Free Essay

Literature

In: English and Literature

Submitted By nimphea
Words 4565
Pages 19
Муниципальная общеобразовательная средняя школа № 43

“Phone Conversation”
Методическая разработка урока по технологии
«Проблемное обучение».

Работала учитель английского языка:
Калашник Нелли Николаевна

г.Нижневартовск

МЕТОДИЧЕСКАЯ РАЗРАБОТКА ПРАКТИЧЕСКОГО ЗАНЯТИЯ
ПО ТЕМЕ “Phone Conversation”-2 часа.

по технологии проблемного обучения уровень полусамостоятельной и самостоятельной активности.

Что такое проблемное обучение? • Проблемное обучение- относится к активным технологиям обучения. • В его основе лежит решение какой-либо задачи, проблемы (от греческого problema- «задача, задание»). • В широком смысле проблема – это сложный теоретический вопрос, требующий изучения и разрешения. В науке это - противоречивая ситуация, выступающая в виде противоположных позиций в объяснении каких либо явлений, объектов, процессов и требующая адекватной теории для ее разрешения. Принципом проблемного обучения является отсутствие знаний для решения определенной проблемы в готовом виде, что и создает необходимость в их добывании. У учащихся должно возникнуть чувство неудовлетворенности имеющимися представлениями и знаниями.
Они должны прийти к ощущению их ограниченности.

Phone Conversation
Aim: 1.Develop language abilities in listening, reading, speaking, practicing speech patterns on the theme. 2. Develop mental abilities through comparing, analyzing, logical thinking, evaluating, solving communication problems. 3. Develop communication culture.
Task: Solve cultural, speech, situational problems using the problem solving technology.

Procedure

I. Принятие цели и задачи урока учащимися через проблемное изложение материала. Проблематизировать, значит вскрыть невидимую проблему.
Проблема - это осознание субъектом невозможности разрешить трудности и противоречия, возникшие в данной ситуации, средствами наличного знания и опыта. 1. Уровень полусамостоятельной активности
Характеризуется тем, что ученики могут применить усвоенные знания в новой ситуации и участвовать в совместном с педагогом поиске способа решения поставленной проблемы. 2. Уровень самостоятельной активности
Предусматривает выполнения самостоятельных работ репродуктивно- поискового типа, когда ученик самостоятельно работает по тексту учебника, применяет усвоенные знания в новой ситуации, конструктирует решение задачи среднего уровня сложности, путем логического анализа доказывает гипотезы с незначительной помощью учителя.
Что должен делать учитель? Требования к процессу. • Побуждать учащихся формулировать имеющиеся у них идеи и представления, высказывать их. • Сталкивать учащихся с явлениями, которые входят в противоречие с имеющимися представлениями. • Побуждать к выдвижению предположений, догадок, альтернативных объяснений. • Давать учащимся возможность исследовать свои предположения в свободной и ненапряженной обстановке, особенно путем обсуждений в малых группах. • Предоставлять ученикам возможность применять новые представления к широкому кругу явлений, ситуаций, так, чтобы они могли оценить их прикладное значение. В чем заключается взаимодействие учителя и учащихся при решении проблемной ситуации?
|Учитель |Ученик |
|Постановка наводящих вопросов, помогающих ученикам осознать существо |Осознание проблемной ситуации, актуализация усвоенных знаний.|
|проблемы | |
|Направляющие указания. |Анализ исходных данных, формирование проблемы. |
|Постановка наводящих вопросов, сообщение необходимой информации. |Выдвижение гипотезы и ее обоснование |
|Направляющие указания. |Проверка гипотезы, решение проблемы. |
|Постановка контрольных вопросов, уточнения, исправления. |Проверка решения, сопоставление его с исходными данными. |
|Анализ действий ученика в ходе решения. |Анализ хода решения, анализ ошибок. |
|Включение результатов решения в последующую учебную деятельность. |Обобщение и переход к новому учебному материалу. |

Teacher: So the theme Phone Conversation is not new for you. We all regularly speak over the phone on different occasions. It is rather familiar to you, isn’t it? Can you remember of any funny or an unpleasant or an embarrassing situation that happened while you spoke over a phone? Will you tell us about it?
(Discussion of the situations).
Well, do you think you’ll have any problems when speaking to a foreigner? Sure. What problems can they be? Let’s define them. The problems can be:

1. Cultural. 2. Speech. 3. Situational.

1. What do you think cultural problem is? We should know how to sound polite. Which way is polite to say? Is there any difference with the Russian language? 2. What do you think speech problem is? We should know useful and necessary speech patterns, direct and indirect speech. How to use this or that phrase? 3. As for the situational problem We should know what to do and what to say in different situations. When I asked my son to do some shopping or to visit a doctor he used to say: “What should I say?” Is it the same with you?

So these are the problems and to solve them we should define the task for the lesson.
Pupils say the task and the aim for the lesson.

Teacher: How do people solve problems? What do they start with? To solve the problem we should: • distinguish what we know and what is unknown, • Find the necessary information about the unknown things • Study the information • Evaluate it • Practice it
So these are the steps of our solving problem work.
Look at the blackboard and say which way is polite to say, which way is impolite and say it politely.

