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Literature Review

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Abstract
The issue of classroom management regarding students with ADHD and ODD has been debated in the educational field for many years. Many studies attribute common behaviors such as aggression, noncompliance, and anger as factors leading towards teacher frustration and increased teacher burnout (Bunte, Schoemaker, Hessen, van der Heijden, &Matthys, 2014). Approximately 11% of children 4-17 years of age (6.4 million) have been diagnosed with ADHD as of 2011.The percentage of children with an ADHD diagnosis continues to increase, from 7.8% in 2003 to 9.5% in 2007 and to 11.0% in 2011 (ADHD). Additionally, students with ADHD have shown an increase in comorbidity with ODD (ADHD). Due to the fact that many teachers lack preparation in the area of classroom management dealing with students with challenging behavioral issues, such as those in students with ADHD and ODD, they are subjected to increased frustration and increased teacher burnout rates. Further research also points out the adverse effects lack of teacher preparation have on the future outcomes for students with negative conduct behavior, which include the likelihood of students with ADHD and ODD to develop substance abuse and criminal aggression in later years (Darney, Reinke, Herman, Stormont, &Ialongo, 2012). As such, professional development in the form of teacher and intervention training is needed in order to support the needs of both the teachers and the future outcomes for students.
This grant proposal will offer professional development sessions to teachers at the Child School/Legacy High School on Roosevelt Island in order to improve quality teaching practices and effective classroom management strategies. The goal of the teacher training program will be to offer a form of prevention and intervention by training teachers to deal and manage negative behaviors in the classroom as they improve teacher/student relationships and help decrease future negative outcomes for students as they approach middle school and beyond. Through the training sessions, teachers will be led through a workshop by a certified Incredible Years Teacher Trainer who will train them in the evidenced and empirically based program in order to provide them with the tools necessary to address the diverse needs of students exhibiting negative conduct behavior in students with ADHD and ODD.

Literature Review
Introduction
Problematic and disruptive behaviors are often the most substantial concerns teachers face. The most prevalent negative behaviors are often attributed to children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). (Bunte, Schoemaker, Hessen, van der Heijden, &Matthys, 2014). Both ADHD and ODD share common target behaviors, such as anger, aggression and non-compliance, which interfere with learning. The most pressing behaviors impeding successful classroom management include aggression, non-compliance, defiance, and impulsiveness (ADHD and Coexisting Conditions: Disruptive Behavior Disorders, n.d). Managing these behaviors in the classroom contributes towards the increase of teacher frustration and teacher burnout (Snell, Voorhees, Berlin, Stanton-Chapman, Hadden, &Mccarty, 2011). As such, suitable teacher training should be set in place in order to prevent teacher burnout and decrease the amount of educators that leave the field.
Some studies suggest that the absence of teacher support can have adverse effects on student behavior. According to research, students exhibitingnegative behaviors in the classroom are perceived as too difficult and may end up receiving less help in the classroom (Leflot, Lier, Onghena, &Colpin, 2010). Additionally, teachers usually respond negatively and indifferently to students exhibiting difficult conduct behaviors which, as a result, actually increases problematic conduct behaviors among ADHD and ODD students (Leflot, et al., 2010). Other studies demonstrate the adverse long term effects of early onset conduct problems. Some longitudinal research demonstrate the long term social and academic outcomes for students with early onset ADHD and ODD. Another research states the likelihood of students with ADHD and ODD to develop substance abuse and criminal aggression in later years(Darney, Reinke, Herman, Stormont, &Ialongo, 2012). Thus, it becomes indisputable that implementing early intervention for students with early onset ADHD and ODD is crucial for avoiding negative social and emotional outcomes. The program, incredible year’s teacher training (IYTT), has been effective in reducing problem behaviors associated with ADHD and ODD (Herman, Reinke, & Webster Stratton, 2011). Furthermore, the IYTT program has been received favorably among teachers struggling with classroom management (Fergusson, 2013, July 1). Unfortunately, many schools are clueless when it comes to effectively meeting the needs of students with ADHD and ODD. As a result, in order to meet the future needs of these students and increase positive teacher student interactions through prevention and intervention, research suggests that teachers receive appropriate training through the form of professional development in their schools.
