at us from the covers of glossy magazines or showing off the latest creations from Paris, and it must have seemed to us that they have lives which are all glamour. Jeffrey Ingrams has been delving into the world of the fashion model and has

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come up with some interesting facts. Denise: The average model can earn roughly the same as a top secretary on the basis, that is, that she's a freelance with an agent who'll send her out for auditions and interviews and get work for her. Jeffrey: Denise Harper is a model agent. The Central Model Agency, in which she's a partner, is very closely associated with the Metropolitan Academy of Modelling, where dozens of aspiring models have come over the years to pay their money to take a basic course in the techniques of being a model. Just over five years ago, one such aspiring model was eighteen-year-old Margaret Connor, fresh from school. Margaret: Your mother has told you that you're a pretty girl and you think that you're God's gift. You're not, of course, but the Academy give you the works, how to do make-up, how to walk, how to do your hair, dress sense, the lot. Jeffrey: Now before we go any further I really ought to give you some idea of what Margaret looks like. She's about 5 feet 8 inches tall, with shoulder-length auburn hair, hazel eyes and a ready smile. Like Margaret, every model has her index card which potential clients can keep in their files to refer to. When not working, Margaret is a rather prettier-than-average girl-next-door, but her photograph alone seemed to show that she can be as versatile and as fashionable as anyone might want. But why did Denise Harper pick her out from the other similar applicants for the modelling course at the Academy? Denise: I always look for personality, poise, good height and, very important, initiative, all of which Margaret has. You try to find above all a girl who you think will work and is not only in it for the money. Jeffrey: Naturally, when they've finished the course it doesn't always mean automatically that they are set for stardom. Margaret occasionally gives classes at the Academy and she told me why some girls just pack in the job. Margaret: Sometimes the work is too hard, sometimes it's too scarce and sometimes you have to push yourself too much. You've got to be a saleswoman to be a model, just sitting back and thinking you're going to be cosseted is no good, you've got to go out there and get work. But once you've got it, OK, fine. Jeffrey: When work does come along, it could be pretty well anything. Margaret: Really it's a different job every time—it might be TV advertisements, live advertising promotions, a photo session, anything. Jeffrey: I asked Margaret to give me some idea of a typical day in her life. Margaret: This is the fun thing about it, really. You've got no idea what you'll be doing tomorrow, nothing's planned ahead. There's such a variety of ways of spending the day. There's a sort of 'wake-up at 8 o'clock with the phone ringing' day, and next minute you're off abroad somewhere, which is everybody's idea of modelling. Then, other days you have to go round and sell yourself because you've got nothing on at all—seeing photographers, magazines, newspapers, generally getting your face around. On a busy day you've got to dash from job to job, it's all very hectic, but basically you've always got to have everything literally by the phone, be ready to leave at a moment's notice. But there's variety in it. Making TV commercials has in fact now overtaken straightforward fashion as our favourite occupation. It's more fun than photographic work, where one split second decides whether you look nice or not. In a TV commercial there's some acting involved, and you have to keep it up for a while, which is more of a challenge. Jeffrey: When Margaret said she kept everything by the phone, I wondered what she meant.
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Margaret: Definitely your diary, with a pen, waiting for that interview. Then every model has one arm longer than the other (laughs) because of all the things she has to cart around in her bag—spare pairs of shoes, make-up, spare tights, and a book—it can get boring waiting around sometimes. I read such a lot of novels! Umm, everything but the kitchen sink—it all has to be packed in. Jeffrey: Whatever her motivation, it's quite clear that Margaret enormously enjoys being a model. Margaret: Yes, I love it! It's fantastic! I just couldn't think of doing anything else. It's always been the glamour that attracted me. To begin with, it's real hard work to get established, but the variety and excitement of not knowing from one day to the next what's going to happen has never ceased to give me a thrill. Solving Problems Today I am going to talk about some thoughts that psychologists have had on how people go about solving problems. The first point I want to make is that there is no one way of solving all problems. If you think about it you will realize the obvious fact that there are many different kinds of problems which have to be solved in different ways. Let us take two very different examples. A student is sitting in his study, trying to solve a problem in Mathematics. After an hour, still unsuccessful, he gives up and goes to bed. The following morning he wakes up and wanders into the study. Suddenly, the solution comes to him. Now for a very different kind of problem. In the Shakespeare play Hamlet, young Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, discovers that his father has been murdered by his uncle. The evidence is based on the appearance of his father's ghost, urging him to revenge his death by killing his uncle. Should he accept the ghost's evidence, and kill his uncle? This is obviously a very different kind of problem. Such moral or emotional problems might have no real solution, or at any rate no solution that everyone might agree on. There are many other different types of problems apart from these two. In this talk, I would like to talk about the first kind of problem: the kind that the student of Mathematics was involved with. The solution to that kind of problem is sometimes called an 'A-ha' solution, because the solution comes suddenly, out of nowhere as it were, and in English people sometimes say 'A-ha' when a good idea comes to them like that. Another, less amusing, name for it is insight. For a long time the student seems to get no where, and then there is a sudden flash of insight and the solution appears. A classic example of insight is the case of the French mathematician, Poincare. I'll spell it. P-O-I-N-C-A-R-E, POINCARE. For fifteen days Poincare struggled with a mathematical problem and had no success. Then one evening he took black coffee before going to bed (which was not his usual custom). As he lay in bed, he couldn't sleep, and all sorts of ideas came to him. By morning he had solved that problem which had baffled him for over a fortnight. What do psychologists have to say about this process of problem solving? A very good and helpful description of the solving process has been made by POLYA, a teacher of Mathematics. I'll spell his name, too. P-O-L-Y-A, POLYA. Remember that Polya is thinking of insight problems, and in particular, mathematics problems, but his ideas should apply in all sorts of areas. Polya's description has four stages. They are: Stage one: Understanding the problem: At this stage, the student gathers all the information he needs and asks himself two questions: The first question is: What is the unknown? What is my goal? In other words, what do I want to find out? The second question is: What are the data and conditions? What is given? In other words: what do I already know? Stage two: Devising a plan: here the student makes use of his past experience to decide on the method of solution. At this stage he asks himself three questions: a) Do I know a problem similar to this one?

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b) Can I restate the goal in a different way that will make it easier for me to use my past experience? Polya calls restating the goal 'working backwards'. c) Can I restate what is given in a way that relates to my past experience? Polya calls restating what is given as 'working forward'. The student stays at stage two until he has the flash of insight. If necessary he can put the problem to one side for a while and then come back to it. Eventually he will see how the problem can be done. Stage three: Carrying out the plan: the student carries out the plan of solution, checking each step. Stage four: Looking back: the student checks his answer in some way, perhaps by using another method, or whatever. Having done that, he makes it part of his experience by asking himself: 'Can I use this result or method for other problems'? I will repeat again that not all problems are like the mathematics problems that Polya is thinking about. Not every problem is solvable, and some may even have no satisfactory solution. Nevertheless, it is probably a good idea to do what Polya has done. That is, when you are successful in solving a problem, analyse how you have done it, and remember your method for the next time.

Lesson 28 Robert: Now, one of the biggest hurdles to cross in getting a good job is the interview. There's no getting away from it, because in nearly every case when you apply for a job you will be called for one, or sometimes even two, interviews. It's quite natural that you might also be dreading it; in fact, some people dread them so much they never turn up at all. What I want to try to do today is to take some of the sting out of the interview and get you over what I call 'job interview jitters' to show you how you can make a good impression and even use the interview to your own advantage. I mentioned two interviews earlier because some companies do a kind of screening interview first, where they try to find out what you're like and if you're suitable for the job before you go on to the main interview. This screening interview would probably be with someone from the personnel department, and I'd like now to show you on the video a couple of examples of these screening interviews, which I hope will help to illustrate how to go about it and how not to. In the first, Walter Edwards of the personnel department of a biscuit factory in Southampton is interviewing Anita Jones for a job as a secretary. Walter: Come in, I'm Walter Edwards and you're Miss ...? Anita: Anita Jones, er, but my friends call me Nita. Walter: How do you do, Miss Jones. Do please sit down. Now, your application tells me you were born in these parts. Did you grow up here? Anita: Er, um, yes. Well, no. I was born here in Southampton, but my dad, that is my father, works in a bank so we, um, moved up north when I was fairly small, which is where I went to school and, um, then we moved back down here, which is why I live round here now, you see. Walter: Quite. And I see you've just completed a one-year secretarial course. Is this your first job application? Anita: Yes, er, well, no. I mean, I've had several holiday jobs and part-time jobs but this is, or rather would be my first full-time job. I mean this is the first time I've been looking for one. Walter: Do you have any special reason for choosing this company? Anita: Oh, not really. I mean, er, yes, I was attracted by the money but that's not the only reason, of course. (Laughs.) Walter: I see. And could you tell me about your secretarial skills?
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Robert: Without going any further, I think we can all see that Anita is a very nervous applicant: hesitant and indecisive. It's quite clear that she is petrified by the whole idea of the interview, and her faltering and stammering delivery is even irritating for a Mr. Edwards who has, after all, only a few minutes to find out about Anita and to see if she's the right one for the job. Another important point to raise is appearance, which Anita obviously didn't take much care over. Dress is very important and you should never turn up in jeans and an old sweater if you're after a job in an office or a place of work where you will be meeting people, dealing with clients and that sort of thing. Clean, smart clothes are the order of the day, and try to avoid stage fright, like some nervous actor on the opening night of a new play. Job applicants often look upon the interviewer as some kind of ogre who enjoys making interviewees squirm in their seats, a kind of figure to be looked up to and revered. This negative attitude of mind will not help in any way and will only destroy your self-confidence and ensure failure. Anita also mentioned money straight away, which was bad and made her come across as being mercenary. The one question she did volunteer a lot of information about was her upbringing and that was all highly irrelevant. Before we move on, there's something else I wanted to point out and that was the way Anita moved. As she came into the room she sidled nervously up to the desk and wasn't quite sure whether to shake hands, sit down or what to do and kept looking nervously around her. Throughout the interview she fidgeted about and kept twiddling the strap on her handbag, which she clutched tightly to herself. Furthermore, she sat on the edge of her seat with hunched shoulders and a tense look on her face, all of which indicates to the interviewer she is someone who can't handle pressure and responsibility and who appears indecisive and unsure. You have to remember that you've got about ten or fifteen minutes to show what you're made of, and no matter how good you are normally, it's in these vital minutes that you must project the right image. Now we'll take a look at another interview and see what conclusions can be drawn from that one. In this excerpt, Louise Simpson is being interviewed for a job with a book publishing firm by Audrey Maguire of personnel. Louise: I'm Louise Simpson. Audrey: Sit down, please, Miss Simpson. I'm Audrey Maguire. Louise: How do you do? Audrey: When you came in, did you happen to notice all the building work going on? Louise: Yes, I did. Audrey: Well, that's our new office extension and we're moving there within the month, so that's where you'd be working. Loiuise: Yes, I did read about it in the prospectus you sent me about the firm. I'm sure you're looking forward to the move. Audrey: Indeed, yes. Now I'd like to ask you one or two questions about your previous experience, if that's all right? Louise: Go right ahead. Audrey: Have you had any jobs before? Louise: Yes, I worked as a secretary in a lawyer's office as a summer job, primarily to earn some money to see me through college, but I also gained some useful work experience into the bargain. While I was there I did secretarial work and also took a turn on the reception desk, to help out, and it was very enjoyable meeting people in this way to vary the routine.