II. Solution of the cultural problem. 1. On the blackboard №1: What do you want? How can I help you? Do you recognize me? Peter is speaking. Wrong number. I’m afraid you’ve dialed the wrong number. What number are you calling? I want to speak to Victor, please. One sec. Just a moment, please. Hold on. Can you hold on a minute? Can you call back later? Could you possibly call back later?

On the blackboard №2: How to make questions sound polite?
Have you booked the tickets yet? Is Mr. Brown in? When is Mr. Brown back? Where can I get the brochure? Who can help me? (используя следующие фразы сделать речь более вежливой)

I wonder…
I’d like to know…
Do you know…
Can/ Could you tell me...
Have you got any idea…
2. Tape 33 Blue Print (intermediate).
The task: Listen and answer the questions. 1. Who does Eve want to speak to? 2. Where is he? 3. Do you think the woman is Dave’s: a) wife, b) landlady, c)girlfriend? 4. What three things does Eve want to know?

DIALOQUE
EVE: Hello. Can I speak to Dave Edgar please?
WOMAN: I’m afraid he isn’t home from work yet. Who’s speaking?
EVE: It’s Eve Maxwell here, a friend of his. Have you any idea when he’ll be back?
WOMAN: I’m not sure. He sometimes works late.
EVE: I see. Could you tell me what his work number is? I’m afraid I’ve lost it.
WOMAN: Yes, hold on while I look in the book. It’s 31556.
EVE: Thanks. By the way, do you know if he received a parcel this morning?
WOMAN: No, I don’t. I could go and ask my husband.
EVE: No, don’t bother. I’m phoning from a public call box. Anyway, thanks for your help. Goodbye.
WOMAN: Goodbye.

Now repeat after the speaker 3. Tapes 5.6, 5.7. New Headway (Upper-intermediate)
Beginning a telephone conversation 1. Here is the beginning of a telephone conversation between two people who don’t know each other. Put it in the right order. • Hello. TVS computer Services, Darren speaking. How can I help you? • Certainly. Who’s calling, please? • Good morning. Could I speak to your customer services department, please? • Ok. You’re through now. Go ahead. • One moment, Mr. Jones. I’m trying to connect you. • Thank you. • Yes, please. • This is Keith Jones. • I’m afraid the line is busy at the moment. Will you hold? • Hello. Is that customer services? I was wondering if you could tell me… Listen and check your answers.

Ending a telephone conversation. 2. Here is the end of a telephone conversation between two work colleagues, Andy and Barry. Put it in the right order. • So, Barry. It was good to talk to you. Thank you very much for phoning. • I certainly will. And you’ll send me a copy of the report? • That’s great, Barry. Have a good weekend! • My pleasure. By the way, how’s your golf these days? Still playing? • Same to you, too! Bye, Andy. • OK. I don’t want to keep you. So, you’ll give me a ring when you’re back, right? • No, not much. I just don’t seem to find the time these days. Anyway, Barry… • It’s true. Right, Barry. I must fly. I’m late for a meeting. • What a shame, you used to enjoy it so much. • Bye, Barry.
Listen and check your answers.
Who’s trying to end the conversation? Who wants to chat? How does Andy try to signal that he wants to end the conversation? How do they confirm their arrangements? 3. Study the table how to begin and end the conversation.
|Beginning a telephone conversation |
|Answering the phone |Hello. 267890. |
| |Hello. Simpson’s Travel Agents. |
| |Hello. The Regent Hotel. Kathy speaking. How can I help you? |
|Introducing yourself |Hello, James. This is Sarah Jackson. |
| |Hi, Sarah. It’s Alan. |
| |(Is that Mr Brown?) Speaking. |
|Asking who is speaking |Is that Sarah? |
| |Who’s calling? |
|Asking how someone is |How are things? |
| |How’s the family? |
| |How’s everything? |
|Saying how you are |Not too bad, thanks. |
| |We’re surviving. |
| |Pretty good, thanks. |
|Asking about someone’s work |What are you up? |
| |Have you got a lot on at the moment? |
| |How are things at work? |
|Talking about work |I’ve got a lot on. |
| |Thing are looking up. |
| |I mustn’t complain. |
|Ending a telephone conversation |
|Signaling that you want to end |So, Barry. It was good to talk to you. |
| |Anyway, Barry… |
| |Right, Barry. I must fly. I’m late for a meeting. |
|Confirming arrangements at the end of a phone call |So you’ll give me a ring when you’re back, right? |
| |And you’ll send me a copy of the report? |
| |It’ll be in the post tonight. |
| |I’ll see you on the fourteenth in the bar of |
| |The County. |

So, now we know to sound polite, how to begin and end the conversation.