Problem behaviors in the classroom: educators respond
The ability to effectively manage a classroom is usually viewed as the epitome of successful teaching. Without it, educators would not be able to deliver their lesson. However, most teachers agree that certain behaviors impede their ability to deliver lessons successfully. Although most teachers would try to prevent the behavior from occurring, fidelity on implementation limit the use of prevention strategies on these types of behaviors. Furthermore, many teachers resort to reducing, rather than preventing the behaviors from occurring. To illustrate this issue, Snell et al. (2011) examined the practices of head start staff concerning externalizing problem behavior. This study conducted by Snell et al (2011) used interviews to examine details about staff needs when dealing with difficult and challenging behavior in students. As the interviews were conducted on 78 different head start staff from 5 different programs, it was noted that externalizing behaviors were the most challenging behaviors to handle. Aggression was the most common behavior reported by the staff members interviewed. The interviewers stated that aggression, as witnessed in the form of kicking, hitting, and harming staff and other students, was the most difficult behavior to manage. The interviewers also stated they used prevention strategies to try and limit these types of externalizing behaviors. However, further results indicate that most teachers, when asked how they would manage said behavior, would aim their focus on reducing the behavior rather than preventing.
Leflot, Lier, Onghena, &Colpin (2010) also aim to shed light on this issue by pointing out the important role teachers have in behavior management. A teacher’s role in managing conduct behaviors, such as those in children with ADHD and ODD, has a direct impact on the way a child responds. Research indicates that, when confronted with disruptive behavior, many teachers react in a negative and aggressive way. The negative reaction and teacher’s poor attitude, in addition to a lack of positive reinforcement, may reinforce the negative behavior. This study bridges the idea that a teacher’s behavior directly impacts student behavior. A positive attitude can, in turn, promote a more positive outcome for students with conduct disorders. The lack of fidelity in handling and managing conduct problems and the lack of positive teacher and student interactions in the classroom speaks on the need of a comprehensive school wide prevention and intervention approach.
Student Impact
Proper teacher support is not only crucial to help keep good educators in the field, but also detrimental to decreasing negative social and emotional long term outcomes for students with ADHD and ODD. For instance, the longitudinal study by Darney, Reinke, Herman, Stormont, &Ialongo, (2013) was conducted over an eleven year period to show the effects of early onset conduct problems identified in elementary grades and their dismal outcomes in later grades. Darney et al. (2013) showed that students identified as having conduct and behavioral problems in first grade would have negative outcomes in twelfth grade. In addition, the study concludes that students identified as having conduct problems in first grade showed negative behaviors, such as aggression, conduct disorder, anxiety, and depression in their later school years (2013). The purpose of the current study was to expand upon the longitudinal study previously conducted by Reinke, Herman, Petras, &Ialongo in 2008 which sought to examine the markings of behavior and conduct problems in children in fifth grade and their outcomes in sixth grade. For the current study, a total of 574 students consented and completed the follow-up assessment in twelfth grade. The results of the finding further support the idea that patterns of negative behavior identified in earlier years can lead to more negative and co-occurring behaviors in later grades. This demonstrates that early onset conduct and behavior problems persist throughout the course of the student’s school environment. Students displaying this type of behavior are more likely to be placed in special education classes, develop more academic struggles, and least likely to graduate from high school compared to those students that did not exhibit conduct problems.
Similarly,Villodas, Pfiffner, &Mcburnett, (2012)maintain the evidence that students that exhibit early onset conduct problems, such as those in students with ADHD and ODD, are most at risk to develop poor social skills, peer rejection, and aggression in their later years. Furthermore, Villodas et al. (2012) state, “processes such as high parent-child conflict and school failure have often been identified as consequences of ADHD, ODD, and CD [conduct disorders] as well as risk factors for the development of conduct problems.” (p. 33).For these students, the future may appear bleak which is why it is vital to take preventive measures.Many schools aim to solve this problem when behaviors become too much to handle. Nonetheless, the damage on a student’s academic and emotional achievement has been set in place. Based on the results of these studies, the importance of early intervention to identify and prevent behavioral problems is crucial in order to avoid long term adverse problems.
The need for intervention Many studies have established the effectiveness of intervention programs for students with early onset conduct problems such as those in students with ADHD and ODD. To illustrate this example, a meta-analysis conducted byReddy, Newman, Thomas, & Chun, (2009)examined the effects of a school based intervention and prevention program on at risk youth. The results suggest a positive impact on reducing and mitigating enduring problem behaviors at school. Comparatively to other meta-analytical studies, Reddy, et al. (2009) included a number of procedures within only published publications to research the effectiveness of school intervention on students with reported behavioral problems. The samples reviewed were based on 1405 children within 29 articles in total. The results of this meta-analytical study are important because they shed light on the demands schools face to implement an intervention and prevention program with teacher training for this population of students. Furthermore, all of the studies reviewed in the meta-analysis solidify the evidence of the positive overall effects of teacher training and early intervention and prevention on students that exhibit behavioral problems. Similarly, the study by Froelich, Breuer, Doepfner, &Amonn, (2012) yields comparable results. For this study, 372 elementary school students were included in the study in order to demonstrate the impact teacher training would have on alleviating symptoms associated with ADHD and ODD. To report changes in student behaviors from the start of the study to the end of the study, both a randomized and control group was used to compare the changes in behavior. As established by Froelich et al. (2012), “The within-subject analyses showed significantly stronger decreases in both ADHD and ODD symptoms during the intervention phase as compared to the baseline phase.” (p. 77). These findings fortify the urgency schools have to establish and implement a teacher training intervention program. Because of the increasing number of students diagnosed with ADHD and ODD, educators must face the reality that they will need to deal with behavioral students at some point in their careers. Instead of trying to mitigate the problem only when encountered, educators must be proactive in preparing to meet their needs through way of a solid teacher training prevention/intervention program.