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Audrey: Did you like working in the lawyer's office? Louise: From the career point of view it was good to get to know how an office works, but I've always wanted to be in publishing really, which is why I applied for this job. Audrey: Now, can you tell me ... Robert: I think we've seen enough to make the distinction between Louise and Anita you saw in the previous slip. Louise gives a totally different image, an image of self-confidence without being too cocky, and she was conducting herself in a relaxed and friendly way. She talked to the interviewer in a normal manner, which was fluent and without the terrible 'ums' and 'ers' of Anita. She also gave the impression that she was there to exchange information with the interviewer rather than be interrogated. She wanted to know if the company was going to suit her as much as they wanted to know if she would suit them. Her clothes were sober and neat, without being too frumpy, and she was relaxed and casual without being too laid-back so that it would appear she didn't care. She had also taken the trouble to read the prospectus she'd been sent, which didn't hurt at all. The basic point about an interview is that it shouldn't be a question-and-answer routine, a boss and servant session, but a coming together of two personalities. It's the 'swan technique' which projects the best image in my view, serene on the surface but paddling like mad underneath. And now I'd like to come to the problem of ... It is an election day and the Americans of all fifty states are going to the polls. Election observers have predicted a light to moderate turnout, of about forty percent. But some counties' election officials we talked this afternoon were more optimistic. "I'm in Lamar, Colorado. It's raining. It's a very grey day. I think we are going to have a real good turnout if the weather doesn't getting worse." "I'm the county auditor in the north-eastern portion of Aberdeen, South Dakota, Brown County, South Dakota. Our turnout in Brown County is absolutely fantastic at this point. The weather is cooperating, is absolutely gorgeous, in South Dakota, sun-shining, crisp beautiful day. Couldn't have ordered anything finer?" "We are in Shelby, Montana, the county seat of Toole County. The weather is 59 degrees today, no snow anywhere in our area. It's beautiful. No windy. We expected a very good turnout today." And it's a small exemplar there. Thirty-six states will elect governors today, in addition there are hundreds of local contests and battle issues to be decided. But the control in the United States senate remains the major item of national interest. A third of the senate, thirty-four seats, will be decided today. Republicans who have held their slim majority in the senate for the past six years are defending twenty-two of those seats. Democrats need a net gain of four seats to win control. According to the latest pre-election polls, the closest senate races were in these nine states, Washington, Idaho, North and South Dakota, North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, California and Colorado. This would be the most closely watched tonight as county election officials turn their attention from watching the skies to counting the ballots. Listening and Understanding A student learning English often finds the following problems when he listens to talks or lectures. Firstly, he doesn't always identify all the words correctly. I refer here to known words. i.e. words which the student would certainly recognize in print. Let's examine some of the reasons for this particular difficulty. In writing, there are clear spaces between each word; in speech, one word runs into the next. It's very difficult to decide, therefore, where one word finishes and the next one begins. In writing, the words consist of letters of the alphabet. These letters have a fixed shape: they're easy to identify. In speech, however, vowel and consonant sounds are often very difficult to identify. Some of these sounds may not exist in the student's native language. Many of them, particularly the vowel sounds, are given different pronunciations by different English speakers. Finally, some words in English, words like 'and' or 'there' or 'are' or 'will' are frequently pronounced with their weak or reduced form in speech. This is sometimes so short that non-native speakers, perhaps not accustomed to it, fail to recognize it at all. Many students, for example, don't
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recognize the normal pronunciation / 5TErE / for the words 'there are' which occur at the beginning of so many English sentences. Furthermore, they encounter a similar problem with unstressed syllables which are part of a longer word. For instance, think of the word 'cotton', which is spelt 'c-o-t-t-o-n'. I'll repeat that: 'c-o-t-t-o-n'. Each letter is the same size; no difference is made between the first syllable 'cot-' and the second syllable '-ton'. In speech, however, the first syllable is stressed, the second is unstressed. The work is not pronounced 'cot-ton' but 'COTn'. The same is true for the word 'carbon', spelt 'c-a-r-b-o-n'; it's not pronounced 'car-bon' but 'CAR bn'. But I want now to come on to the second main problem; the difficulty of remembering what's been said. Again, the problem here is much less difficult in the written rather than the spoken form. Words on a page are permanently fixed in space. They don't disappear like words that are spoken. They remain in front of you. You can choose your own speed to read them whereas in listening you've got to follow the speed of the speaker. A difficult word, or sentence, on the printed page can be read again, whereas a word not clearly heard is rarely repeated. The listener, therefore, finds that he has to concentrate so hard on identifying the words correctly and on understanding them that he has little time left to remember. In a foreign language his brain simply has too much to do. In his own language, of course, he's able not only to identify and understand the words automatically but also he can often even predict the words which are going to come. His brain, therefore, has much more time to remember. Thirdly, I want to deal with a problem that worries most students in a lecture. The problem is this—they can't always follow the argument. This is, of course, partly due to the first two difficulties I've discussed. When you have difficulty in identifying or remembering words and sentences, you obviously won't be able to follow the argument. But even those students who can do these two things perfectly well have problems in following a quite straightforward argument. Why is this? I'll suggest three reasons here. Firstly, students don't always recognize the signals which tell the listener that certain points are important. Some of these signals will be quite different from those employed in writing. Secondly, some students try too hard to understand everything. When they come to a small but difficult point, they waste time trying to work it out, and so they may miss a more important point. Thirdly, students must concentrate very hard on taking notes and therefore may miss developments in the argument. But note-taking is a separate subject which will be dealt with in a later talk. There are, however, other problems the student is faced with, which I'd like to mention briefly. It's always a surprise to students to discover how much the pronunciation of English changes from one English-speaking country to another, and from region to region. Many lecturers from Britain have a B.B.C. type accent, the type of English associated mainly with the South of England and most commonly taught to non-native speakers. However, other lecturers will speak differently. To give an example / bQs /, / lQv /, / mQm / etc., as spoken in the south, are pronounced in Manchester and many other parts as / bRs /, / lRv / and / mRm /, Southern English / ^rB:s /, / fB:st /, / pB:W / are pronounced in Yorkshire and elsewhere as / ^rAs /, / fAst / and / pAW /. It's worth noticing that it's usually the vowels which have variants, though sometimes it may be the consonants. For instance, a Scotsman will roll his 'r's', whereas a Londoner won't. So a lecturer with a particularly strong regional accent will cause non-native speakers considerable difficulty. Whether a student follows a lecture easily or not depends also on the style of English the lecturer uses. By 'style' I mean the type of English chosen to express an idea: at one extreme it may be very formal, at the other colloquial or even slang. Generally speaking, the more formal the style, the easier it is for the student to understand. For example, a lecturer who says, formally, 'This is undoubtedly the writer's central point' will be readily understood. On the other hand if he says, 'That's really what the writer's on about, many students will have difficulty in understanding. Other factors, which I haven't the time to discuss in detail, may also be involved. These include the speed at which the lecture is delivered, the rather common use of irony, the peculiarly English sense of humour, references which presuppose a knowledge of British culture, etc. All these factors combine to make it a formidable task for students to follow lectures comfortably. It's clearly helpful to be aware of the problems and to get as much practice as possible in listening to and trying to understand spoken English.

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Lesson 29 Linda: Oh, yes, I remember. We were conducting a survey into the, the needs of disabled people in the borough (Yes) in which I work in London. And we got a request from an old man to go along and, and see him in connection with this survey. Well, some of the people that I'd seen on the survey before were really quite poor and lived in very bad housing conditions. (Yes) They were also ... tended to be elderly and to really have some quite bad disabilities, so I was quite prepared for, for anything I thought that I might meet. Anyway, I went along to, to this house and it was not at all what I'd expected. It was a, a large house and really had an air of fa, faded gentility about it. It was in a part of the borough which had (Really?) once been quite fashionable. Er, I knocked at the door and the old man, Mr. Sinclair, came to, to let me in and showed me into a back room, which he lived in. The rest of the house, I think, must have been shut up and he was just living in one or two rooms. (How extraordinary!) Anyway, we started the interview which I had to, to conduct with him and he was very, very willing to talk but he never stopped grumbling. He grumbled about ... young people, about the rising cost of living, about the government, about how the area had gone down, and so on and so forth. He didn't seem to have a good word to say for anybody at all. (S ... ) Janet: Got a real chip on his shoulder? Linda: Well, he was. He was a really grumpy old man and not very likeable with it. But he was ... rather frail and in his eighties and ... I just accepted that perhaps, you know, he'd had a hard life in, in some way an, and hadn't really resolved it. Anyway, I left the, er, the house and went back to the office, wrote up the interview and didn't think any more about it. And then about a week later, I got a phone call from him saying that he thought he'd left out some important things about himself (Really?) that I should know, and would I go and see him again. So I explained that it was a survey that we were doing and that it wasn't really very usual to go back and see somebody a second time, but if he felt it was really important then, of course, I would go. (Yeah) So I went along and exactly the same thing happened as had happened before. He showed me into the back room and he started grumbling again and this went on for about half an hour and I began to wonder why on earth he'd asked me to go back a second time. Janet: He didn't tell you anything new about himself? Linda: Well, he ... after about half an hour he started. He said, 'I, I expect you wonder why I've asked you to come back,' (Quite) and I said, 'Well, as a matter of fact, yes I do.' So he said, 'Well, I think I should tell you a bit about myself and perhaps explain why I, I seem to have a chip on my shoulder,' which took me aback, back a bit, you know. Anyway, apparently, he had come from a, a family which was ... really quite well-to-do but not spectacularly rich and his father had a, a small grocery business and had supported his mother and, and his two sisters. Well, his mother and father both died quite early on in his life and he took over the business (Yes) and it fell to him, of course, to support his two sisters. (Yes) Well, gradually the, the business began to, to flourish. He opened up new lines in the shops, he bought in some foreign foods and he (He ... ) acquired new premises. Janet: He really built the whole thing up. Linda: Well yes. He didn't become a multimillionaire or anything like that, but he was certainly very comfortably off. Anyway, he ... one of his sisters got married and the other sister emigrated to Australia but he himself never, never married. Janet: He just stayed on in the house by himself? Linda: He stayed on in, in this house which had been the family house for a number of years. Janet: Completely alone?
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Linda: Completely alone, yes. And he ... really cut himself off from his friends, or friends of the family, because he was giving all day, every day, to the growth of his business. So he kept going for a number of years but eventually, of course, he began to, to grow older and with age came arthritis (Oh dear) and ... gradually the, the condition worsened and he became more and more in pain, more and more frail but he still battled on, I think, for a number of years (Yes) but eventually he was forced to give up. And it left him completely alone. He was still, of course, well off, (Yes) but that wasn't in itself enough, and while he was telling me this he was, he was so upset because he'd remembered when telling me the excitement and the thrill he'd felt (Yes) when he was completing these transactions, of what it m, meant to be both powerful, respected and really somebody of note (Yes) in the area, whereas now he was old, (H...) frail, in pain. Janet: He'd lost everything. Linda: Yes, he had. His, his neighbours were very good to him, but it wasn't that that he wanted. (No) And I felt so ... helpless because it wasn't that he needed more money, it wasn't that he really needed visitors—he didn't particularly want visitor. (No) What he wanted was to be, to be young again and to be in a position of, of building something up and seeing the results (Yes) from it. Janet: Oh, what a sad story! Los Angeles police yesterday added a new name to the list of victims of what they believe is a new serial killer. Like the first four victims Joseph Griffin was a homeless man shot on the head while sleeping alone. NPR's Salas Wason reports from Los Angeles. Early this month the police department sent notices to every homeless shelter about the transient killer. Staff member Marcotte Tears reads from the Xerox post near the check-in window at the Union Rescue Mission down town. "Four men have been shot in the head in the last three weeks. The men were all transients and sleeping alone at the time of the killings. Please tell everyone in this chapel and those along the streets to come indoors at night to any of the missions or shelters. When they are full please tell the men to group together, not to be alone at night, but huddle for safety. The lives of the men may depend upon their following these instructions." Since that notice was distributed, police have searched their records and added five more victims to the list. Except for the victim added yesterday they are not transients, but they were all shot while out on the streets in the early morning hours. Commander William Booth, a spokesman for the police department, won't confirm it, but reportedly all the men were shot with a small caliber gun. So far Booth said the task force working on the case doesn't have many clues and only a little bit of information about the murderer. "Frankly not nearly enough. We have a brief description: a male black, who is tall, slim, a hundred fifty to a hundred and seventy pounds, twenty-five to thirty years old. With a medium to large Afro haircut." The first victim was shot on September 4th, the most recent October 7th. The crime took place in several Los Angeles neighborhoods. All five homeless men killed were sleeping outside downtown. Not in the skid road area, but nearby. Although the city's transients have been urged to sleep in shelters, there are thousands more men than beds are available. And not all the homeless choose to stay in the shelters. Still most of the men at the Union Rescue Mission know about the transient killer and admit to some concern. Los Angeles police are still looking for another serial murderer. This outside slayer is suspected of killing seventeen women, mostly prostitutes during the past three years. I'm Salas Wason in Los Angeles. How to Present a Seminar Paper In this talk, I am going to give some advice on how to present a seminar paper. At one time, most university teaching took the form of giving formal lectures. Nowadays, many university teachers try to involve their students more actively in the learning process. One of the ways in which this is done is by conducting seminars. In a seminar, what usually happens is