III. It’s time to turn to the solution of the speech problem.

1. Tape №2 Headway (intermediate). Listening and Speaking.
a) Insert the correct verb.
b) Listen to the tape and check.
c) Read in pairs.
My computer’s gone wrong! 1. Read the telephone conversation and put the correct auxiliary verb into each gap. Use the contracted form where possible.
D. Good afternoon, Apple Helpline here. I’m Damian. How can I help you?
V. Oh, at last! Hello, Damian. I (a) _____________ got a terrible problem with my computer. It (b) ______________ (not) working at all!
D. Ok. Ok. Tell me you name and you company name and describe what (c) ___________ happened.
V. My name’s Valerie, Val actually, Valerie Marks. I (d) ___________ (not) work for a company, I’m self-employed. I work at home, and I (e) _________ trying to meet an important deadline at the moment. This morning I (f) _______________ working away happily, when suddenly everything stopped and a message came on the screen. Then the screen went blank.
D. Ok Val, (g) _____________ (not) worry! What (h) ____________ the message say?
V. I can’t remember exactly, because I (i) ________________(not) understand it, but I think it said something about “ not enough memory.”
D. it’s OK, Val. I understand. Tell me, Val, (j) ____________ you switched the computer off?
V. No, I (k) __________ (not). It’s still on.
D. Fine, Val. Now do exactly want I say. Go to your computer, OK? Can you see a ‘W’ with the mouse? What (l) __________ it say? Can you read it to me?
V. it says three things. There’s a list of three things. First it says….

2. Here are some questions about the conversation. The words are mixed up. Put them in the right order. Then answer the question.

a. Val the is why Apple Helpline ringing?
____________________________________?
Because __________________________

b. Work for Val does company which?
____________________________________?
She ______________________________

c. Doing when computer she her was what stopped?
____________________________________?
She_______________________________

d. Val why remember message the can’t?
____________________________________?
Because___________________________

e. Switched computer she has her off?
____________________________________?
No,______________________________ 3. Tape 10. Listen and check.

2. Study the Spoken English Speech Patterns: • Read them in changing pairs. • Study the speech patterns. • Translate from Russian into English.
Task 1: Read and Study the dialogues and word expressions

Hello, can I speak to Jill McMurray?
- Mr. McMurray isn't in. Any message?
- My name is Swindler, Frank Swindler.
-Please, spell your name, Sir.
- S-w-i-n-d-l-e-r. Swindler. I've just come from California, I have brought a letter and a parcel for Mr. McMurray. I am stay rig at the Ritz Hotel,, dim 406. Please, tell him to call me up.
- Ok soon as '.fir. McMurray comes, he will call you up.
- Fine. I am waiting for his call. Good-Bye.

- Hello! Am I speaking to Frank Swindler?
- Yes, my name is Frank Swindler. Who is speaking?
- This is Jill McMurray.
- Good evening, Mr. McMurray. I've brought you a letter parcel from Mr. Blake. John Blake. Is the name familiar to you?
- Certainly. 'Thank you ever so much,. Where and when ail we meet?
Could you come to the Ritz Hotel?
- Sure.
- Does 8 p.m. suit you? I am in room 706.
- Fine. I'll be there at 8 p.m. See you later.
- I am looking forward to meeting you.
- Same here. Good-Bye.

- Hello, is this Mr. Crow?
- Yes, here is Crow. Who is speaking?
- This is Donald Turner. We met a week ago at the talks n Bonn. Remember?
- Now you've mentioned it I remember. Good afternoon, Mr. Turner. How are you?
- Fine, thank you. How are things with you? No complaints. Thanks.
- I would like to know if there is any news. You know what mean.
- Yes, I do. There's no news.
- No news is good news.
- You've said it. Please, call me up the day after tomorrow.
I hope I’ll be able to tell you something more definite.
- All right. What time?
- Any time after 2 p.m.
- All right. Good-bye.
- Good-bye.

- Hello, am I speaking to Mary Fast?
- No, you are not. Wait a minute...
- Mary Fast is speaking.
- Here is Jane Butler. Good morning, Mary!
- Good morning, Jane! How are you?
- Pretty much the same. Thanks. How are you?
- So-so, thanks. Where are you, Jane?
- I am waiting for you at the department store. I've brought all the papers you need.
- It's very nice of you. I"11 be there in no time. Are you in you carp
- Definitely. You know my car, don't you?
- It goes without saying

Task2: Practice the speech patterns
30.Tell him to call me up.
Tell the secretary to answer the telephone call.
Tell them to wait for me.
Tell her to do the job.
Tell Henry to come at 5 p.m.

31. As soon as he comes, I'll tell him everything.
As soon as he calls you up, ask him to come.
As soon as the children go to bed, we shall watch TV.
If the weather is fine, we shall go fishing.
If I get tickets, we shall go to the theater.
After she finishes translating the article, she will go home.

32. Is the name familiar to you?
Is the face familiar to you? Are these facts familiar to you? Is this sight familiar to you?

33. I am waiting for you.
For whom are you waiting? Wait a minute.
I have been waiting for you for an hour now.
Since when have you been waiting for me?

34. When shall we meet?
What time shall we make it?
What day shall we make it?
At what time do we meet?

35. Let's meet at 6 p.m.
Let's make it 6 p.m.
Let's make it Tuesday.
Let's meet at the cinema house.
Translate from Russian into English.
30.Скажите, чтобы он мне позвонил.
Скажите, чтобы секретарь ответил на телефонный звонок.
Скажите им, чтобы они меня подождали.
Скажите чтобы она сделала работу.
Скажите Генри, чтобы он пришел в 5 часов вечера.

31. Как только он придел, я ему все расскажу.
Как только он вам позвонит, попросите его прийти.
Как только дети лягут спать, мы будем смотреть телевизор.
Если погода будет хорошая, мы поедем на рыбалку.
Если я достану билеты, мы поедем в театр.
Когда она закончит переводить статью она пойдет домой.