The Incredible Years Teacher Training Program (IYTT) Given that empirical research has demonstrated the effectiveness of teacher training and early intervention programs on improving student behavior, it is important to note what research based programs have been continually effective overall. The IYTT is an evidence based program that has consistently shown improvements in student behavior and teacher classroom management skills overall (Webster-Stratton &Mccoy, 2014). To illustrate this fact, Herman, Borden, Reinke, & Webster-Stratton (2013), demonstrated that the IYTT helped reduce negative teacher and student interactions and helped decrease problem behaviors in the classroom. The study by Herman et al. (2013) states that “concurrently, children in classrooms with teachers who received IYTT experienced improved relationships with peers and were more cooperative with teachers” (p 190). Although the study determined positive outcome and improvement in behavior in children with co-occurring symptoms, the study was not conducted on the teacher training aspect alone. However, the research has shown that students whose teachers participated in in the IYTT program have reduced negative interactions with peers and teachers.This addresses the issue raised by Leflot et al. (2010) in which teachers reacted aggressively and negatively when faced with difficult student behavior. It is clear, that a teacher training program, such as the IYTT, can help improve the interactions between teachers and students.
As studies have illustrated through the empirical research highlighted above, many students with ODD exhibiting behaviors such as aggression, non-compliance, and oppositional behavior, are usually found to have comorbidity with ADHD (Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2008). The distressing fact is that many of these students are referred directly to mental health clinics. Moreover, studies have proven the link between adolescent and adult aggression and early onset conduct problems such as those associated with ADHD and ODD. Despite these findings, there is solid evidence that the IYTT can help combat these dismal findings.
To prove this point, Webster-Stratton et al. (2008)demonstrates that the incredible years (IY) dinosaur social program for young children can be adaptable enough to be implemented on students with profiles such as those with comorbid symptoms of ADHD and ODD. Through carefully planned programs, teachers can adapt the dinosaur social IY program to meet the needs of students with ODD, ADHD, and other conduct disorders. The program uses strategies such as predictable routines and schedules, consistent rules and procedures, and tokens. Additionally, the program takes time to teach children self-regulation and conflict resolution, two very important skills needed in students with ODD and ADHD. The results of this article show how the IY program can be adapted to meet the individual needs of any student. To further illustrate the long term effectiveness of the IYTT programWebster-Stratton, Rinaldi, & Reid, (2010) conducted an 8-12 year follow-up study on students that received the IY program. The purpose of the study was to investigate the social and emotional outcomes of students whom had previously been identified as exhibiting externalizing negative behavior symptoms. Given that early onset behavioral problems are an early indication that students will more at risk for later aggression, crime, or substance abuse, it is acknowledge the long term effects of an intervention program. The findings of the study by Webster-Stratton et al. (2010) reveal that “the treated children showed less severe indications of conduct problems at adolescence than might have been expected (e.g. limited criminal justice system involvement) given their early onset clinical levels” (p.2). Therefore, it is clear that an evidence based intervention program should be implemented in order to reduce the risks associated with early onset conduct problems such as those in students with ADHD and ODD.
Conclusions and Future directions Upon review of the pertinent research dealing with the lack of intervention and teacher training for students with ODD and ADHD, it is clear that students exhibiting early onset conduct problems comparable with ADHD and ODD are not receiving the support they need to be successful in the classroom. Moreover, these students are not receiving interventions at an early enough time to prevent the associated social and emotional risks involved later in life. This is due in part to a lack of teacher support and training in the area of classroom management for students with ADHD and ODD. Given the research, it is shown that many teachers do not feel prepared or do not know how to deal with this population of students. From the literature, it is evident that teachers be trained to meet the needs of the students and increase student teacher relationships. Further investigation also make it clear that the lack of early intervention contributes to the high substance abuse and violent risks these students will face later in life. As a result, it is also imperative that a program combing early intervention and teacher training be implemented to reduce these risks. Therefore, due to the lack of teacher preparedness to face challenging behavior and the risks associated with early onset behavioral problems, there is a critical need for educators to receive proper training through professional development through the IYTT program. Given the positive long term results in both teacher satisfaction and student outcomes, the IYTT program would be an effective program to implement in current schools by way of professional development.

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