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this. One student is chosen to give his ideas on a certain topic. These ideas are then discussed by the other students (the participants) in the seminar. What I'd like to discuss with you today is the techniques of presenting a paper at a seminar. As you know, there are two main stages involved in this. One is the preparation stage which involves researching and writing up a topic. The other stage is the presentation stage when you actually present the paper to your audience. It is this second stage that I am concerned with now. Let us therefore imagine that you have been asked to lead off a seminar discussion and that you have done all the necessary preparation. In other words you have done your research and you have written it up. How are you going to present it? There are two ways in which this can be done. The first method is to circulate copies of the paper in advance to all the participants. This gives them time to read it before the seminar, so that they can come already prepared with their own ideas about what you have written. The second method is where there is no time for previous circulation, or there is some other reason why the paper cannot be circulated. In that case, of course, the paper will have to read aloud to the group, who will probably make their own notes on it while they are listening. In this talk, I am going to concentrate on the first method, where the paper is circulated in advance, as this is the most efficient way of conducting a seminar; but most of what I am going to say also applies to the second method; and indeed may be useful to remember any time you have to speak in public. You will probably be expected to introduce your paper even if it has been circulated beforehand. There are two good reasons for this. One is that the participants may have read the paper but forgotten some of the main points. The second reason is that some of the participants may not in fact have had time to read your paper, although they may have glanced through it quickly. They will therefore not be in a position to comment on it, unless they get some idea of what it is all about. When you are introducing your paper, what you must not do is simply read the whole paper aloud. This is because: Firstly, if the paper is a fairly long one, there may not be enough time for discussion. From your point of view, the discussion is the most important thing. It is very helpful for you if other people criticize your work: in that way you can improve it. Secondly, a lot of information can be understood when one is reading. It is not so easy to pick up detailed information when one is listening. In other words, there may be lack of comprehension or understanding. Thirdly, it can be very boring listening to something being read aloud. Anyway some of your audience may have read your paper carefully and will not thank you for having to go through all of it again. Therefore, what you must do is follow the following nine points: 1. Decide on a time limit for your talk. Tell your audience what it is. Stick to your time limit. This is very important. 2. Write out your spoken presentation in the way that you intend to say it. This means that you must do some of the work of writing the paper again, in a sense. You may think that this is a waste of time, but it isn't. If a speaker tries to make a summary of his paper while he is standing in front of his audience, the results are usually disastrous. 3. Concentrate only on the main points. Ignore details. Hammer home the essence of your argument. If necessary, find ways of making your basic points so that your audience will be clear about what they are. 4. Try to make your spoken presentation lively and interesting. This doesn't necessarily mean telling jokes and anecdotes. But if you can think of interesting or amusing examples to illustrate your argument, use them. 5. If you are not used to speaking in public, write out everything you have to say, including examples, etc. Rehearse what you are going to say until you are word perfect. 6. When you know exactly what you are going to say, reduce it to outline notes. Rehearse your talk again, this time from the outline notes. Make sure you can find your way easily from the outline notes to the full notes, in case you forget something. 7. At the seminar, speak from the outline notes. But bring both sets of notes and your
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original paper to the meeting. Knowing that you have a full set of notes available will be good for your self-confidence. 8. Look at your audience while your are speaking. The technique to use is this. First read the appropriate parts of your notes silently (if you are using outline notes, this won't take you long). Then look up at your audience and say what you have to say. Never speak while you are still reading. While you are looking at your audience, try to judge what they are thinking. Are they following you? You will never make contact with your audience if your eyes are fixed on the paper in front of you. 9. Make a strong ending. One good way of doing this is to repeat your main points briefly and invite questions or comments. Perhaps I can sum up by saying this. Remember that listening is very different from reading. Something that is going to be listened to has therefore got to be prepared in a different way from something that is intended to be read. Lesson 30 Jane: Now look, er, what's all this, er, story about you and this car I've been hearing so much about? Everybody else has been hearing it, but you haven't told me. (Mhm) John: Well, I was driving to Norwich with a friend, erm, we teach there and, erm, I was driving behind a Lotus Elan sports-car (Yes) on dual-carriageway and, erm, after about, er, three or four miles, er, behind this car, er, we, we left (the) dual-carriageway and, erm, entered a two-way road. And, er, this Lotus suddenly slowed down for no reason whatsoever. (There ...) Jane: Not a side road or anything? John: No, no, no turning off, no lay-bys, and it just slowed down, and, er, I thought, that's, that's odd and, er, I overtook the Lotus, er, slowly and, erm, looked over at the driver, ... and as I did, I saw him slump over the wheel. Jane: Oh, how awful! John: Yes. Jane: So what did you do next? John: So, erm, I pulled into the kerb about thirty yards or so, er, in front of the Lotus (Yes) and, erm...my, er, passenger and myself got out and we, we walked back towards his car. My friend was on the grass verge and, er, I was in the middle of the road. We never even, erm, reached the car. I was about five yards from the car when, er, suddenly, erm, there was a noise of full acceleration and the car just shot forward—nearly ran me down. So I had to leap for my life. I was absolutely shaken because the car must have missed me by about half an inch or so, (I mean), (How dread...) it just shot past me and I saw my car smashed in front of my eyes. (How dreadful!) Yea, just, just smashed to smithereens, pieces of car flying all over the road and, erm, both cars locked together went down the road and there was a bend at the bottom of the road and I thought well, th..., the next thing is going to be a head-on collision. (Yes, of course.) Erm. But, fortunately, nothing came in the opposite direction and, erm, and then both cars went across the road and, erm, up a grass bank, which ... it was quite a tall bank and, erm, and, er, at the top of the bank there was a large hedge. Well, my car left the Lotus a, and literally took off and shot through the hedge (Oh, goodness!) and landed in a ploughed field. (Yes) But the Lotus veered to the left and got stuck in the hedge, in the thick part of the hedge. And, erm, the acceleration was still on full and the back wheels were tearing up the grass verge, throwing mud and soil, earth and grass all over the road, er, it was just, you know, absolutely terrif ... (How terrify...) Yes, (Yes) because the Lotus, erm, radiator burst and, and

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there was steam everywhere; it was like a, like a cloud of steam and smoke, and, er, the first thing, erm, of course, we thought of doing was to get the driver out (Well, of course.) Yes. (Quite) So, erm, we tried to get the passenger door open, (Yes) but it was locked, so we had to climb through the hedge and, er, get round to the driving-door. Well, by that time, there was so much steam we couldn't see, so it was a matter of fumbling in the, in the steam and smoke and thinking any moment the car was going to explode. Jane: Yes, it wasn't on fire, in fact, that, at that point, was it? John: No, no, it wasn't on fire, but, erm, with the noise of the engine, an... and all the steam it was just you know, very, frightening. (Oh, how dreadful!) Erm, well we managed to get the driver out, turn the ignition off. We laid him in the mud actually because it was a ploughed field and, (Yes) er, I ran out in the road and shouted for help and, erm ... er, a car driver told me help, er, was already on its way and, erm, I, er, managed to get blankets from people that had stopped and, er, we tried to make the man comfortable, and erm ... a man appeared shortly afterwards and he was from a nearby American airbase and, er, he was a medical man, so he was able to, erm, (Examine him) e... examine him and, er, I helped him, tried to, you know, er, make the man, er, well, you know, do all we could for the man. Erm ... Jane: He was unconscious, was he? John: Yes, yes; ... and then the police, a... police arrived and (the) fire brigade (Yes) and, er, ... er, we were told to, er, leave the scene by the police and go to the police station and, erm, there we had to make a statement, (Yes, of course.) and, er, I had to have a breathalyser test, and... Jane: But they thought you'd been in the car ... of course they did. Yes. John: Because, because they thought I'd, th... they automatically thought I'd been driving the car (Of course. Yes) and, er, when I told them the story they had to apologize for giving me a breathalyser and they said, 'Gosh,' you know, 'how, how incredible'. Jane: So, what happened to the man? John: And, erm, we were in the middle of making the statements and, erm, the telephone rang and the, the policeman, erm, was told that, that the man was dead, (Oh!) and, erm, and then two days later we had to attend a Coroner's inquest where we were told that the man had died of a heart attack and, in fact, he was dead, erm, before he crashed into my car. Jane: Oh-h-h! What an alarming story! How dreadful! John: Yes. Today the Federal Aviation Administration reviewed that five air traffic controllers based in Kansas City have been taken off the job because of drug use. Earlier this month thirteen controllers at the southern California centre were removed from their jobs for off-duty drug use. Also today the FAA continued to investigate alleged drug use at the nation's sixth largest airlines, US Air. NPR's Wendy Kaufman reports. "Drug use, even off-duty, is banned for controllers under Federal Aviation Administration rules. So far the FAA has conducted investigations into alleged drug use by controllers at two facilities—Palmdale in southern California and now Kansas City. In southern California thirty-four controllers were taken off their radar scopes. Pending the outcome of investigation, thirteen tested positive for drugs, and we were told they could quit or enter a treatment program, or opt for treatment. In Kansas City thirty-six controllers were investigated. The five who tested positive for drugs have all agreed to undergo treatment. Three controllers are still under investigation. The proportion of drug users is small. Of the roughly five hundred controllers at the two facilities only seventy were suspect, and of those only eighteen tested positive for drugs. Air traffic control supervisors say they don't see drug use as a serious problem
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in their work force. Still as one FAA official put it, one drug user is one too many. Right now there is no routine drug testing for controllers though that will change around the first of the year. There will be pre-employment urine test and test along with the annual physical exam. According to the FAA, there has never been a fatal accident involving a major US airline in which alcohol or drug abuse was a factor for the controllers or for the pilots. But there have been a sizeable number of fatal accidents in which commuter pilots, air taxi pilots and private pilots had been drinking, and a much smaller number of cases in which drugs were a factor. On another matter, drug use, or, more precisely, alleged drug use by flight crews at US Air has been front-page news in Pittsburgh, the airline's operating base. A grand jury is conducting an investigation into alleged drug use, sales and distribution. Over the weekend, a Pittsburgh press newspaper quoted area hospital officials, who said they had treated about twenty US Air flight crew members for cocaine overdoses. US Air acknowledges that one pilot nearly died of an overdose. He had last flown on September 7th, and was taken to the hospital on September 10th. The airline has removed him from flight duty, and the FAA is considering revoking his medical certificate that would mean he could not fly any aircraft. Meanwhile the FAA is conducting an investigation of the airline and is working with the grand jury and the FBI. I'm Wendy Kaufman in Washington. Lectures and Note-taking Note-taking is a complex activity which requires a high level of ability in many separate skills. Today I'm going to analyse the four most important of these skills. Firstly, the student has to understand what the lecturer says as he says it. The student cannot stop the lecture in order to look up a new word or check an unfamiliar sentence pattern. This puts the non-native speaker of English under a particularly severe strain. Often—as we've already seen in a previous lecture—he may not be able to recognize words in speech which he understands straight away in print. He'll also meet words in a lecture which are completely new to him. While he should, of course, try to develop the ability to infer their meaning from the context, he won't always be able to do this successfully. He must not allow failure of this kind to discourage him however. It's often possible to understand much of a lecture by concentrating solely on those points which are most important. But how does the student decide what's important? This is in itself another skill he must try to develop. It is, in fact, the second of the four skills I want to talk about today. Probably the most important piece of information in a lecture is the title itself. If this is printed (or referred to) beforehand the student should study it carefully and make sure he's in no doubt about its meaning. Whatever happens he should make sure that he writes it down accurately and completely. A title often implies many of the major points that will later be covered in the lecture itself. It should help the student therefore to decide what the main point of the lecture will be. A good lecturer, of course, often signals what's important or unimportant. He may give direct signals or indirect signals. Many lecturers, for example, explicitly tell their audience that a point is important and that the student should write it down. Unfortunately, the lecturer who's trying to establish a friendly relationship with his audience is likely on these occasions to employ a colloquial style. He might say such things as 'This is, of course, the crunch' or 'Perhaps you'd like to get it down'. Although this will help the student who's a native English-speaker, it may very well cause difficulty for the non-native English speaker. He'll therefore have to make a big effort to get used to the various styles of his lecturers. It's worth remembering that most lecturers also give indirect signals to indicate what's important. They either pause or speak slowly or speak loudly or use a greater range of intonation, or they employ a combination of these devices, when they say something important. Conversely, their sentences are delivered quickly, softly, within a narrow range of intonation and with short or infrequent pauses when they are saying something which is incidental. It is, of course, helpful for the student to be aware of this and for him to focus his attention accordingly. Having sorted out the main points, however, the student still has to write them down. And he has to do this quickly and clearly. This is, in fact, the third basic skill he must learn to develop. In order to write at speed most students find it helps to abbreviate. They also try to select only those words which give maximum information. These are usually nouns, but sometimes verbs or adjectives. Writing only one point on each line also helps the student to understand his notes when he comes to