32. Вам знакомо это имя?
Вам знакомо это лицо?
Вам известны эти факты?
Вам знакома эта достопримечательность?

33. Я жду вас.
Кого вы ждете?
Я жду вас уже час

С какого времени вы меня ждете?

34. Когда встретимся?
На какое время договоримся?
На какой день договоримся?
В котором часу мы увидимся?

35. Давайте встретимся в 6 часов вечера.
Давайте договоримся на 6 часов вечера
Давайте договоримся на вторник.
Давайте встретимся в кино.
Task 3: Translate into English and Reproduce the dialoques.

1. – Алло.это 1-2-1-5-0-1-8? - Yes, who is speaking, please/ - Меня зовут Ричард Фокс. Можно поговорить с Мистером Кларком? - Wait a minute… Clark is speaking. - Привет Мартин. Это Ричарл Фокс. - Я рад тебя слышать, Ричард. Как поживаешь? - Fine, thanks. How are you? - Все также. Спасибо. Как твои родители? - My father is doing fine. My mother is ill. - Очень сожалею. Могу я помочь? - I’m afraid not. Thanks. I say, Richard, I would like to meet you. - Я тоже хотел бы тебя повидать. Давай встретимся сегодня вечером. - No objections on my part. Where shall we make it? - Давай встретимся в ресторане The Mayflower. Ты знаешь где это находится? - Sure, I’ll be waiting for you at the Mayflower restaurant at half past 7. Ok? - Давай встретимся ровно в 8 у входа в ресторан. - That’s settled. Till 8 o’clock. Goodbye. - Goodbye.

2. - Алло, попросите к телефону Эмили Брук. - I’m afraid she isn’t in. Any message? - Да, пожалуйста. Передайте ей, что я буду звонить ровно в 3 часа. Моя фамилия Паркер. Джон Паркер. - All right. Anything else? - У меня для нее письмо из Великобритании от ее двоюродного брата Павла. - Well, I know Paul very well. How is he getting on? - Он получил повышение по службе и скоро приедет домой. Он хочет провести отпуск с родственниками. - It is a pleasant peace of news. Emily will be glad to hear it. Is that all? - Да. Спасибо. До свидания. - Good bye.

Teacher: Now we have solved speech problems by studying speech patterns and useful phrases and using them in our own dialogues. Let’s turn to Situational Problems.

IV. Solution of the situational problem.

1. Listening Test. (FCE practice tests2) (For those who didn’t understand there is the tape script to compare with what was listened to). 1. You hear a business women talking to her assistant over the phone. What is the reason for her call? A. She’s left her laptop on her desk. A. She’s left her diary behind. B. She’s left her passport in a drawer. 2. You hear a man phoning through an order for a takeaway meal. Where does he want it delivered? A. to his car B. to his office C. to his studio 3. You hear a woman talking to a mobile phone company. What is she told to do? A. take her phone back to the shop B. charge the battery for longer C. return her phone to the company

4. You hear a woman talking on the phone to her friend. What is she offering to do for her friend? A. look after her children B. go to the conference C. organize her work

TAPESCRIPTS

Hi, Celia, it’s me. Yes, I’m at the airport. No, no, I’ve got my passport-unlike last time when I forgot it. Look, I’m afraid I’ve left my diary. No, no the big desk one, the one I keep in my handbag- it’s on the top of my laptop computer. I know, I was going to bring my laptop but I just couldn’t carry anything else. Well, if it’s not there, it’ll be in the top drawer of my desk. Yes? Brilliant. Can you get here in the next hour? I’ll wait at check in – and thank you!

Hello. My name’s Birch, Alan Birch, that’s right, yes, from the studio. Yes, my usual please, no, hang on, I think I’d like a different topping. Can I have mushrooms instead of onions? I’m sorry this is bad line, I can hardly hear you, and it’s breaking up. What? I’m in my car, yes, stuck in the traffic jam. I’m absolutely starving. Look, can you get the boy to go round to my office- opposite the studio- and I’ll pick it up from there? Sure, I’ll be in my car. If he waits on the pavement outside, I’ll pay him when I get there. Great. Thanks a lot.

A: Good morning. You are through to Maria. How can I help you?
B: I need to talk to someone about my mobile phone.
A: Can you tell me the problem, please?
B: Well, I bought my phone about four weeks ago and I think there must be something wrong with the battery. Even if I charge it up every night I only seem to get about 10 minutes’ talking time. I took it back to the shop but they didn’t want to know.
A: Oh. That sounds strange. The shop really deals with it. We’ll let you have a special envelope so you can send it back to us and we’ll check the battery for you.
B: Right, thanks.

It won’t be any trouble at all. I mean, you’d do the same for me. Of course work doesn’t come before family, I know, but there are times like conference this weekend when you’ve got no choice. I’d go to the conference for you, but I don’t think your boss’d like that! Look, I’m sure I can find some way of entertaining them. We could go to the sports center or maybe see a film. Why don’t you ask them what they’d like to do and give me a ring back? You concentrate on sorting out your work.

