Free Essay

Literature Review

In: Business and Management

Submitted By abdurrehman543
Words 1065
Pages 5
This document has some claims and a related report and journal article, Use it if you are stuck for ideas on the literature review..
Some claims about cheating you can either agree or disagree

Claim 1 one reason why you should give students an assignment about cheating is that gives students an example of how government agencies place demands on a business. The fact that many students that blatantly cheat and get 0 but still argue say their mark needs to be changed clearly do not understand this.

Claim 2
It is difficult to do a proper literature review, they are not experts and they are not used to how academics describe the problem, However they do get a benefit from looking at actual journal articles and seeing how they discuss a specific problem and review the literature. If a student cheats by getting an essay from a website that makes fake essays they will not actually learn anything.

Sections on a government report related to the claims about cheating
For your literature review you have to refer to a government report on cheating
“Report on Student Academic Integrity and Allegations of Contract Cheating by University Students”

http://www.teqsa.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication-documents/ReportOnAllegationsOfStudentMisconduct.pdf

The following statements are relevant to claim 1 and claim 2
“Contract cheating – the purchase of another person’s work to present as your own – has a long history. Recently, the ready availability of sophisticated communication technology and the rise of social media have increased the opportunity to access and/or repurpose another’s work to present as your own. Availability of essay writing services is pervasive with both local and international websites advertising their services. A number of assessment strategies have been devised to minimise the opportunity for such fraudulent activity by students and to detect it when it occurs. However it should be noted that the efficacy of such strategies has not been established and the favoured way to combat such behavior is by the promotion of academic integrity in the student body. Approaches to assessment and promotion of good student conduct are discussed in the next section of this report”

“It is often considered that essays purchased through essay mills are less likely to be detected by anti-plagiarism software because they are kept behind firewalls and are supposedly bespoke products. However, this is not the experience of all providers (eg University of Sydney). Purchased work is usually detected because the quality of the academic content and/or language is significantly superior to the student’s usual performance in class or because the answer provided has a generic quality rather than addressing the specifics of the assignment task. It is widely regarded that the best way to detect and deter contract cheating is to “know your students”.”
Sections of journal article related to claims against cheating.

The following journal article discusses cheating
“Detecting the work of essay mil ls and file swapping sites: some clues they leave behind” http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1441&context=gsbpapers The following sections of the article are related to claim 1 and claim 2 “Many students references do not exist or are not on the internet so there is no way the student can read them
If students actually find the reference the author names were missing, and finer details such as issue numbers, volume numbers, and page numbers were different to the original papers as reflected in the journal databases (see Figures 1 and compare it to the actual reference)

The actual reference is
Edmondson, A.. (1999). Psychological Safety and Learning Behavior in Work Teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 350–383. http://doi.org/10.2307/2666999

The students seemed genuinely shocked, but had no explanation for the differences. It seems that some ghost writers, or mills may alter aspects of legitimate references, so that the reference appears correct (see Figure 1), but in actual fact is misrepresented (see the actual reference). These misrepresentations are not always obvious in Turnitin, and cannot be found by visual examination.
People grading papers do not have the time to individually check references to detect this, and for this reason essay mills and ghost-writers can limit the possibilities for detection.

A form of misrepresentation that could be detected via a visual check was where bibliographic ‘mashups’ were identified. References are created through a mix of journal, newspaper and/or book information combined into the one fictitious reference. An example of a bibliographic ‘mashup’ is presented in Figure 3. The reference in Figure 3 shows the ‘Journal of Economy’ which does not exist, and notes that it is the ‘Queensland edition – when journals are not published on a state basis. Finally the author name ‘Tribune’ was found to be the Herald Tribune newspaper when the ‘reference’ was Googled, and led to a file-swapping site in China. A copy of the file swapping site page matched to the reference is shown in Figure 4.
Figure 3 Bibliographic Mashup