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read them later. An important difficulty is, of course, finding time to write the notes. If the student chooses the wrong moment to write he may miss a point of greater importance. Connecting words or connectives may guide him to a correct choice here. Those connectives which indicate that the argument is proceeding in the same direction also tell the listener that it's safe time to write 'Moreover', 'furthermore', 'also', etc., are examples of this. Connectives such as 'however', 'on the other hand' or 'nevertheless' usually mean that new and perhaps unexpected information is going to follow. Therefore, it may, on these occasions, be more appropriate to listen. The fourth skill that the student must develop is one that is frequently neglected. He must learn to show the connections between the various points he's noted. This can often be done more effectively by a visual presentation than by a lengthy statement in words. Thus the use of spacing, underlining, and of conventional symbols plays an important part in efficient note-taking. Points should be numbered, too, wherever possible. In this way the student can see at a glance the framework of the lecture. The Way We Were Memories, light the corners of my mind, Misty water colour memories, Of the way we were, Scattered pictures of the smiles we left behind, Smiles we gave to one another, For the way we were, Can it be that it was all so simple then, Or has time rewritten every line, If we had the chance to do it all again, Tell me, would we, could we. Memories may be beautiful and yet, What's too painful to remember, We simply choose to forget, So it's the laughter we will remember, Whenever we remember the way we were, The way we were. Lesson 31 Denise: On the contrary, I don't agree at all with people who say graphology is all nonsense. I think that at last it is beginning to be taken seriously as a proper science and not as some kind of fairground entertainment. Leo: How did you start to become interested in graphology? Denise: I've always been fascinated by people and what they are like, and then one day I was just looking at a book about different styles of handwriting and I got to thinking that it must all mean something, because we all have a different and individual style of our own. So that's how I began. Leo: What exactly is the connection between the way we write and the way we are? Denise: If you think about it, our handwriting, and our doodling too, are all products of our brain—a kind of extension of ourselves on paper, so, consciously or unconsciously, we are giving a kind of 'computer printout' of what we think or feel when we write. As the brain is where our thoughts and feelings lie, there is every reason to assume that our character is transmitted into our handwriting. Leo: Now I know that a number of European firms have used graphology to evaluate potential employees for some time now, but I believe it's catching on in America too.
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Denise: I'm now running my own San Francisco-based consultancy firm, which I started a decade ago, and now over two hundred firms come to me for advice on would-be employees. Leo: How does it work out, then? Do they show you samples of an applicant's handwriting? Denise: Yes, most companies nowadays require their new job applicants to provide at least a one-page writing sample which is then passed over to me for interpretation. Leo: How long does it take you to analyse a sample? Denise: Oh, anything from three to eight hours, depending on the amount of detail required by the client. Leo: And what can you tell from the sample you get? Denise: A whole range of personality traits can be assessed, such as enthusiasm, ambition, imagination, diligence, sincerity, secretiveness—just about everything, in fact. Leo: Can you give us some tell-tale clues about the way we write? I'm sure our listeners will all be dying to hear something. Denise: OK, you just write the letter 't', not a capital but an ordinary 't', please, Leo. Leo: All right. There you are. Now what can you tell me from that? Denise: Mmm ... well, the 't' you've written, which is more or less straight up and crossed with a diagonal stroke from south-west to north-east, as it were, indicates an optimistic kind of character to me. Would you describe yourself in that way? Leo: Mmm, yes, I think so. Can you describe any other kinds of 't' for the benefit of our listeners? Denise: Yes, of course. If, for example, you had written a 't' but crossed it only with a stroke on the left of the vertical stem, which didn't even reach it in fact, that would indicate a procrastinating character, someone who puts things off until tomorrow. Inefficiency can be identified by a 't' where there are two vertical strokes in the stem, reaching up to a rounded point, and then crossed right through. Mmm, what else can I say? A thick cross on the left of the stem, tapering to a point on the right of the stem, tells me that the writer is a sarcastic kind of person. Another thing is that a very practical sort of person always crosses his 't' halfway down the letter, whereas a 't' crossed high up the stem shows a dreamer. The letters 'm' and 'n' are also indicative of personality, depending on whether they are rounded or wedge-shaped. Leo: I see. That's most interesting. Denise: One little success story of mine, which I must tell you about, concerns Royal Office Products of New York. They once took a big chance on my analysis of an applicant's writing. His name was Harry Benson, in fact, and he was after an executive job, and he was a person they would never have taken on otherwise ... because he came across very badly orally and in his appearance. However, on the strength of my interpretation of his writing they took him on, and now, only a few years later, he's already President of the company. Leo: I'd like now to turn to doodling because most of us doodle away merrily, quite absentmindedly, and hear what you have to say about that.

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Denise: Oh, you can tell a great deal about people from their doodles as well as their handwriting. The doodle, to my mind, is a message straight from the subconscious. The reason you are feeling the way you are is always written in your doodles. Leo: Can you give us some indication of what you mean? Denise: Take, for example, very angular or tangled horizontal lines ... Now, if a person when doodling does a lot of them, it is very indicative of hidden anger and frustration. Arrows, when drawn, stand for ambition, and when they are aimed in a lot of different directions, this will mean confusion in reaching goals. Leo: Before we started the programme, I happened to be doodling on this pad here. What does that tell you about me? —that's if you can repeat it! (Laughs). Denise: Well, let me see. You have drawn a very detailed and symmetrical design which tells me, superficially at any rate, that you are a very orderly and rather precise person—a conformist, if you like—who doesn't like chaos and has to have everything planned. Leo: Yes, well, you're right to some extent. I've got one or two others here done by people in the studio. What can you say about them? Denise: This one here, which has lots of little stars on it—now, they generally represent hope. And here, on this one, somebody has drawn a human eye, which is indicative of a suspicious or distrustful nature. Leo: I'd better not tell you who is the artist, then! Denise: Now, in this one, somebody has drawn a little human figure, which probably means they make friends very easily—and enemies too, incidentally. Leo: Does everybody doodle? Denise: Most people do it because they are bored, but some do it more than others. Creative people like architects or fashion designers do a great deal of aimless doodling, whereas writers, on the other hand, do very little because they have a way of expressing themselves in words. I think probably people with disabilities are the best doodlers, because their normal outlets are blocked. Leo: What about actual writing implements, does it make any difference what you choose to write with? Denise: Indeed, yes. If you give people a choice of writing implements—say a pencil, a felt tip or an ordinary pen—the middle-of-the-roaders will go for the ordinary pen, those who want to leave the biggest impression with the least amount of work will take the felt tip. As for pencils, I won't say it's true in every case, some pencil users aren't very honest; pencils can be erased, you see, so it's a way of leaving no traces. Criminals will almost always choose a pencil, although of course I'm not suggesting that all pencil users are criminals, of course. Leo: Well, thank you very much, Denise. That was very interesting, and I'm sure from now on we'll all be careful not to leave our doodles lying around. The number of adult smokers in the United States keeps going down, down, down, almost twenty percent in the past decade, according to a new survey by the American Cancer Society. Their report based on the government's statistics shows that, while more and more women are taking up the smoking habit, more than enough men are quitting to make up for it. But that news about the women troubles Dr Ervin Mann, an obstetrician at Paxtang, Pennsylvania and he decided to do something about it. If you are a pregnant woman and if you smoke cigarettes, then Dr Mann will make you an offer that he hopes you can't refuse. "What we will do is, if you will not smoke throughout your pregnancy, then we'll offer you one
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hundred dollars off the obstetric bill." "And how much is the typical bill, so how big is this discount going to be?" "Basically the obstetric bill is one thousand two hundred dollars. So it's a little less than ten percent." "What inspired you to try this hundred-dollar rebate?" "We know that smoking during pregnancy results in lower birthrate incense. In other words because of smoking babies are small at birth. And that's the one thing we really know. There have been other things that've been implicated that there is increasing birth defects in smoking women." "You should explain to me, explain to our listeners why that is of a concern to a doctor, or to a mother and her baby?" "We know that smaller weight babies have more difficulty in thriving in an early life, so that it takes both babies who are light in weight at the time of birth, will take at least a year of good care before they will come up to the standards." "So what are the results, does money talk in this case, or are women in your practice buying the idea?" "Well, money partially talks. We have had seventy-five women who have completed their pregnancy who have previously smoked. And of these seventy-five women, thirty-five of them have gone without smoking during the pregnancy." "Ah, so they're getting the hundred dollars." "They are getting the hundred dollars back. Certainly we haven't had any low birth weight children in that group of patients." "How do you know for sure that those thirty-five women have indeed not smoked at all? Maybe they're misleading you." "It's all an honor system. Each time they come for an examination they reaffirm their refusal to smoke. And certainly we trust those patients and feel that they are following it. Other patients, of course, have stated they have started smoking again. So I think it's a pretty good cross section." "And just one more thing. When, if we come back to you in a year from now, how much do you think..." "I can improve those figures." "Let me ask you this though, How much do you think you will be paying women to stop smoking?" "Well, we'll probably be raising it up to two-hundred or two-hundred-fifty-dollar range, I would think." Ervin Mann is an obstetrician at Paxtang, Pennsylvania. Marriage Customs Today we are going to look at the social custom of marriage from a sociological point of view. All societies make provisions for who may mate with whom. The benefits of the social recognition of marriage for children are obvious. It gives them an identity, membership of a socially recognized group and some indication of who must support them and their mother. Now almost all societies have marriage, but there are wide variations in marriage systems. I will give three of the important areas of variation, and some details of each area. The three areas I shall deal with are: firstly, the number of mates each marriage partner may have; secondly, the locality of the marriage (that is, where do the newly married partners set up home?); and thirdly, what arrangements there are for the transfer of wealth after the marriage. Let me deal with each of these in turn. First, how many mates? In existing human societies there are three possibilities. Most societies recognize POLYGYNY, and that's spelt P-O-L-Y-G-Y-N-Y, POLYGYNY, or the right of a man to take more than one wife. In a few societies (not in Africa) there is POLYANDRY, and that's spelt P-O-L-Y-A-N-D-R-Y, POLYANDRY, in which a woman is married to two or more men at the same time. Finally, especially in Europe and societies of European origin, there is MONOGAMY, and that's spelt M-O-N-O-G-A-M-Y, MONOGAMY. Monogamy limits one man to one wife and vice-versa. The second area of variation is, as we have said, the locality of the marriage. Here there seem to be three possibilities: at the husband's home, at the wife's home, or in some new place. The old term for the arrangement when a wife moves to her husband's family's household is a PATRILOCAL marriage, and that's spelt P-A-T-R-I-L-O-C-A-L, PATRILOCAL; a more modern term is VIRILOCAL, and we spell that

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V-I-R-I-L-O-C-A-L, VIRILOCAL. The opposite, when the man moves, is termed MATRILOCAL, and we spell that M-A-T-R-I-L-O-C-A-L, MATRILOCAL, or UXORILOCAL, and that's spelt U-X-O-R-I-L-O-C-A-L, UXORILOCAL marriage. The third possibility when they set up a new household somewhere else is called NEOLOCAL marriage, and that's spelt N-E-O-L-O-C-A-L, NEOLOCAL. The last area of variation is transfer of wealth on marriage. Here, once more, we seem to have three possibilities. Firstly we have BRIDEWEALTH, and that's spelt B-R-I-D-E-W-E-A-L-T-H, BRIDEWEALTH. In this system wealth is transferred by the husband or his relatives to the bride's family. This, of course, is the system familiar in Africa. We should remember that the bridewealth may take the form of the husband's labour services to his father-in-law rather than giving cattle or money. In some other societies the opposite system prevails and the wife brings with her a portion or DOWRY, and that's spelt D-O-W-R-Y, DOWRY, in the form of money or other wealth such as land. This was the system of, for example, traditional European societies, and is still practised in the Irish countryside. The third possibility is for the transfer of wealth to take the form of gifts to help the young couple set up the new household. This system is associated with the neolocal type of marriage. In England, these gifts are called wedding-presents. The near kin, that is, the near relatives, of both bride and groom contribute and so do friends, neighbours and workmates. The presents customarily take the form of useful household goods, such as saucepans, tea sets or blankets. Lesson 32 Interviewer: Could you tell me how we should keep fit? Dr. Davis: Well really what we should do is to try to erm keep fit all round. Now what do I mean by that? I mean er such things as keeping up our strength and our suppleness and our stamina. Now er you may say why do we need all three of those things? Well, erm strength is useful really just so that we erm don't strain muscles or pull ligaments and tendons when we suddenly have to do something er a bit energetic like lift a heavy suitcase or er perhaps er shift a wardrobe or even get out of a chair or a bath. Erm. Suppleness is important er obviously so that you can can bend and and move freely and reach things, again without injuring yourself. And stamina is particularly important so that you can sort of keep going without ... without losing breath so you have you have endurance. One other great plus about developing stamina is that if you er maintain your stamina over a period of years, it actually has an effect of protecting the heart against heart disease. Interviewer: So out of those three, which is the most important? Dr. Davis: Well, it depends who you are and what you want to do. I mean, the ... the reason for keeping fit is to keep fit for your way of life, the life you choose. Now, you may say 'Well, if I choose to sort of flop about in an armchair all day watching telly, I don't need to keep very fit, do I?' Well, that's unfortunately not true because there are always times when you have to make a little bit of extra demand on your body. Erm by force of circumstance. You may have to suddenly lift something heavy or move something or may have to er run for a bus or whatever. In which case you could do yourself an injury and you may even actually erm harm something important, like your heart. So it is important to actually to try to keep your fitness a little bit ahead of the sort of erm way of life that you have. Just to give you ... to push yourself just that little bit harder and get yourself just that little bit fitter. Interviewer: So how do you do it? Dr. Davis: Well it doesn't have to be all grim and irksome. I mean, people have this view of fitness er freaks you know, who sort of are jogging grim-faced round the park you know, or who are er working weights, doing all sorts of horrible exercises you know. PT ... Very grim indeed. It doesn't have to be like that. To keep yourself fit, or get yourself fitter, which is really what it's about, you just have to do a little bit more each day, erm or even every other day for that matter. By a little bit more I mean erm for instance just er walking a bit more often, a bit further, perhaps getting off the bus a stop or two sooner. Erm perhaps er doing a bit of ... a bit of cycling instead of travelling by public transport. Using the stairs instead of going up in the lift. It's surprising the number
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of people that erm I see on the London tube who are actually standing on the escalators going down you know, just standing there slowly going down. And the same with lifts. People who take the lift down I mean, that's ridiculous. You should at least walk down, but preferably walk up, because by walking upstairs you actually perform really quite a useful aerobic exercise, that's an exercise that develops stamina, and that's having a beneficial effect on your whole body, toning you up and helping to protect against heart disease. Interviewer: So it isn't necessary to play squash three times a week or go swimming three times a week? Dr. Davis: It isn't necessary. Er actually swimming is a rather good way of keeping fit because it's particularly excellent for erm all three of the S-Factors if you like, the strength, the suppleness and the stamina. It helps to develop all three of those rather well, and er it's also a very pleasant and relaxing way to keep yourself in shape. Three times a week would be just about right actually, or even twice a week, or even once a week. Em. Squash though is not a good way to get fit. You have to actually get fit to play squash. Squash is a very demanding game. A very very er energetic game, and in fact you could do yourself a lot of damage by playing squash if you're not in good physical shape to start with. Interviewer: I have a lot of friends who play sport, and they always seem to have bad backs and pulled tendons, so what would you say to them? Dr. Davis: I'd say to them they're ... they're going about it the wrong way. Erm. They're forcing themselves into ... into sports, perhaps before they're ready, before they've got themselves in shape first. You have to get in shape to play these sports. Erm. And also for people who force themselves into these things generally. That's bad. Mustn't do that. Whenever you're exercising, or ... or just carrying out some physical activity, never push yourself beyond comfort. Anything that's uncomfortable, don't do it. Stop. Slow down. It's basically got to be fun. I mean, to keep yourself in shape you've got to carry on exercising week in week out, month in month out, year in year out, Now that sounds awful, but if you choose something which you enjoy doing, er, it's fun, then you will keep it up. You see you can't put fitness in the bank as it were. If you don't carry on exercising, all the benefits that you get from exercising will all disappear within about 6 to 8 weeks. All go and you'll be back where you stared so you have to keep it up, and to keep it up, it has to be something you enjoy, it has to be fun. So choose something which you get a lot of pleasure out of, and that way it won't seem irksome at all. Interviewer: What do you do to keep fit? Dr. Davis: Ah well, I'm glad you asked me that question. Actually, what I ... I live in London and I work in London, er so what I what I do to keep fit is to certainly do quite a lot of walking. I certainly walk upstairs er a lot, but also I do a fair amount of cycling, er and as I'm dashing round London I I use the bike. I find it the fastest way to get around town and it's er it's really good for keeping in shape. I'm a little worried about the traffic fumes, I have to admit, but actually er it makes me feel very good to cycle around there and I get there on time! In September bombs went off in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. They were the work allegedly of a group of Neo-Nazis, three of whom now sit in an Idaho jail awaiting trial. While they wait, commentator Clay Morgan has been thinking about the bombings, the bombers and what it all means for his part of the country. I lived in a promised land. We got trouble here right now. Some Neo-Nazis declared the north-west to be the homeland for the white races. In the past several weeks we've had four bombs blow up. The situation here is serious. I had a hope that they just go away. I was embarrassed by the news coverage. Every time I saw a story, I cringed and thought my God this will make four more of them move here. Then the bombs exploded in Coeur d'Alene. Let me describe these people to you. They are men mostly.