2. Task: Make up a dialogue. Role cards for telephone conversation.

|Student 2 A. |
|You are married with two girls, and you work in a travel agent’s. You are going to phone your friend Martin, who lives in Durham, |
|about 15 miles away. He runs a bookshop. He isn’t married. He’s mad about dogs. He breeds German Shepherds, which he takes to dog |
|show. His favourite dog is called Wizzer. You want to ask Martin if you can stay the night at his house on the night of Friday the |
|14th, because you are meeting up with two old university friends, and you want to be able to spend time with them. |
|Student 2 B. |
|You are Martin. You are a friend of James. James works in a travel agent’s and he is married with |
|two girls. You live in Durham, about 15 miles away from where James lives. You run a bookshop. You |
|aren’t married, but you adore dogs. You breed German Shepherds, and you take them to dog shows. Your|
|favourite dog is called Wizzer. James is going to ask you a favour. Maybe you can oblige, but maybe |
|you’re busy that night. Remember! You answer the phone. Begin by giving your phone number. |

|Student 3 A. |
|You want to book two seats to see a film, so you phone the cinema. You want to see FEAR of the DARK next Friday, either early in the |
|evening or at about nine o’clock. You need to ask what time the film starts, how much the tickets are, and whether there’s a booking |
|fee. Have your credit card details ready. |
|Student 3 B. |
|You work for the Odeon Cinema. You take booking, and give details of when films are showing. Someone |
|is going to phone you, asking for details about the film FEAR of the DARK. Decide what time it starts|
|in the evening. Presumably there are at least two showings per evening. How much are the tickets? Is |
|there a price, or several different ones? Is there a booking fee? You need to get the person’s credit|
|card details. Remember! You answer the phone. Begin by saying “Odeon Cinemas, Pat speaking. How can I|
|help you? |

|Student 4 A. |
|You are going to phone a taxi firm to book a taxi to take you to the airport. Decide where you’re going, on what date, and at what time. |
|Which airport are you going from? Which terminal? What time does the plane leave? What time do you need to check in? How long does it take|
|to get to the airport from your house? Will the traffic hold you up? |
|Student 4 B. |
|You work for Tony’s Taxis. Someone is going to ring to book a taxi. You need to get the following |
|information. What day? What time? What’s the address? What’s the name of the person? Where are they |
|going? You will need to decide a time to pick up, as you know what the traffic can be like at |
|different times of the day. Remember! You answer the phone. Begin by saying “Tony’s taxis. Pat |
|speaking. How can I help you? |

|Student 5 A. |
|You are a student of English. You are going to stay with a host family, Mr. and Mrs. Brown, who live in London, for a month while you |
|study at International House. An agency has organized your stay with the Browns. You are going to phone Mr. and Mrs. Brown to introduce|
|yourself, and to give details of when you’re arriving. Decide how you’re travelling, what day you’re travelling, and what time you |
|expect to arrive. End by saying something like “I’m very excited about coming to London,” or “I’m really looking forward to meeting |
|you.” |
|Student 5 B. |
|You are Mr. or Mrs. Brown. You are English, and you live in London. Both Heathrow Airport and |
|Waterloo Station, where the Eurostar train arrives, are pretty close to your house. You are going to |
|be a host family to a foreign student, who is coming to London for a month to study English. He/she |
|is going to phone you to say hello, and to give details of his/her travel arrangements. You could |
|offer to meet him/her. Remember! You answer the phone. Begin by giving your phone number. |

V. Риpils present the solution of the situational problems by playing role-cards.

(4-5 different role-cards).

VI. Evaluation of the pupils work at the lesson:
Teacher:
What did you find most helpful to learn at the lesson? What was too easy and most difficult to do? What is still necessary to study to be efficient in solving problems? What is the next theme you’d like to practice?

The Language Material Used at the Workshop

1. New Headway English Course. Upper-Intermediate. Student’s Book. Liz and john Soars. Oxford University Press, 2002. 2. First Certificate Practice Tests Plus 2. Diana L. Fried-Booth. Longman.2002. 3. Practice Tests 2. FCE. Virginia Evans, Jenny Dooley. Express Publishing. 2000. 4. New Headway English Course. Intermediate. Workbook. Lis and John Soars. Oxford University Press, 2001. (w-b New H-W intermediate) 5. Spoken English. L. N. Khannikova. Forty Topical Dialogues. Two Hundred Speech Patterns. Moscow. SOVAMINCO, Soviet-American Joint Venture, Computer Press Agency, 1991. (S.E.)

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Literature

...historical periods are reflected in literature. National and tribal sagas, accounts of the origin of the world and of customs, and myths which sometimes carry moral or spiritual messages predominate in the preurban eras. The epics of Homer, dating from the early to middle Iron age, and the great Indian epics of a slightly later period, have more evidence of deliberate literary authorship, surviving like the older myths through oral tradition for long periods before being written down. As a more urban culture developed, academies provided a means of transmission for speculative and philosophical literature in early civilizations, resulting in the prevalence of literature in Ancient China, Ancient India, Persia and Ancient Greece and Rome. Many works of earlier periods, even in narrative form, had a covert moral or didactic purpose, such as the Sanskrit Panchatantra or the Metamorphoses of Ovid. Drama and satire also developed as urban culture provided a larger public audience, and later readership, for literary production. Lyric poetry (as opposed to epic poetry) was often the speciality of courts and aristocratic circles, particularly in East Asia where songs were collected by the Chinese aristocracy as poems, the most notable being the Shijing or Book of Songs. Over a long period, the poetry of popular pre-literate balladry and song interpenetrated and eventually influenced poetry in the literary medium. In ancient China, early literature was primarily focused on......