Figure 4 File-swapping website match

The student was asked to find the reference during the interview, and tried searching through the University of Wollongong library databases, and became very frustrated when she could not locate the reference. When the student was shown the link to the file-swapping site, the argument changed. They stated that there was a Mr Tribune and it was a real reference. The student did not want to believe the lecturer that the Herald Tribune was a newspaper. There were two other students who had references that appeared with a similar style of ‘bibliographic mashup’ however searches via Google, Firefox and Internet Explorer could not detect the source. Throughout the course of the interviews with students a pattern of clues emerged which facilitated easier detection of material that had not been authored by the student, had been written by someone else, or repurposed by re-engineering prior student submissions. Any issues that required further action under the UOW Academic Integrity and Plagiarism policy, took place under due process with appropriate penalties applied. Others where the interviews could not confirm or deny the use of unauthorised materials were marked at face value – subsequently many of these students failed the subject due to their performance in the final exam demonstrating that the students had little understanding of the content despite 11 weeks of lectures and tutorials”

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Literature Review

...Doing a literature review This Advice Sheet introduces you to the basics of compiling a Literature review. What is a literature review? 1 What it is not …. 1 Approaches needed …. 1 Approaching your review …. 2 Writing the review …. 3 What is a literature review? • • • Further reading …. 4 • It is a critical and evaluative account of what has been published on a chosen research topic. Its purpose is to summarise, synthesise and analyse the arguments of others. (It is not an academic research paper, the main purpose of which is to support your own argument.) You should describe and analyse the knowledge that exists and what gaps occur in research related to your field of interest. (This should clarify the relationship between your own research and the work that has previously been done.) It should reveal similarities and differences, consistencies and inconsistencies and controversies in previous research. What it is not It is not primarily an argument for the importance of what it is you are researching. While it is necessary to explain what is the primary purpose of your research, the reader of a literature review will assume that the need for undertaking the research has already been established. It is not a descriptive list of papers or summaries. You must not just list your sources and describe them in detail one at a time. A literature review is organised around ideas, not the sources themselves as an annotated bibliography would be organised. You......

Words: 1290 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Literature Review

...Writing a Literature Review What is a Literature Review? A literature review is a survey and discussion of the literature in a given area of study. It is a concise overview of what has been studied, argued, and established about a topic, and it is usually organized chronologically or thematically. A literature review is written in essay format. It is not an annotated bibliography, because it groups related works together and discusses trends and developments rather than focusing on one item at a time. It is not a summary; rather, it evaluates previous and current research. Purpose A literature review is written to highlight specific arguments and ideas in a field of study. By highlighting these arguments, the writer attempts to show what has been studied in the field, and also where the weaknesses, gaps, or areas needing further study are. The review should therefore also demonstrate to the reader why the writer’s research is useful, necessary, important, and valid. Audience Literature reviews can have different types of audiences, so consider why and for whom you are writing your review. For example, a lot of literature reviews are written as a chapter for a thesis or dissertation, so the audience will want to know in what way your research is important and original. Highlighting the gap in knowledge which your research aims to fill is particularly important in this instance because you need to convince the reader that there is an opening in the area of study. A......

Words: 1153 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Literature Review

...Disclosures About CSR Practices: A Literature Review Kavitha W * and Anita P ** Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is now prominent and evident more than ever due to the emphasis laid on businesses regarding environmental, social and ethical issues. The level of CSR activities of the firms is made known to public only through the disclosures. This paper reviews the literature on CSR disclosures and the effect of these disclosures. There are various factors which determine the extent of disclosures like the size of the firm, industry, high visibility, etc. Introduction Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is now prominent and evident more than ever due to the emphasis laid on businesses regarding environmental, social and ethical issues. This is because over the recent years, there have been social, political and economic pressures on corporate management to pay attention on social and environmental consequences of corporate activities. These pressures motivated the corporate management to actively participate in a wide range of social welfare activities. CSR now-a-days covers almost all issues like the use of child labor; inequality of employment; environmental impact; involvement in local community; products’ safety; company cultures; brand image and reputation. Apart from this, companies are now disclosing these activities in their annual reports, and one of the parameters to judge the performance of a company is CSR reporting. Corporate Social......