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They like to live in forts, and dress up like Hitler. They wear jackboots, brown shirts and military caps. They march around and act tough. What they are is evil. These are the cowardly little boys who never grow up. It is our misfortune that they came here. The north-west attracts these people with all the attributes of a promised land. A promised land you see is a place that's far away, isolated and sparsely populated by people who try to mind their own business. The north-west fits that bill. Ninety percent of some of our states are public lands, owned by everybody. That's everybody. This is a place to breath in. The pioneers came here on the Oregon trail. The Mormons came here to practice their religion. The Basques came here to escape poverty and persecution in Spain. Wyoming was the first state to give women the vote, the first to elect a woman governor. Idaho was the first to have a Jewish governor. Now we are attracting fascists like we were Paraguay. Bad things are happening in a good place. We would like to have the sheriff go to them and say, "Pack up! Clear up! Get out of the state by sundown!" But we cannot. It is not against the law to believe in evil. The white supremacists protected by laws are meant to protect everybody. That's everybody. And we are to keep those laws. We can only watch these creeps and be ready when they make their move. The people who set off those bombs in Coeur d'Alene meant to rob the bank and ransack the armory. But when the bombs went off, the law came down so fast and hard the perpetrators lost their nerve. They got caught. There were several others who were not in jail yet. But we know about them. We can stand up to them. Those bombs did not scare Coeur d'Alene. So get ready for a good ending to a bad story. After all this embarrassment, Coeur d'Alene would be the town that stands up to evil and wins. And this Promised Land, maybe, would drop out the news and we can mind our own business again. Writer Clay Morgan lives in McCall, Idaho. He comes to us by way of member station KBSU in Voizy, Idaho. What Your Sense of Time Tells about You (I) Imagine you are a high school principal. A teacher bursts breathless into your office. "There's a fist fight in the lunchroom," she gasps. The responsibility is yours to stop the fight. How do you meet it? (1) Perhaps you, as a youngster, took part in fights and your present-day ties with students are warm and strong. You can stop the fight because your prestige is high among them. (2) You have a plan prepared. Other schools have been disrupted so you have already planned a way to stop any fight. (3) You are totally confident of your abilities in a crisis. You are ready to stride into the lunchroom and take charge without a single qualm. Stopping the fight will be easy. (4) You fervently wish that you could delegate the job since you know that you're not a talented peacemaker. You wish you could return to the job of planning for the school's needs ten years hence. One of these four reactions would be the first you'd feel, but only one—not two or three of them, say three psychologists. These psychologists—Dr. Harriet Mann, Dr. Humphrey Osmond and Miriam Siegler—have come up with a scheme for sorting people regardless of their education, age or situation. The concept is based on the premise that all people have a basic way of seeing time. Each of us is predisposed to seeing all events from one time vantage point. Either it reminds you of the past (past-oriented), how the event fits in to today, yesterday and tomorrow (time line), what it is today (present), or how it will develop (future). The three began working in 1968 when Dr. Mann and Mrs. Siegler were assistants to Dr. Osmond, director, at the Bureau of Research, New Jersey Neuro-Psychiatric Institute in Princeton. Dr. Osmond is currently devising ways to make empirical studies of the theory and Dr. Mann is in Cambridge, Massachusetts, writing a book on the Worlds of Time. Their take-off point was an interest in observations made by Swiss psychologist Carl Gustav Jung, who described in the 1920s the temperamental differences of four psychological types. Jung is known as the founder of analytic psychology. Since Jung's work in 1921, however, no one had conceived of a theoretical framework that would account for the four types. Without such a framework, there was no possibility of substantiating that people of different types experience the world very differently. Time and space are the touchstones in the system. Each person, after all, uses his time somehow and exists within and acts upon the space around him. Dr. Mann and company propose that certain traits are shared by persons falling in each of the four categories. The first type, the past type, sees time as being circular. For him, the past crops up in the present and then returns to the past as a memory. He enjoys collecting souvenirs and keeping diaries.
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He tells stories about Great Aunt Hattie and always remembers your birthday. Past types are pegged by this system as emotional people who see the world in a highly subjective way. For instance, School Principal I (past type) could identify with the fight and know how to handle it because of some past experience—whether it be similar fights as a child himself or ones previously dealt with as the school principal. In addition, past types usually follow strict moral codes and often are valued more for what they are than for what they do. This quality itself—because it lends authoritarian strength to one who possesses it—might cause the students to quit fighting. Past types often have been found to be skillful at assessing the exact emotional tenor of an event and are adept at influencing others' emotions, according to the Mann group. Research reveals that many past-oriented people are flexible in early years when they do not have much of a personal past to draw upon. However, the dash of youth is often replaced by a need for stability and usually is rooted by age thirty-five or so. From this age onward, they are conservatives. "They need to see things in the ways which were popular, fashionable and appropriate in their younger days," explains Dr. Mann. This applies, with exceptions of course, to personal taste in clothing fashions, music appreciation, and other social and environmental factors. In short, the past type often clings to the well-established way with nostalgic verve. Also, the past type finds it difficult to be punctual since the on-going feeling is more important than his next task. The goal of these people is "to develop a language of the heart, rather than of the mind. To develop those techniques which make memories live, and to dignify any act of remembrance; those are the essential concerns of past-oriented types," explain the authors in the Journal of Analytical Psychology. Lesson 33 Angela: Would you like ... to tell me about it? Denise: Yes, I think ... it's rather a unique experience, actually. I was in New York, er, er, a few years ago and I wanted to read a particular poem, so I went along to the public library. (I see) Now, the public library is different from any, er, library that I'd ever seen, because you never see a book on a shelf, and, er, I went into the building and I was directed to Room 101, where I had to fill in a form with the author and the title of the book that I wanted. I was handed a disc and directed to another room which looked like a cinema. I sat down in this room and waited for the number on my disc to flash on the screen. I waited and waited and waited and noticed that people who came in after me, er, were leaving (Mhm) and so I went back to the original room to find out what had happened and I was told that, erm, they couldn't read the writing on my form, (oh dear) so I filled in another form and was on my way to, er, th, the cinema-like room when, erm, I saw, er, a woman standing in the ... in the corridor. Now she was obviously trying to attract somebody's attention. She was dressed very poorly and she had what looked like, er, a sor..., some kind of fur hat, a rather mangy fur hat, and on this hat was fixed a ra, a crook-like feather, a very, very long crook-like feather. And, er, this, this attracted, er, my attention I think more than anything, so I stopped and asked her if I could help her and she told me what I thought then was a rather a, an appalling story. She'd come in from the outskirts of New York, erm, to see a sick friend, and just as, as she had been coming out of the underground train, the doors had closed and her handbag had been snatched and her umbrella, er, was caught in the closing door. She managed to wrench the umbrella out and a little bit was chipped off. She showed me where it had been chipped off. (M) She said that she had no money to return home and also she'd had nothing to eat all day. So I forgot about the poetry and we went over the road to a little tea-shop. And I must say it was when we got to the tea-shop and I was getting the tea and had left my bag on the chair that I began just to be a tiny little bit suspicious and I looked back at her but she was sitting quite innocently at the table. (M) Anyway, we had a little conversation—she was quite an interesting woman—and then I sa..., I realized that it was about time I was making my way home. So I said to her, 'Well, erm, I've got two dollars and ten dollars. Er, how much will you need?' And she said, 'Well, the ten dollars will do me fine'. I thought that was