Words: 590 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Literature

...pieces of literature that themes were quite similar but written in different forms. These two stories are King Arthur Witten by Sir Thomas Malory and Othello by William Shakespeare. I personally had some difficult reading these two stories however; I was able to understand them after going back and reviewing key points that explained the main idea. The story of King Arthur is based on romance and chivalry and it was difficult to read because it was written in old English as supposed to early Anglo-Saxon literature. This storie had a lot to do with the story of Othello because the plots are similar in some way. In King’s Arthur, The King discovers that his best Knight Lancelot is in love with his Queen Guenevere. That fact was clearly seen in the story when the Queen favors Lancelot above the other Kinights. “Queen Guenever had him in great favour above all other knights, and in return he was loyal to her above all other ladies and damsels all his life, and for love of her he did many deeds of arms, and saved her from the fire through his noble chivalry” (Malroy, 668). Once the King discovered that Lancelot betrayed his trust the King was deeply hurt. King Arthur lost focus of his Kingdom due to this betrayal leading to the fall of Camelot. In the other hand we have the story of Othello written in a totally different form. This type of literature is written in verse and made it quite difficult for me to read and understand. I really struggled to read the piece of literature......

Words: 498 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Literature

... Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 What is Theory? 1 What is Literature and Does it Matter? 18 Literature and Cultural Studies 42 55 Language, Meaning, and Interpretation Rhetoric, Poetics, and Poetry Narrative 82 94 69 Performative Language Identity, Identification, and the Subject 108 Appendix: Theoretical Schools and Movements 121 References 133 139 Further Reading Index 145 Chapter 1 What is theory? In literary and cultural studies these days there is a lot of talk about theory – not theory of literature, mind you; just plain ‘theory’. To anyone outside the field, this usage must seem very odd. ‘Theory of what?’ you want to ask. It’s surprisingly hard to say. It is not the theory of anything in particular, nor a comprehensive theory of things in general. Sometimes theory seems less an account of anything than an activity – something you do or don’t do. You can be involved with theory; you can teach or study theory; you can hate theory or be afraid of it. None of this, though, helps much to understand what theory is. ‘Theory’, we are told, has radically changed the nature of literary studies, but people who say this do not mean literary theory, the systematic account of the nature of literature and of the methods for analysing it. When people complain that there is too much theory in literary studies these days, they don’t mean too much systematic reflection on the nature of literature or debate about the distinctive qualities of literary language,......

Words: 44695 - Pages: 179

Premium Essay

Literature

...of the things that first came to my mind upon pondering on the question 'What is Literature?'. And just lately I have known that literature also includes songs, speeches, plays, and many others in written and spoken forms. I have also known that things that are produced out of creative imagination can be referred as literary works which are the ones that comprise literature. Considering this description of what literature is, the coverage of literature seems very puzzling. If literary works are those produced out of creative imagining, then it would directly point to fictional works. But then, there are also non-fictional works that are considered literary. There are literary essays and novels that are non-fictional. Examples of these are those based on true stories. Thus, literature goes beyond just creative imagination. And also, one person may consider a work produced out of creativity while another person may not, so then can that work be considered literary? Another important factor to be taken with high regard in discussing literature is periods of time since people coming from different historical periods may have different perceptions on what they consider 'literature'. It is vital to tackle these questions since literature is present in our everyday life, though it is not consciously felt by many. Terry Eagleton, a literary critic and writer, had written in his essay 'What is Literature?', “What matters may not be where you came from but how people treat you”. He......

Words: 298 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Literature

...Review of Related Literature A review of related literature is the process of collecting, selecting, and reading books, journals, reports, abstracts, and other reference materials. The following information may be collected: 1. Background information about the problem and related concepts. 2. Theories that explain the existence of the problem and the possible connection between certain factors and the problem 3. Data that confirms the existence and seriousness of the problem 4. General and specific findings of studies related to the problem 5. Recommendations for further study given in related studies Why Review Literature? A review of related literature is a must in research. The following are some of the obvious reasons; 1. It helps the researcher identify and define a research problem 2. It helps justify the need for studying a problem. 3. It prevents unnecessary duplication of a study 4. It can be a source of a theoretical basis for the study 5. It enables the researcher to learn how to conceptualize a research problem and properly identify and operationally define study variables 6. It helps formulate and refine research instruments 7. It provides lesson for data analysis and interpretation. When to Start Reviewing Related Literature? While the research problem is still being conceptualized, the researcher must already start reviewing literature. In identifying and defining the research problem, the researcher must be......

Words: 520 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Literature

...Poetry, prose, sonnets, drama, plays, short stories and novels are concepts that first came to my mind when I think in the question “What is literature?” The definition of literature has change over time. The only thing that is certain about the meaning of literature is that the definition will change. The concepts about what is literature about also change over time. In order to get a clear understanding of exactly what literature is, first we need to know its definition. According to the Merriam-Webster, literature is defined by “the body of written works produced in a particular language, country, or age; the body of writings on a particular subject: printed matter.”  Literature has to do with letters, but some people often think that literature is only one thing, not knowing that it is composed by several elements that we use every day. These important elements include poems, prose, sonnets, drama, plays, short stories and novels. Poetry is created from the soul. It comes from your emotions and it needs every piece of creativity inside you. It has been called the art of “saying the unsayable” because trough this you can express your feelings with no limit, and nobody can tell you that is wrong. If you make a poem and you think it is not good enough, well it is no good. You as the author or the reader, can only judge if it is good or but for you but maybe for some one else it is the opposite as it is for you. A good place to start when looking back at how......