Words: 28706 - Pages: 115

Free Essay

Literature Review

...Nursing http://jsn.sagepub.com/ Literature Reviews as a Research Strategy Julia Muennich Cowell The Journal of School Nursing 2012 28: 326 DOI: 10.1177/1059840512458666 The online version of this article can be found at: http://jsn.sagepub.com/content/28/5/326 Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of: National Association of School Nurses Additional services and information for The Journal of School Nursing can be found at: Email Alerts: http://jsn.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Subscriptions: http://jsn.sagepub.com/subscriptions Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Permissions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav >> Version of Record - Sep 25, 2012 What is This? Downloaded from jsn.sagepub.com by guest on August 26, 2013 Editorial The Journal of School Nursing 28(5) 326-327 ª The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permission: sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/1059840512458666 http://jsn.sagepub.com Literature Reviews as a Research Strategy Literature reviews have long been important strategies to assess the state of the science. As early as 1993, Broome (1993) recommended literature reviews as a strategy to assist in the development of concepts. Many graduate students in nursing and other sciences learn about synthesizing literature throughout their academic programs using a variety of guides including Cooper’s (1998) Synthesizing Research: A Guide for Literature Reviews as a common reference or......

Words: 1365 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Review of Literature

...Review of Literature Grand Canyon University: Family Centered Health Promotion NRS-429V September 8, 2013 Review of Literature Health Promotion is the concern with physical, social, and mental wellbeing that strives to help people take control over the matters that influence their life. In addition, to enable people to increase control of their health, improve their health, and optimize their quality of life. The concept of health promotion was developed to emphasize the community-based practice of health promotion, community participant and health promotion practice. Health promotion can be encompassed with any disease either acute or chronic. When underlining the definition health promotion in relationship to hypertension it is defined as “effect of anti-hypertensive patient-oriented education and in-home monitoring for medication adherence and management of hypertension, by providing education of healthy lifestyle behaviors and medication adherence”(Hacihasanoglu & Gozum, 2011, p. 692). This means to change the behaviors to one’s lifestyle along with medication compliance an individual can achieve control of and a better well-being while living with hypertension. Nurses’ purpose to health promotion is to assist in education, promotion, planning, implementation, and goal setting to patient, groups, and communities. We are the largest group of health professional, we have the potential to contribute substantially in the area of health promotion. The......

Words: 918 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Literature Review

...Literature review In today’s world of modern technology our growing up generation become addicted of such things like video games. Now it is a problem for young people, because uncontrolled way of playing leads to unexpected and sad consequences. In May 2013, video game addiction was added to the “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders” in the Conditions for Further Study section as "Internet Gaming Disorder" (Petry, 2013), this information confirms that problem is existing and need an investigation. The following several literature reviews presented main information about reasons and effects of video game addiction among adolescents. In the article written by Kimberly Young (2009), in details described the consequences of video game addiction and some therapies and methods to avoid this problem. Author briefly shows impacts of gaming and life of addicted person. There are a lot of accidents when people suffer or even died from many hours playing. Online gaming is an emotionally draining and time-consuming activity. To create more time for the computer, gaming addicts neglect sleep, diet, exercise, hobbies, and socializing (Young, 2004). Author claims that because of addiction, they have several serious problems like health: stress, eye strain, back strain, loosing or vice versa gaining weight; and social: bad relationships with family and friends. Article called “Video Game addiction and social responsibility” written by Mark......

Words: 1755 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Literature Review

...Literature Review Submitted on: 11th October, 2010 In Partial Fulfillment of the requirement for the Research Methodology course during the MBA (FT) Program 2010-12. Submitted to Prof. Tripura Joshi Submitted by: Manan Pamani (101323) Kaushal Vaidya (101320) Nupur Shah (091233) Literature review Health-related e-services can be customized to the needs of different customer groups and as such have the potential to improve delivery efficiency and increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. Following the emergence of the internet along with its rapid adoption, there has been an information revolution of immense importance. E-services can be utilized as a business tool to gain competitive advantage, to permit faster and on demand response to customer enquiries, to improve internal efficiency and productivity, and to reduce transaction cost. E-services are important to organizations because they can strengthen relations between customer and service provider and thereby improve customer satisfaction. A large number of industries have so far profited greatly from the possibilities of e-services. Successful examples include online banking, online stock......