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little bit much at the time so I said, 'No, I'll give you the two dollars', which I did. And then we, we, we bade each other good-bye and I was just ... going off when she called me back and said, 'May I, er, take your address, so that I can return the two dollars?' which, er, I gave her and then I went off. I had sundry other things to do. I think I went to a book-shop, and I went to buy a scarf or pair of gloves and, er, er, all these things on my way home and when I got home I was still thinking about the two dollars and I opened my purse to, to count my money and I found that I had about fourteen or fifteen dollars when I'd, when I had only had the twelve when I set off originally. (Mm) (Nasty) So somebody along the way had given me the wrong change. I did think about retracing my steps, but it seemed too much trouble, so I didn't. I waited about a week, half expecting my two dollars back but, of course, it didn't come back, so I realized that, er, I'd been conned, I think the word is. (Yes) Well, a month later, I was walking around—it was the end of January—I was walking around, er, in New York and it really was freezing. I couldn't feel my hands or my feet. So I went into the Barbazon Plaza Hotel to warm myself, because all the buildings in New York are centrally heated, and as soon as I'd got into the hotel, I noticed that the foyer was covered with mirrors and, in one corner of the foyer, I saw this old woman. Now the reason why I recognized her was that she was dressed in a Persian lamb coat this time—very, very expensive Persian lamb coat—and she had a Persian lamb hat on her head. But affixed to this Persian lamb hat was the same long crook-like feather! Angela: How funny! Denise: So I thought to myself, 'Well, it's amazing. I, I, I wonder if I will get the same story if I go over there.' So I went over to the mirror and took out my comb and compact and pretended to set about, er, righting my face, when the lady came up to me and without any ado at all poured out the same story. So I turned to her and looked her straight in the face and I said, 'You and I met a month ago in the public library'. And then I walked off. In this country, today was a day of waiting by voters to learn if their candidate won or lost. That provides more suspense than is typical in elections in Mexico. In that country, the ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party has not lost a single state or national election since its founding in 1929. Critics of the system in Mexico say it is not truly democratic because the opposition parties had virtually no chance of taking power. But those parties have grown stronger in recent years and there is increasing pressure to change the procedures for elections. Today the Mexican Congress began work on a package of reforms that eventually could give opposition parties a greater voice in politics in Mexico. NPR's Tom Julton reports in Mexico City. A week ago Sunday, voters in the Mexican state of Sinaloa elected a new governor. But in a few days, spokesmen for the National Action Party, the opposition, were claiming victory. But yesterday the government announced a different result. The winner, the government said, was the candidate of the ruling party, the PRI, by its initials in Spanish, and by a three-to-one margin. The National Action Party immediately charged that the PRI with the government's help has stolen the election. The accusation has become routine. Opposition parties in Mexico from the left to the right claimed the government here manipulates elections to guarantee that the PRI always wins. Government funds, the opposition says, pay for PRI campaigns, and government employees are forced to support PRI candidates as the price of keeping their jobs. When that is not enough to ensure a PRI victory, opposition leaders say, the government will stuff the ballot boxes, falsify voter registrations or even change the final tally. Government officials say the charges are unfair, but they admit to having a credibility problem both at home and abroad. So Mexican President Miguel de la Madrid announced last summer that he would propose sweeping changes in election system. This morning his suggestions were presented to the Mexican Congress. Some of the proposals satisfy long standing demands of the opposition. The most important may be the introduction of the translucent ballot boxes so that official poll watchers can verify that no one has stuffed the boxes beforehand. A new federal elections commission will be established with the power to judge the fairness of the elections and a permanent list of voters would be prepared with the assistance of all political parties. The reforms would also give opposition parties more representation in the national Congress. Two hundred out of five hundred congressional seats will be awarded to opposition parties in proportion to the number of votes they receive. It's the most ambitious political reform in recent Mexican history but opposition leaders here are still not satisfied. Sisirial Romaro, a Congress woman from the
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National Action Party, says no real reform is possible in Mexico until the bond between the government and its official party the PRI is broken. Opposition leaders today responded to the President's reform package by offering one of their own. They propose that all the seats in the national Congress be distributed in proportion to party votes. And they want the elections to be overseen by a separate tribunal completely independent of the government. But the opposition's proposals have no chance of being approved since the PRI totally controls the national Congress and enacts virtually everything the government proposes. In Mexico City, I'm Tom Julton. What Your Sense of Time Tells about You (II) Time line people see time as flowing, too. For them, however, no one situation is important. Rather, life is a carpet, rolling from the past into the present and onward to the future. Any instance is but a footfall on the carpet. For the time line people, for whom yesterday, today and tomorrow are an integrated whole, the past is not a past of personal feeling. It is the detached, historical past. Any given event must fit into a larger picture, even if pushed and tugged into place. The desire to put events in historical order enables the time line type to frame hypotheses, to draw conclusions and to make predictions; in short, to be scientific. Naturally, only a few are likely to have true scientific insights but all share the mental process, initial research indicates. Before starting any project the time line person examines the whole situation and tries to see it in ideal terms. He wants to make up his mind and arrive at a logical conclusion before he acts. School Principal 2—a time line type—is probably prepared to deal with a fight before it even occurs, since fights among students are a potential hazard in most schools. The desire to envision the whole picture is often seen as a lack of enthusiasm in the time line people. They are often reputed to be cold, detached and uncaring. They are really none of these things. However, they are happiest when they can project their view far forward and far backward in time. You say to your time line father, "Let's buy a boat. Joe saw one that's going to be auctioned this afternoon. It looks great." An inquisition will follow: "Whose boat was it? Has it ever been in a wreck? Is it fiberglass or wood? How do you know it is seaworthy? Where would you use it? How do you know it won't be bid up to a huge price? Does it have a trailer? Have you shopped enough for boats to know if it is a good one? Where would you store it in the winter?" When the questions are through, you probably wish you had never mentioned the boat in the first place, but you know from past experience that a time line person will always ask lots of questions. On the other hand, if you do buy the boat, a time line person is a comfort at the helm. He will have checked all of the safety factors, will know the weather forecast, will have a good liferaft stowed, will have purchased charts of the area, will have seen that extra supplies are available and will know where the best fishing is reported. He will be a competent captain and will know not only his own duties, but the jobs of the crew. The third type of person is the present type. He is totally concerned with the immediate and the present, reports the Mann research team. He has the greatest ability to understand the present moment with all of its shadings and ramifications. This total reliance on the present creates most of his strongest traits. For him, life is a happening. Where it is going, where it comes from, is of little interest. He does not integrate past experiences into present activities. School Principal 3, the one who knew he could take charge, was a present type person. Dr. Mann and her colleagues theorize that this time type responds without hesitation to the stimulus presented by the object or person before him. No prearranged plan or commitment gets in this type's way, according to Mann's research. A present type is superbly equipped to deal with crises and emergencies. He responds to slight cues and acts immediately. He doesn't have to decide between various courses of action. The event itself tells him what to do. Your brother, for example, might be a present type. He is happy as a policeman, making quick decisions and acting promptly. Or he is a volunteer Red Cross organizer, quick with answers in a flood disaster area.

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Because he does not feel any future, even a slight delay will annoy a present type. Waiting is the same as denial. He will not wait. He may try to manoeuvre others into his wishes and, if unable to get his own way, is quite likely to dissolve the relationship. The fourth type is the person who places faith in the future. He first perceives the future and then works backwards from that vision into, for him, the lesser reality of the present. Future types are more concerned with trying to ascertain what is possible rather than what exists now. "For one of this type, the present is a pale shadow, the past a mist, warmth and sunshine, bright lights and excitement are to be found beyond the next bend in the road, on the other side of the mountain. But rounding a bend only leads temporarily to a straight path; there is always another curve," explain the psychologists. All of the life of a future type is spent dashing around the next bend. Principal 4 is a future type, happier with his plans for breaking up future fights than the one that has materialized. If you are a future type, you might have looked at a course catalogue in college and found you lacked a listed prerequisite for just the course you wanted to take. Chances are you were always a little lost because you didn't have the prescribed background. "Why does it have to be typed letter-perfect?" You've always exclaimed when you handed in a paper. You also inspire others with your ideas. If you are active in the local Citizens for Environment, you were the one that dreamed up the biggest fund-raising scheme in years. However, most likely someone else worked out the details because you are terribly impatient with them. If the three psychologists are correct, we have a new tool for understanding one another. It will make it easier to get along with those who basically differ from us. Dr. Osmond envisions a time when we could use the theory to aid in selecting the kind of politician best suited for the current problems. "If we are right," he explains, "there is no such thing as a philosopher-king. You either get a philosopher with an interest in ruling or a king who enjoys philosophy, but you will never get a philosopher-king; it doesn't happen." Lesson 34 Like most of us, I was pretty skeptical about palmistry, and I still am to some extent, but I have found one or two interesting things which I'd like to mention. There are, in fact, three kinds of hand interpretation which have to be considered. Most people tend to think immediately of chiromancy when they hear about palmistry—the study of the lines on the hand. This suffers from a bad press, really, because of the gypsy fortune-teller associations it has, but I will explain more fully about that later. The second type of hand interpretation is called chirognomy. This is concerned with the shape of the hand, the thickness and form of the palm, length of fingers and thumb, flexibility and so on. Then dermatoglyphics is the name given to the study of the ridges and furrows which make a pattern on our hands. It is this, incidentally, which is the basis for police identification of fingerprints and so on. I want to speak briefly today about the first two of these, which is where the bulk of my research was done, and I'll start by saying something about chirognomy. The hand is divided into four areas which I will briefly describe by using this diagram here on the screen. There is, by the way, a connection with astrology. The signs of the Zodiac are, for instance, divided into four distinct groups of three, linked to the four elements, as are modern hand shapes. Now, looking at the diagram, this area here, which includes the little finger, ring finger, half the middle finger and the area below all three, is the inner active area, and this area, area A, relates to close relationships, your love life and your relationship to your partner. Now the second area, B, is called the outer active area around the base of the index finger and the other half of the middle finger, and that relates to our social attitudes, what we might call our relationships to the outside world. Area C is the inner passive area, which lies below the inner active area, and relates to the subconscious part of the mind, and then last of all is the part relating to our energy and our creative potential, area D, which is the outer passive area ... right here, and the area all around the base of the thumb. Now I can already hear you asking yourselves why should there be any connection between us—our character, that is—and our hands. Well, the only possible explanation I can give is that there is a large part of the brain concerned with the hand, and there are more nerve endings in the hand than elsewhere in the body, proportional to size, so it just may be—and I stress may be—that the traffic is two-way; that not only does the brain gain information from the hand, but also passes it back again.
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So, in this way the hand reflects the way the brain operates. Now I'd like to say a word about the fingers, and this is where the connection with astrology can also be seen, in the names given to the individual fingers. These are taken from the names of the old Roman gods, just like the planets' names. The index finger is the finger of Jupiter, and in this can be seen the worldly tendencies of a person—ambition, life energy, prospects for success. The finger of Saturn is the name given to the middle finger, which reveals the presence of saturnine qualities, as the name would suggest—brooding, melancholy, that type of thing. The third finger or ring finger is the one with which we move towards inner concerns, and this is the finger of Apollo or the Sun. And finally, the little finger or finger of Mercury reveals a lot about human relationships. Palmists look, too, at the shape of the fingers and their flexibility and general position in relation to the hand. Look now, if you will, at my second diagram where I've illustrated five types of fingers and I'll try to explain the characteristics people with these types of fingers are supposed to have. Now, the square shape illustrated here, where the nails and finger ends are squared off, this type reflects a cautious, thoughtful kind of person. Secondly, the spatulate type of finger, which you can see here, shaped like a spoon, narrow before the tip and then getting wider and flatter, these are the fingers of energetic and active people. Then the pointed type of finger with the tapering end; this belongs to the sensitive and artistic kind of person. Finger number three with the smooth joints indicates a quick-thinking and impulsive kind of character, and then finally the rather crooked type of finger with the knotty joints means a deep-thinking, dignified and methodical nature. Now I've got another diagram to show you about chirognomy, and that concerns the little bumps we all have on the palm of our hand, which are said to reveal a whole lot about ourselves. Look first, if you will, at the mount of Venus, which is situated at the base of the thumb. This, you may remember, is the area of the hand relating to energy and creativity. Notice, too, the signs used to indicate these bumps: Venus, for example, as in astrology, is shown by the female sign of a circle and a cross underneath it. In the hand where this mount is very flat and under-developed it implies a person with a detached and self-contained nature. Where it is large it implies a person with lots of vitality, and where normal-sized it implies a person who is healthy, warm-hearted and sincere, with plenty of compassion. Moving across to the other side of the hand opposite the mount of Venus but, like it, just above the wrist, is the mount of the Moon. A normal-sized mount of this kind will supposedly be indicative of a sensitive, romantic and imaginative type. If flat, the contrary is indicated, that is, an unimaginative, possibly unstable and even bigoted character. Where it is large, then we can interpret that as being a person who is over-imaginative and introspective. Directly above the mount of the Moon is the upper mount of Mars. It would seem that it's best to have a normal-sized one of these, because if this is the case you are meant to be morally courageous. If it's flat, then you're cowardly, and if it's large you're bad-tempered and cruel. We'll contrast this with the lower mount of Mars on the far side of the hand, above the mount of Venus I spoke about first of all. With this mount, if it's normal size you're meant to be physically brave and not a panicky sort of person; you're violent and argumentative if it's large. and cowardly if it's flat. The other four mounts are at the base of the fingers, the mount of Jupiter lies below the index finger, and next to that the mount of Saturn. Below the ring finger, here, is the mount of Apollo, and then next to that is the mount of Mercury. In the first of these four, the mount of Jupiter, if your mount is flat then that means you are a selfish, lazy individual, and if it's normal that is supposed to indicate enthusiasm, self-confidence and friendliness, whereas if large it would indicate an overbearing and very ambitious nature. The next one right beside it, Saturn, if normal would mean a serious and studious type of personality, and if flat would seem to indicate dullness, and if large a gloomy, reclusive and withdrawn nature, none of which is very promising. The mount of Apollo, when normal, corresponds to a lucky, sunny and pleasant nature, but if flat would indicate a lack of purpose and a philistine nature. Where this mount is large, an extravagant, hedonistic and pleasure-seeking nature would seem to be implied. Finally I'll come to the mount of Mercury, and where this is of normal size it would seem to indicate a lively, persuasive and hard-working character; where flat a gullible and humourless one, and where large a person with a good sense of humour. I'd like now to ... In the Philippines today, Cardinal Haimi Sung, the influential Archbishop of Manila, endorsed