Words: 4267 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Literature

...Literature Literature is the artistic expression of thought, which is replete with feelings and imagination. It is expressed in such an untechnical form as to make it intelligible and give aesthetic pleasure and relief to the mind of the common man. According to Lord Morely: "Literature consists of all the books where moral truth and human passion are touched with a certain largeness, sanity and attraction of form." In other words, literature heightens our awareness of human life. It enables us to look at nature with new eyes. It interprets with charm of language the experiences and spiritual intuitions of man. Literature is one of the instruments, and one of the most powerful instruments, for forming character, for giving us, characters armed with reason, braced by knowledge, clothed with steadfastness and courage, and inspired by that public spirit and public virtue of which it has been well said that they are the brightest ornaments of the mind of man. Literature is great because of its universality. It is powerful enough to supersede the narrow interests of a class in favour of humanity as a whole. It does not deal with the specific society of a specific community, but with the society of man as a whole. For this reason, the literature that appealed to the people through the spoken word has a greater appeal than that which appeals through the written word which may not reach all men. The recited epics of Homer, the acted plays of Shakespeare, the chanted songs of......

Words: 624 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Literature

...Tyree Snorgrass Mrs. Urbina AP Literature 1 October 2013 MacBeth Research William Shakespeare, the creator of the tragic story “MacBeth” uses a diverse set of allusions symbols, and figurative language examples throughout the work to enhance the different themes that are throughout the play. In, “MacBeth” there is many themes that are directed, one would be tragedy, and also, tyranny. From beginning to end, Shakespeare develops the meaning of the work by taking the reader through different scenarios and tossing allusions into the piece that help the plot and central theme of the story reveal. The world calls “MacBeth” one of Shakespeare’s grand plays and have been recognized internationally, the play contains symbols like blood, to further identify the massacres and the murders that MacBeth has been continuing to commit throughout the play. The meaning of the work is developed more intensely with this symbol because blood is viewed as gory and horror, and that is what the play eventually moves to. Moving into the act 2, while the tragic hero Macbeth suffers from a flaw that has been growing and growing immensely within himself, a personal and also a self-oriented error that is purely the fault and mistake of the character, Macbeth is now the victim of an external force. The external force is fate, a fate that has been introduced by the prophecy, supported by the weird and demanding sisters, and reinforced urgently by Lady Macbeth. The 3 Witches' prophecy that has been......

Words: 1252 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Literature

...Phase5 IP Literature: Reflecting on the big picture LITR201-1502A-08 Professor Wright Terralyn Montgomery May 7, 2015 Literature can be defined as creative writing from creative imaginations. Poetry, non-fiction, fiction, and drama are literature works. It describes tradition and cultures beginning centuries ago. “Saving Sourdi” was set in the United States of America. It takes place at the family operated restaurant. Literature affects people personally according to their current area of their life. It all depends on one’s ability to want to learn literature. We will always find a work of literature that shows values, morale, and attitudes of society. “The men had been growing louder, until they were our only customers, and, finally one of them staggered up and put his arm across Sourdi’s shoulders. He called her his “China doll” and his friends hooted at this”. (Chai, 2001, p.81-82) “He was just this funny looking white kid…Chopstick-boy I called him just to be mean”. (Chai, 2001, p.84) The “Birthmark” was told in third person. The wife’s unwanted birthmark on her face caused problems in their marriage. He wanted to remove her birthmark which caused her death. In “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” the grandmother hats symbolizes her demise in life. She held onto her hat the whole story even after death. The town of Toomsboro means day of doom due to the fact everybody died. The Misfits car described it was built like a hearse which symbolizes death. “Battle......

Words: 1691 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Literature

...Symbolism, theme, and other literary elements within literature Michelle Deckard ENG125 Instructor Heather Neilson 08/18/2014 Symbolism, theme, and other literary elements within literature Literary works are a way of escaping or comparing to day to day life. Many works can grab you with extensive word usage, language, emotion, and even setting. Symbolism which is used in most literary works such as, The Worn path, by Eudora Welty and Good country people by Flannery O’Connor which also have similar themes. Theme consistent in both works is similar due to the religious nature portrayed in, The Worn path and Good country people. Though each are similar each portray a different aspect of faith, from redemption to triumph. Perception of literary elements based on the characters within each work, are portrayed differently the overall themes are similar. Symbolism can be described as one thing meaning more than its literal meaning. (Clugston, 2014) For instance, Welty’s, The Worn path, is seen instantly like: “Seem like there is chains about my feet, time I get this far, she said, in the voice of argument old people keep to use with themselves. Something always take a hold of me on this hill-pleads I should stay.” (Saunders, 1992) The worn path itself is symbolic of the journey of life that has been traveled many times over. Even the character, Phoenix Jackson, her name alone is a symbol. Phoenix is representative of a mystical bird that rises in the......