Words: 856 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Literature Review

...How to improve efficiency of organization Literature Review Tanshu Song BUS 551 University of La Verne The effective of an organization is concern by every managers. It was an important innovation in business management. Organizational effectiveness considers how well an organization performs business. In the present prospectus, the research will focus on effective management style and individuals behaviour which will impact on the efficiency of organization. The following literature reviews will attempt to show the information related to prospectus and demonstrate the analysis. In the research article by William Clark and Ray Wright (2009), they mentions the challenge which organizations will face in next several years. Increasing pressure to do more with fewer workers, growing demand for strategic new services, expected loss of legacy management skills and need for automated solutions. Then they provide a solution which can capture the knowledge of retiring workers and perform many tasks necessary to manage both legacy and distributed systems. This wide range of solutions that enable knowledge retention and automate the process workflow to provision and maintain IT services specifically. “By taking advantage of the wide range of solutions for automating management tasks, the agency can benefit from the ability to create automated, repeatable processes, reduce the need to replace retiring workers, improve ability to recruit new......

Words: 714 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Literature Review

...Global Conference for Wikimedia 6 - 10 August 2014 · London FIND OUT MORE Close Literature review From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For a focused scientific review, see Systematic review. [hide]This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (November 2010) This article needs attention from an expert on the subject. (May 2014) A literature review is a text of a scholarly paper, which includes the current knowledge including substantive findings, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews use secondary sources, and do not report new or original experimental work.[1] Contents [hide] 1 Types of Literature Reviews 2 Distinguishing between Process and Product 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading Types of Literature Reviews[edit] Most often associated with academic-oriented literature, such as a thesis or peer-reviewed article, a literature review usually precedes a research proposal and results section. Its main goals are to situate the current study within the body of literature and to provide context for the particular reader. Literature reviews are a staple for research in nearly every academic field.[2] A systematic review is a literature review focused on a research question, trying to identify, appraise, select and......

Words: 1430 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Review of Literature

...optimize health (Jadelhack, 2012). The framework for health promotion is comprised of theories that include behavior, social sciences, and evidence based research (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014). Health promotion includes proactive participation at all levels of society and requires a multi-faceted approach by health care team members (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014). By providing effective health promotion, the overall health of society is improved and costs related to chronic illness are reduced (Jadelhack, 2012). Nurses must promote health through education, develop strategies to improve socio-environmental factors by participating in healthcare policy development and networking within the community (Richard, et al., 2010). Review of Literature: Health Promotion 3 Nurses make up the largest population of healthcare workers that provide direct care to patients, therefore they have a critical role in educating the patient to improve health (Hosseini, Torab, Taghdisi, & Vardanjani, 2013). Nursing roles in health promotion include education on disease prevention, slowing or stopping disease progression, and changes in lifestyle to optimize health (Godwin, 2010). Education provided by nurses takes place in variety of settings including schools, communities, work sites, homes, acute care facilities, and long term facilities. Health education includes teaching people healthy living, reduction of risk factors, developmental factors, healthy behaviors,......

Words: 1283 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Literature Review

...Literature Review Handout Liberty University Online Writing Center Handout Description A review of literature is a critical analysis of a portion of the published body of knowledge available through the use of summary, classification, and comparison of previous research studies, reviews of literature, and journal articles (“How to Write a Literature Review”, 2012). This handout discusses the reasons for writing a literature review and presents its various requirements. It examines what a literature review is, as well as what it is not; it distinguishes between the literature review and the annotated bibliography. Like many academic writing assignments, there is not one universal standard for writing a literature review. Its format can differ from discipline to discipline and from assignment to assignment. There is, however, an overall structure that is commonly used across various disciplines, and this format is examined in more detail. The handout concludes with some helpful “tips and tricks” for preparing a literature review. Disclaimer: The content of a literature review may vary from discipline to discipline and from assignment to assignment. The literature review content recommended in this handout is that which is most commonly included. If in doubt about what you should include in your literature review, please consult your professor. Literature Review Handout Defining a Literature Review ...