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President Corazon Aquino's efforts to negotiate with Communist insurgence of the New People's Army. Leaders of the Philippine military, however, and members of her own cabinet have criticized Aquino's attempts at negotiation. The NPA rebels had proposed a one-hundred-day cease-fire to begin in December. A group of civilian negotiators and military advisers will meet tomorrow with rebel leaders to discuss the possible truce. Garis Porter, an assistant professor at the American University's School of International Service, says the rebel proposal is a response to President Aquino's earlier offer for a thirty-day cease-fire. "I think they're proposing a hundred-day cease-fire primarily because they want to regain initiative, because they do have to have the appearance of being open to a cease-fire, in fact, being at least as open to cease-fire as the government is. The real question, of course, is what terms the cease-fire will be implemented on. And there is where you are going to find a lot of worms which neither side, I think, is really quite clear on exactly what they're yet ready to settle for." "They suggested five talking points. And some of those talking points I would think could meet with some pretty stiff opposition from the Philippine military." "Well, there's no question that the military is going to oppose, at least a couple of them very strongly." "Such as which one?" "The first one, the most important one, I think for both sides at this point is the disposition of the Philippine military, the New Armed Forces of the Philippines, NAFP, during a cease-fire. The Communists have, from the beginning, made it clear that they would insist on the pull back of NAFP units from areas which they claim to control. And the military, on the other hand, has also made equally clear that they reject any terms which would not allow them to claim clear control of all of the countryside. "Is President Corazon Aquino being naive, as some of her military officials suggest, and thinking that she can negotiate some kind of cease-fire agreement with the Communists that will not ultimately work to their advantage?" "I don't think 'naive' is the term to describe Aquino's policy towards the insurgency. There are two points here. One is that she understands that the intentions of the Communist side are at best unclear in terms of the cease-fire. She understands they have their own interests and cease-fire will fit into those interests in a way that may or may not be an interest to the government. The other point, however, I think this is more important to her and perhaps objectively more important in looking at the situation. She understands that the military on her side is simply not capable of controlling the NPA through military means. And by threatening to unleash the military she may actually be making a threat which does not have much credibility. But I think she would almost do anything possible to put off having to go to primarily military strategy for dealing with the insurgency. So in a sense she is playing for time." "If they manage to agree on a cease-fire, then what happens after that? What happens when the hundred days is up?" "Nobody wants to be the first one to break the cease-fire once it's put into effect. So I think the agreement to a hundred-day cease-fire is, ... has much longer term and much broader implication, if in fact they could come to that agreement, which at this point I think it is still very much up in the air." "If it fails, if it fails, does that mean an escalation in the military complex?" "Well, I think the pressures on Aquino for letting the military go back its preferred strategy, attempting to go on the offensive, to carry out major military operations, particularly in Central Luzon and in the Southern Tagalog, that is south of Manila, is very strong. And that she will probably make concession to the military which will allow it to resume the offenses to, at least, try that out." Garis Porter is assistant professor at the American University's School of International Service in Washington, D.C. Technology and the Future (I) The title of my talk is 'Technology and the Future', and it's only fair to start with a couple of warnings. I have never been interested in the near future—only the more distant one. So if you take my predictions too seriously, you'll go broke; but if your children don't take them seriously enough, they'll go broke. I'll deal first with transportation and communication, because they are inextricably linked together and do more than anything else to shape society. For near-earth
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applications, both communication and transportation may now be approaching their practical limits and may reach them by the turn of the century. For terrestrial transportation, I don't see any real need for much advance beyond the currently planned supersonic transports, operating at almost two thousand miles per hour. True, one could build pure rocket vehicles to go from pole to pole in about one hour, but I don't think the public will enjoy fifteen minutes of high acceleration and fifteen minutes of high deceleration, separated by half an hour of complete weightlessness. Rather more practical, and of much more immediate importance, will be ground-effect vehicles, or hovercraft. I think we'll have them in the thousand-ton and ten-thousand ton class by the end of the century. The political effect of such vehicles may be enormous, as they can go over land and sea and can cross most reasonable obstacles as if they aren't there. You could have the great 'ports' of the world at the centre of the continents, if you wanted to. That private hovercraft will ever be popular, I rather doubt. They are noisy and have poor efficiency and poor control. (You can't put on the brakes in a hurry if you're riding on a bubble of air.) However, they are splendid for opening up terrain where conventional vehicles cannot travel—such as shallow rivers, swamps, ice fields, coral reefs at low tide, and similar types of fascinating and now inaccessible wilderness. I hope to see the automatic car before I die. Personally, I refuse to drive a car—I won't have anything to do with any kind of transport in which I can't read. I can see a time when it's illegal for a human being to drive a car on a main highway. More seriously, we'll certainly have to get rid of the petrol engine, and everybody is now waking up to the urgent necessity of this. Apart from the facts of air pollution, we have much more important uses for petroleum than burning it. To make non-petrol cars and other vehicles practical, we need some new power source. Fuel cells are already here, but they are only a marginal improvement. I don't know how we're going to do it, but we want something at least a hundred times lighter and more compact than present batteries. Lesson 35 Tom: ... when I was living ... in North Africa, and I had a cook, and I'd been there for several years, you see. And I was just going to come on leave to England, you see, and obviously it was quite a long leave, you know. I was coming for ... three months, I think it was. So I had to, I had a house and I had to sort of close the house up, obviously, and, erm, this chap who worked for me, who was a sort of ... cook, erm, he was ... obviously going to go off, you know, for three months-there wasn't any point in him staying there-so it was, I was getting everything ready, anyway. And I had a lot of things to fix up, so I'd got rather a lot of cash out of the bank. You know, I had a lot of bills to pay (Yes) and things to do, and, erm, I had about sixty-five pounds, I think it was. And one particular evening, I was just sort of, you know, clearing up the sitting-room and going to go to bed, I put the sixty-five quid under the papers in the top left-hand drawer of my desk and then I went out of the door on to the veranda and locked the door. And the point was, all the rooms of the house sort of opened on to a veranda, on to a courtyard, if you see what I mean. There weren't passages inside the house. And, erm, then I went to bed. So, the next morning I got up, and, erm ... after I'd had my breakfast, I was going out into the town to do various things for which I needed the money, you see (Yes) and, erm, I went to the drawer to get it ... and it wasn't there! I immediately thought, well maybe my cook, Idris, has taken this, because, the thing was, that the rooms were all locked and you couldn't have got in to the, erm, to the room, or any of the rooms of the house, without showing some sort of sign of entry, if you see what I mean. (Yes) And, er, he had access to all the keys in the house, you know. (Oh, I see.) So, erm, I went to his room. And, erm, he'd gone off already. He'd gone shopping, in fact. In fact, his room was locked. Erm, I got the keys, unlocked it, went in, sort of searched the room, ... felt rather sort of ... guilty, you know, at sort of going through his personal possessions in this way. But there was nothing there. So, you know, I thought, 'Well, hell, what do I do next? I'd better go to the police'. And, erm, my mind was still very much on him, that ... it

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must be him. Erm, so I went down to the police station and, erm, said that the money'd been stolen and would the police please come to the house, and investigate. And would they also ... investigate my cook, whom I suspected. And they said, erm, well, they wouldn't come and search the cook or look round the house unless I made a definite accusation against him. And if I made a definite accusation against him, they'd come along and, er, take him back to the police station and really sort it out. Well, I wasn't very happy about that, because I felt, erm, I didn't really have any evidence, you know, I was just extremely suspicious of him because of the circumstances. So, erm, I said, 'No,' and, but felt pretty desperate about it then. So I went back to the house ... Anyway, later in the day, I said to him, 'You know, I had sixty-five pounds, which I put in the desk, and it's disappeared.' And he sort of said, 'Oh, yeah'. You know, he didn... didn't register anything at all. Er, so I said, 'Yes, sixty-five pounds has disappeared and nobody seems to have come into the house'. And he sort of said, 'Oh yeah, well', (you know). So I said, 'Yes, I'm going to get the police'. And he still didn't sort of register anything, you know. He just sort of shrugged his shoulders. So then I thought, 'Well, the only thing to do is that I'll have to tell him that, erm, that's it, you know, I don't want him to work for me any more'. But, erm, being a coward over these sort of things, I let it drift for about a couple of days, and then, the day I was actually going, erm, I said to him, er, you know, 'Idris, I'm afraid that, er, I don't want you to come back after the holidays. I think it's better if you don't work for me any more.' And, er, he immediately made a tremendous speech, he said what the hell did I think I was doing, etcetera, etcetera, why, what were my reasons, etcetera, etcetera. So I said, probably very stupidly, but I said to him, 'Well, you know about that sixty-five pounds that disappeared, well, I'm not saying you took it, but I just think you might've taken it, and therefore I don't feel I can trust you any more and, er, so I just don't think you can go on working for me.' So, of course, that was it! He absolutely went through the roof at this! And, erm, you know, gave me a sort of tremendous ... tirade. Anyway, I'd quite made up my mind, although I'd taken so long to tell him ... And I said, 'Well, sorry', you know, 'that's it.' Then, in fact, erm, a friend dropped in, erm, who, who, who was a great friend. He, he, he lived there, he was a local person. And, erm, Osman came in and he sort of ... started getting involved in the conversation, ... anyway, I wasn't going to change my attitude over it. Then Idris got terribly upset and was all sort of sad about it and upset about it and started to cry, said I was ruining his life, etcetera. But, anyway, I was completely sort of hard-hearted about it and didn't do anything about it and that was it. And he went. I, er, I mean I ... paid him, ... you know, quite a bit of money in lieu of notice and everything but, I mean, he still felt extremely upset, and it was one of those, erm, very kind of unpleasant things, which left one ... feeling ... rather ... upset about it and not knowing... I never knew whether I'd done quite the right thing or not. Well, I worked there for a couple of years more and when I was finally leaving after two years I was throwing out lots and lots of things like magazines, books and so on, and this chap, Osman, who'd actually been there the afternoon Idris had finally left amidst all these rows, I gave him some old magazines, including actually, er, an old Encounter and, erm, he came back a few days later and he said, 'You know, I didn't know whether to actually come and tell you or not, but I was looking through that copy of Encounter you gave me and I found sixty-five pounds (laughter) in the back of the magazine.' Terribly difficult because I was leaving the country, never to come back, you know, in about twenty-four hours after that ... feeling that one had done something wrong which one couldn't put right! And I didn't have any idea what had happened to Idris, in fact. Pretty unfortunate! In the summer of 1933, the world's first drive-in movie theatre opened in Camden, New Jersey. Drive-ins became popular after World War II and in the '50s there were nearly five thousand theatres across the country. But today, less than three thousand remained. Drive-ins are in trouble. Land values near cities are increasing and drive-ins are being torn down to make way for malls. And families are more likely to stay home for an evening of cheap entertainment with their VCRs and cable TV. When one more drive-in closed recently outside Jeffersonville, Indiana, reporter Bob Hanson was there, the last night at the Lakewood Drive-in. The sun set as the last cars entered the Lakewood Drive-in. At the ticket booth Laura Boyle filled in for her daughter who's away at college. No money changed hands. The show was on the house. Thirty years ago John Walley opened the Lakewood Drive-in on his father's farmland in southern Indiana. Corn fields still surround the theatre. Since 1956 people have driven for miles to get to the drive-in. They came in Studebakers, and Fords, Ramblars, and Corvats. But the '80s haven't been so kind to the drive-in. And on this night John Walley is closing up.
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Before the show started, parents took their children to a playground in the front of the theatre. Framed by an orange sky and in the humid Mid-western air, they played on swings and slides. Inside the snack bar, the menu was timeless. "Forty cents is your change, thank you." Thelma Wilson stuffed hotdogs in buns and wrapped them in aluminum foil bags. For twenty-three years Thelma has cooked hotdogs, popped popcorn and filled drinks in the Lakewood Drive-in. In the mid-sixties, five hundred cars would fill the ashfall and dirt theatre. But in the eighties, seventy-five cars was considered a good night. And sometimes the movie's played to just twenty. Carlo Crown switched on the thirty-five millimeter projector for the last time. About a hundred seventy-five cars pointed at the crumbling while screen. As word got out that the Lakewood Drive-in was closing up, people came from throughout the area. As the black and white images flickered on the screen, some people found themselves back in time. Like Linda King, who spent her wedding night here twenty-two years ago. "There's a lot of memories here. I've brought all my kids here, my grandkids, and they are not going to be here any more. So they aren't going to bring their children here when they're grown." Johnny Buckman and his wife Merilyn watched the movie from their tinted glass window. The two went out on dates here twenty-seven years ago. "I have been thinking about, you know, when we were young, and when he put his arms around me and . . . and just a lot of old memories, you know." John Walley stood outside the snack bar and talked to old friends and customers. He talked about how hard it was to compete with air-conditioned theatres and couldn't get first-run movies any more. And most of all he just reminisced. "This is nice to go out to the country and watch movies on a big screen. The young people just don't know what they are missing because there won't be any drive-ins around in another ten years. Some people watched the movie from the hood of their car. Others sat on lawn chairs. Many just walked around. John Walley plastered auction off the equipment from the drive-in. But in the dark people tried not to think about that. By the way, tonight's final film—The Last Picture Show. For National Public Radio, I'm Bob Henson in southern Indiana. Technology and the Future (II) Now I would like to say a word about communications. The revolution in communications that has already taken place is still not fully understood. One way of appreciating it is to do a kind of communications strip tease. I would like you to abolish in your minds TV, then radio, then telephones, then the postal service, then the newspapers. In other words, to revert to the Middle Ages. In such a situation, we should feel deaf and blind, like prisoners in solitary confinement. Well, we'll appear this way to our grandchildren. Don't forget that a generation has already grown up that never knew a world without TV. One communications revolution has taken place in our lifetime. The next revolution, perhaps the final one, will be the result of satellites and microelectronics, which will enable us to do literally anything we want to in the field of communications and information transfer—including, ultimately, not only sound and vision but all sense impressions. I am particularly interested in TV broadcasting from satellites directly into the home, bypassing today's ground stations—a proposal I first described twenty-two years ago. This will mean the abolition of all present geographical restrictions to TV; via satellites, any country can broadcast to any other. Direct-broadcast TV will be possible within five years and may be most important to undeveloped countries that have no ground stations, and now may never require any. Africa, China, and South America could be opened up by direct TV broadcast, and whole populations brought into the modern world. I believe that communications satellites may bring about the long-overdue end of the Stone Age. They will certainly lead to a global telephone system and end long-distance calls—for all calls will be 'local'! There will be the same flat rate everywhere. Newspapers will, I think, receive their final body blow from these new communications techniques. How I look forward to the day when I can press a button and get any type of news, editorials, book and theatre reviews, etc., merely by dialing the right channel. Moreover, not only today's but any newspaper ever published will be available. Some sort of TV-like console connected to a central