Words: 1572 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Literature

...muhammad hasan askari Literature and Revolution* What is the relationship between literature and revolution? Should lit- erature assist revolution and, if so, to what degree? Before deliberating on these questions we should first determine the precise meaning of the term ìrevolution,î because many champions of revolution are found to be generally unaware of what the term implies and what we ourselves understand it to mean. A host of problems arise from the lack of a proper understanding of the word, whether in literature or in politics. A further difficulty is that, like all other terms, the meaning is not determined so much by an individualís sense-experiences as by the requirements, and sometimes even the convenience, of parties founded on political and sociological beliefs. In any case, an exploration of the word ìrevolutionî reveals several meanings. 1. We first encounter a common manís concept of revolution. Since some degree of force generally accompanies every revolutionary act, an individual witnesses some bloodletting, mayhem and plunder. All nations experience such things on a large or small scale. As a result, the instant the word ìrevolutionî is mentioned, the mind inevitably conjures up images of bloodshed and carnage. Rulers, whether individuals or groups, usually do not relinquish power easily, they have to be forced out, so revolutionary groups themselves encourage this concept of revolution. The fact that the concept becomes a noose......

Words: 2981 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Literature

...“The research process” Flowchart 1. Identify the research problem: In this first phase you consider a research problem based in your interests and in your field. 2. Perform a literature review: Search for literature related to the problem to gain knowledge about the topic. 3. State the purpose of the study: It is important to be specific and clear when stating your purpose at the study. 4. Develop a research plan: Steps for developing and conducting your research that includes also how and when to collect data. 5. Contact stakeholders: Includes internal and external members of an institution who must review your research before conducting it, explaining and describing the potential benefits and plans of your research. 6. Conduct the study: Data collection begins and then is analysed to determine the significance of the results. 7. Summarize the results: Develop a conclusion of your results, as well as some suggestions and improvement if needed. Words: Conduct: The way that something is managed or directed. Example: He conducted research about scientific excavations. Implication: Something that is suggested, or happens, indirectly. / A possible future effect or result. Example: His implication of immediate changes surprised us. Parameters: A rule or limit that controls what something is or how something should be done. Example: Ministers will meet next week to set the parameters for the peace conference. Derived:...

Words: 641 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Literature

...Short talk In students’ point of view, literature is just a subject in our school education or a compilation of various writings impart of our history. However, in its deeper sense, how literature affects our life? Literature is the body of written works of language, period or culture. It must be an analysis of experience and a synthesis of the findings into a unity. It not only describes reality but also adds to it. They are a depiction of the different facets of common man’s life. It also serves as a food for thought and a tonic for imagination and creativity. Most of all, literature offers us lessons, motivations, and inspirations that help us to develop and improve our personality. We read literary works not only neither for pleasure nor a requirements in school. Authors also write literary pieces not just to gain income nor be famous. The purpose of literature in our lives is not only to narrate the appropriate sequence of events in the story. It is also not only to have knowledge in the past and present happenings in our life but to know the hidden reasons why it is written. It is because literature improves our personality by reminding us something we neglected and forget motivates and inspires us. It teaches us how to become a better person in our society and how we can contribute to our country’s success. We must remember, you must open your mind not only for the things seen but in the things not visible that contribute a meaningful part of our life....

Words: 265 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Literature

...give for literature is "written books that have value and are timeless". The thing about good literature is that it does not have to be recent. Many works of literature from hundreds of years ago are still interesting and valueable to the modern day reader. Although times have changed, human nature really has not. People still can relate and have the same feelings as the characters in a book from centurys ago. Humans still have man vs self conflict, experience madness, jealousy, joy and sadness and can really appreciate literature that portray emotions that they have experienced. Literature can not be any old book, it has to be good. A book that does not interest the reader or provide any significant value will not stand the test of time. Good literature is drama-filled and will keep the reader on edge guessing what will come next. Also, it is helpful if the literature has a lesson or value. Humans from the 21st century are able to learn from the themes of older literature and relate them to what they have going on in their modern day lives. A meaningless book can be entertaining but will not have the same effect as a book that is able to hook the readers interest but also apply to everyday life. 3. Iv never been a person who has loved to read literature. A lot of times i have found myself bored and uninteristed in what i am reading. With that said i have learned to appreciate good literature. In my opinion the best type of literature to read is dramatic literature.......

Words: 668 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Literature

...Literature BSHS 441 January4, 2012 Literature International Rescue Committee. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.rescue.org/ International Rescue Committee (IRC) is providing a massive information through their website, which includes the locations, contact information, and types of services. In this website each page relates to one type of service as we see. IRC is a great provider of advocacy for those whom are in any condition that are seeking help. For those people, who just experienced earthquake or those who moved to new destination looking for someone to help them. In this website nothing is confusing or unclear. Each individual is responsible for task that is assigned no matter where in the world is. As the website shows IRC is providing these information online to be accessible for anyone who is looking for help with any background, color, age, or condition. IRC is one of the greatest agencies in Human Services field. Refugees International. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.refintl.org/ Refugees International is another Human Services agency in all around the world that provides great help to whoever is in need. RI has done a great job in directing people through their website. Information is completely available to be followed. RI is really strong in providing advocacy for refugees based on testimonies and also the status of funding. Advocating for someone who just experienced the traumatic event is really important which has been done and will be...

Words: 397 - Pages: 2