Words: 2913 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Literature Review

... What is a literature review? Put simply, it is an analysis of prior academic research so as to identify the who, what, where, and whys’ of the chosen topic area. You may or may not have conducted what some academics call a preliminary study – a brief search into the existing academic work in your chosen topic. After all, for some students carrying out primary research it’s vital that their work has never been carried out before and these initial studies are crucial when identifying a unique topic for research. In some subject areas, it may be difficult, if not impossible to identify areas for primary research and therefore a preliminary study may not be necessary (secondary research is usually carried out as a result). Whatever the starting point, the literature review forms one of the first major pieces of work in a dissertation. There are several main reasons why you would undertake a literature review. The first is to enable you, the author, to become absolutely clear on what it is you have chosen to research and study. By understanding other academic literature you can gain an understanding of what has been and is currently being researched. This will help with your own work by identifying windows of opportunity and helping to cement your research questions. For some subjects you may find there has not been much prior research in your field of study, in which case your literature review will have to be less specific and the academic net in which you search will have to......

Words: 2651 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Literature Review

...Literature Review The determination of this literature review is to find and review research and studies that illustrate how Principals can train educators to become enthusiastic communicators in their classrooms so they will be able to influence each and every one of their students. Improving students' relationships with teachers “has significant, encouraging effects for students' academic and social growth”. (National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future, 1996). If a student feels a special connection with their teacher their everyday communication will increase with more guidance and praise than criticism from the teacher, the student most likely will become more trustful and also will show more engagement in the academics and show better classroom behavior. Encouraging teacher-student relationships “pull students into the method of learning and help their desire to learn. (Odden et al. 2002). Encouraging teacher-student relationships showed by teachers' reports of little or none low self-esteem support, and little dependency have been shown to support students' change to school, contribute to their social skills, help academic performance, and foster students' resiliency in academic performance”.(Odden et al. 2002). These findings were visible even after taking into thought the level to which students' behavior difficulties related to problematic teacher-child relationships. (Hamre & Pianta, 2001). In which case were larger for boys than for girls......

Words: 739 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Review of the Literature

...Caring for Inmate-Patients: A Review of the Literature Caring for Inmate-Patients In 2010, approximately one in every 27 adults (2.8 million) in the United States was behind bars according to a report from the National Commission on Correctional Health Care (NCCHC), 2012. Maintaining a safe and secure environment is the most important mission of correctional facilities - not healthcare.  Correctional nurses are challenged to provide inmate healthcare services in a caring relationship that promotes wellness, restores health, and facilitates healing. A great deal has been written by nursing theorists regarding a caring attitude, and that it is fundamental to the nurse’s role. No other health care setting presents such limitations to nurses’ free expression of caring. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of the literature on how nurses balance the culture of security and the culture of care while delivering health care to inmate-patients in a correctional setting. Analysis It is well documented in the nursing literature that nursing care for prisoners is both complicated and conflicting. These findings clearly stated that the experiences of caring for inmate-patients vary greatly from that of any other health care setting. Both the infrastructure of a prison coupled with its restrictive security element, directly affects how the health care of inmate-patients is delivered. This is in direct correlation with the findings of Mathis & Schoenly, 2008;......

Words: 1980 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Review Literature

...2. LITERATURE REVIEW. In the context of India’s tea export, there exists vast literatures .But for this study we have included some of the important empirical works which are matched with our objectives. Chand and Tiwari,(1991),analyzead growth and instability of India’s export and import of agricultural commodities. Jaganathan , (1992) , in his paper examined the instabilities of export earnings of selected groups and selected commodities and all the commodities from the period 1974-75 to 1989-1990. Pal , (1992) , analyzed the magnitude , causes and effects of instability of agricultural export earnings of India for the period 1979 to 1989.Subramaniam , (1995) , analyzed the impact of fluctuations in tea production and exports on international tea trade .He articulated that India plays a significant role in world tea trade , being the world’s largest producer , consumer , and exporter . Therefore , fluctuations in India’s tea production , consumption and exports are enough to disturb international tea trade . Aiello , (1999) , analyzed that the effects of export earnings instability on economic growth of developing countries has long interested economists for several reasons . Reddy , (2001) , examined global demand for and supply of tea by estimating semi – log trends separately using data of the recent past , 1974 to 1988 , on the area under cultivation of tea , production , export and retention of tea for domestic consumption . Debraj , (2003) , in a......

Words: 4447 - Pages: 18