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electronic library, could make available any information ever printed in any form. Electronic 'mail' delivery is another exciting prospect of the very near future. Letters, will be automatically read and flashed from continent to continent and reproduced at receiving stations within a few minutes of transmission. All these things are associated with information processing, and one-third of the Gross National Product is now spent on this in one form of another—data storage, TV, radio, books, and so forth. This radio is increasing; our society is changing from a goods-producing society to an information-processing one. I have devoted much of one book (Voices from the Sky) to the social consequences of this, and can mention only a few here. One could be the establishment of English as the world language, through the direct telecast satellites mentioned above. Within the next ten years the future language of mankind will be decided, in a bloodless battle twenty-two thousand miles above the equator. Another very important consequence will be a change in the patterns of transport, for a man and his work need no longer be in the same place. When these new information-and-communications consoles are available, almost anybody who does any kind of mental work can live wherever he pleases. Beyond this, any kind of manipulative skill can also be transferred from one point to another. I can imagine a time when even a brain surgeon can live in one place and operate on patients all over the world, through remote-controlled artificial hands, like those used in atomic energy plants. Yet these developments will not necessarily mean an overall reduction of transport. I see a great reduction of transport for work, but increased transport for pleasure. A result of this will be that vast uninhabited areas of the Earth could be opened up, because people will have far greater freedom to choose where they will live. These trends will inevitably accelerate the disintegration of the cities, whose historical function is now passing. Cities will go on growing, of course, like dinosaurs—for the same reasons, and with the same results. Lesson 36 Just before I give a few details about the—er—fun aspect of computers that is, for use at home and for entertainment—I'd like to mention a couple of facts about the outlook for ISDN—that's the integrated services digital network—and it foresees a world-wide telecommunications network which could transmit telex and voice signals and, indeed, full-colour video images and high-speed computer data. Now, can you just imagine having a meeting with your colleagues around the world without even leaving your office? Well, that's what world-wide video teleconferencing can do, and it's on the cards that internal toll-free telephones may be available and also faster computer transmission with a digital network. And how are all these marvellous things achieved? Well, there are satellite relays, and digital packet switching, and laser devices which transmit over fibre-optic cables. But more about that another time. And after that slight diversion I'll get back to a totally different aspect of modern technology—home computers, or PCs—that stands for personal computers. First, a bit of background. Some people attribute this growth industry to the recession which led to redundancies and a shorter working week, and this in turn led to more leisure time. So what are people doing with this extra free time that's on their hands? They're indulging in home entertainment, that's what! Hundreds of companies have sprung up to fill this gap, and the sports, DIY and home entertainment industries are achieving phenomenal success. In 1983 in the US, there were four million PCs, and game-playing was the principal use, with educational use a close second; and in third place was the financial function for things like budgeting, balancing cheque books, accounting and forecasting and so on. To illustrate this with a few concrete figures, from the States again, in 1983, 52 per cent of the software was for entertainment programs, whereas only 16 percent was educational. Possibly this could be explained by the short life span of computer games, and having teenagers in the home was a decisive factor in the purchase of a personal computer, as households with children in this age-range were 50 per cent more likely to buy them. As far as the interest versus disapproval statistics go, in the 18-19 age-group, 25 per cent expressed interest in PCs and 18 per cent disapproval; and at the other end of the scale, the over-60s showed only 3 per cent interest and a resounding 87 per cent disapproval! And this trend towards PCs is likely to continue as users become more knowledgeable and want
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more expensive machines with all kinds of new things. And there's a wide range in sizes, too, as the portable market expands, and now you can buy a featherweight lap-size model that's less than 2 kg, or something larger at around 12 kg but still portable. Just to digress slightly, I'd like to point out that microtechnology has hit other aspects of the home and leisure industry as well. With more time on our hands it seems we're spending more time keeping fit, and fitness has become a real growth industry, and it seems prone to gadgetry as well! There are all sorts of new things on the market these days. Take, for example, the watches that monitor your pulse rate as you jog or do aerobics, or exercise bicycles with sensors in the handgrips to check your pulse rate and then display it on a screen. And for those of you who remember that famous toy of the early 80s—Rubik's cube, the one with six sides, each composed of nine rotating faces, with 43 quintillion combinations—well, anyway, in a lab in the US they're working on a Cubot—that's a self-contained robot using microprocessors and mechanics—to solve it. But I'm getting off the track again, so back to our home computers with a final warning. The technical innovations of the last couple of decades have led to a host of new words in our vocabulary, and one of these is hacker—that's H-A-C-K-E-R—and it simply means an enthusiast who breaks into computers. And, not so long ago in the States, teenagers who were hackers used their home computers to break into supposedly secure government and business computers, for example in banks, labs and research centres. They just tried out different passwords until they found the right one. And as one seventeen-year-old said, 'It was like child's play.' And all that's needed is a home computer and a modem—that's M-O-D-E-M—which is a device that allows computers to transmit data over the phone lines—and, of course, a basic knowledge of how to operate a computer! And this has led to tangled legal and ethical problems—but we won't go into that here. But, as you can see, home computers are indeed a handy thing to have around, not only for entertainment but also for educational value. And no doubt in future ... Dade County, Florida, which includes the city of Miami, is a dangerous place to be these days, that according to a Miami Herald poll released this week. The survey reports that forty-two percent of people interviewed or their family members have been victims of burglary, robbery or assault in the past five years. Almost one half say they need guns to feel safe in Dade County, although most people won't say whether they do own weapons. The Herald conducted the survey in the wake of a widely publicized booby trap killing, in which a store owner killed a would-be burglar. And now the poll suggests a lot more people want to take law into their own hands. Herald reporter Andre Vicluchee has been covering the story. "The one part I think that that was a little surprising was the number of people who feel that it is okay to shoot, to kill an intruder that comes into your house. We found sixty-three percent feel that they should have the right to kill an intruder in their house." "Whether or not the person is armed or not only if ..." "Whether they know or not if the person is armed. It surprised us; we figured there would be something of a hard-line attitude out there. But this was probably above what we expected." "Well, it seems, though, that people are perceiving at least in Dade County that crimes are really in bad situation that they are willing to do something about it with violence." "Yes. I went back and questioned more at length another fifteen or twenty responded from the poll. And they all seem to feel that, if they find themselves in a situation in which they have to take some action, even if it means killing somebody, they'll do it." "I'll take it that Miami Herald poll and perhaps that a lot of people's feelings about crimes stem in part from this case of the booby trap victim, a store owner booby trapped his variety store raider in a black neighborhood. Tell us about that case." "The man's name is Prentice Raschid. He is a black business man who has a small store in a black high-crime area of town. He has been burglarized, I think, seven or eight times over the past few weeks, had asked for help from the police and had not gotton any answer to his satisfaction. So he went ahead and set up an electrical booby trap in the store. About a week and a half ago one morning, they found a young man dead in the booby trap who had been electrocuted while trying to carry out some stuff from the store." "In what has the public reaction been then?"

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"The public reaction has been an overwhelming support for Mr Raschid. He has been charged with man slaughter, and with setting up an illegal man trap. But our poll found that seventy-nine percent of the population here feel he should not be prosecuted." "Has this case, this booby trap case, led to inspire any other similar instances of citizen store-owners fighting back against burglars?" "I don't know if it directly inspired them, but it may have been a coincidence. But in the following week there were another five incidents in which citizens, if you will, turn the tables on assailants. In fact these all six incidents left four people dead, four alleged criminals dead and two others wounded in the hospital." "Is there anything about Dade County that is making it a particularly blood thirsty place at the moment, as crime's really on the increase in Dade County . . ." "I believe the situation is, we have a city here that has grown a lot in the last few years." "In what way? What's been the source of the growth?" "Immigration for the most part, and lot of people coming in from Cuba, Cuban refugees, a lot of Haitian refugees, and from all over Latin America. What is interesting about the Raschid case in this context is that, as Mr Raschid has pointed out himself, that although he is a black business man operating in a black area, his support has come from all groups, Hispanic, white and black." "Andre, do you carry around a gun when you are doing your reporting?" "I don't. But I know some reporters that do." Andre Vigluche is a reporter for the Miami Herald. Technology and the Future (III) Now I would like to discuss environment, which is very much a function of transportation and communication. But it is also a function of population. As everybody knows, we are now in a population explosion—but probably around the turn of the century this particular explosion will be controlled and the world population may be shrinking again. Nevertheless, even with a six billion population there may be more room than is generally imagined today. By the twenty-first century, agriculture will be on the way out. It's a ridiculous process: a whole acre is needed to feed one person, because growing plants are extremely inefficient devices for trapping sunlight. If we could develop a biological system working at a mere five per cent efficiency—today's solar cells can double that—it would require twenty square feet, not one acre, to feed one person. Food production is the last major industry to yield to technology. Only now are we doing something about it, probably too little and too late. One promising field of research is the production of proteins from petroleum by microbiological conversion, which sounds most unappetizing—but we do use microbes to make wine. This process gives high-quality proteins, some of them better balanced for human consumption than natural vegetable proteins. It would take only three per cent of today's petroleum output to provide the total protein needs of the entire human race. With the exception of luxury items—and the Russians, I've heard, have already started to export synthetic caviare—most foods will be factory-made in the next century. This will free vast areas of agricultural land for other purposes—living, parks, recreation, hunting—above all, for wilderness. As a source of raw materials, the sea seems inexhaustible. Any element you care to mention is there, in solution or lying on the seabed. We will also be forced to use it for more and more of our water supply, through desalination techniques. I'm sorry to leave the sea so hastily, but space is a lot bigger and I must spend more time on that. Our current ideas of space and its potentialities are badly distorted by the primitive nature of our techniques. To prove this, here is a statistic that will surprise you. The amount of energy needed to lift a man to the Moon is about 1,000 kilowatt-hours and that costs only ten to twenty dollars! The difference of nine zeros between this and the Apollo budget is a measure of our present incompetence. Ultimately, there's no reason why space travel should be, in terms of future incomes, much more expensive than jet flight today. Space communities will be established first on the Moon, then on Mars, and later on other worlds. But much closer to the Earth, orbital space stations of many kinds will be in wide use by the year 2000. In May 1967, I was in Dallas to attend the first conference on the commercial uses of
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space—including tourism. Barron Hilton gave a talk on the Hilton Orbiter Hotel, which he hopes to see in his lifetime. Space tourism is going to be a major industry in the twenty-first century. Another tremendously important use of space stations will be for medical research. One paper given at Dallas discussed the engineering problem of a hospital in orbit. Which brings a poignant memory to mind. The last letter I ever received from that great scientist professor J B S Haldane was written when he was dying of cancer and in considerable pain from his operations. In it, he said what a boon the weightless environment of a space hospital would be to patients like himself not to mention burn victims, sufferers from heart complaints, and those afflicted with muscle diseases. I am convinced that research in space will open up unguessed regions of medical knowledge and give us a vast range of new therapies. So I get pretty mad when I hear ignorant but well-intentioned people ask, 'Why not spend the space budget on something useful—like cancer research?' When we do find a cancer cure, part of the basic knowledge will have come from space. And ultimately we will find even more important secrets there: perhaps, some day, a cure for death itself ... Scarborough Fair *Are you going to Scarborough Fair Parsley, sage, rosemary and thyme Remember me to one who lives there She once was a true love of mine* Tell her to make me a cambric shirt Tell her to make me a cambric shirt (On the side of a hill in the deep forest green) Parsley, sage, rosemary and thyme (Tracing of sparrow on the snow-crested brown) Without no seams nor needle work (Blankets and bedclothes the child of the mountain) Then she'll be a true love of mine (Sleeps unaware of the clarion call) Tell her to find me an acre of land Tell her to find me an acre of land (On the side of a hill a sprinkling of leaves) Parsley, sage, rosemary and thyme (Washes the grave with silvery tears) Between the salt water and the sea strands (A soldier cleans and polishes a gun) Then she'll be a true love of mine Tell her to reap it with a sickle of leather Tell her to reap it with a sickle of leather (War bellows blazing in scarlet battalions) Parsley, sage, rosemary and thyme (Generals order their soldiers to kill) And gather it all in a bunch of heather (and to fight for a cause they've long ago forgotten) Then she'll be a true love of mine (Repeat*)

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