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Literature

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Jules Verne: Five Weeks in a Balloon
1863’s Five Weeks in a Balloon, the first of Jules Verne’s famous Voyages Extraordinaires, follows the adventures of three explorers as they attempt to be the first men to traverse Africa from the east to the west utilising a hydrogen filled balloon to make the journey in a far shorter time than normal. The beginning of the book details the plans of the trips architect, Dr Ferguson, and contains what is essentially a justification of the idea including details of how the balloon would work, including the mathematics for its much vaunted ‘ascensional force’, and it is from this first section that true scientific fiction draws its origin.
The book also functions in part as a history of the exploration of Africa. Verne gives detailed descriptions of the extent of the various expeditions into Africa, including who they were made by, where they reached, and various ways in which the explorers died, usually in an unpleasant manner at the hands of either angry natives or nasty diseases. These tales serve to place the story in history in a believable fashion, and also to remind the reader that the outcome of the journey is far from certain, lending the tribulations the adventurers undergo an air of genuine danger.
The characters in the balloon are all different enough to give a sense of reality and engagement to the novel and make it stand apart from a merely didatic text with a plot thrown in. The Doctor is initially annoying and preachy. Kennedy the ‘sportsman’ appears to be a bloodthirsty and cynical character, whilst Joe the manservant is as toady and lickspittle as can be. However, over the course of the book, the group meshes together wonderfully, each performing their various roles with aplomb and honour. By the end of the book the set of characters that initially appeared so unpleasant have become familiar and well liked companions, so much so that the understated conclusion is both typical of the unassuming and modest heroism of the three, and a slight letdown as they dissapear with barely a trace or plaudit. The feeling one gets when one finishes the book represents a remarkable turnaround from such unpromising beginnings.
The book is pacy to say the least. After the initial slow start the action fairly cracks along with little time spent on each adventure. If a criticism were to be made, it could be said that the plot was unremittingly linear with the odd tedious lecture thrown in, but the sheer pace of the action keeps the reader travelling along with the balloon. There are certainly some dubious attitudes taken towards Africans by the characters but there appears to be no genuine malice there, and they are happy to get along with the natives whenever possible, and merely to defend themselves when they are attacked at regular intervals by hostile tribesmen, so in relation to many empire tracts of this period I found the level of racism stays just above a historically tolerable level.
I found this book to be surprisingly well written, if a little dry in places where Verne’s didatic instincts take over. It is highly episodic, but this partially helps to drive the story forwards and adds to the sense of discovery, as if one is actually joining the three friends in their balloon. A few criticisms could be made regarding Verne’s grasp of the science of hydrogen balloons, but that would be missing the point of what is essentially a rollicking adventure novel suffused with the spirit of the age of reason. A definite must-read for anyone who is either interested in the birth of science fiction, or those who enjoy tales of the dark heart of pre-colonial Africa a la Rider Haggard.
Journey to the Center of the Earth
Journey to the Center of the Earth (French: Voyage au centre de la Terre, also translated under the titles A Journey to the Centre of the Earth and A Journey to the Interior of the Earth) is a classic 1864 science fiction novel by Jules Verne. The story involves German professor Otto Lidenbrock who believes there are volcanic tubes going toward the centre of the Earth. He, his nephew Axel, and their guide Hans descend into the Icelandic volcano Snæfellsjökull, encountering many adventures, including prehistoric animals and natural hazards, before eventually coming to the surface again in southern Italy, at the Stromboli volcano.
From a scientific point of view, this story has not aged quite as well as other Verne stories, since most of his ideas about what the interior of the Earth contains have since been disproved, but it still manages to captivate audiences when regarded as a classic fantasy novel.
Plot
The story begins in May 1863, the Lidenbrock house in Hamburg, Germany, with Professor Lidenbrock rushing home to peruse his latest purchase, an original runic manuscript of an Icelandic saga written by Snorri Sturluson ("Heimskringla"; the chronicle of the Norwegian kings who ruled over Iceland). While looking through the book, Lidenbrock and his nephew Axel find a coded note written in runic script. (This is a first indication of Verne's love for cryptography. Coded, cryptic or incomplete messages as a plot device will continue to appear in many of his works and in each case Verne goes a long way to explain not only the code used but also the mechanisms used to retrieve the original text.) Lidenbrock and Axel transliterate the runic characters into Latin letters, revealing a message written in a seemingly bizarre code. Lidenbrock attempts a decipherment, deducing the message to be a kind of transposition cipher; but his results are as meaningless as the original.
Professor Lidenbrock decides to lock everyone in the house and force himself and the others (Axel, and the maid, Martha) to go without food until he cracks the code. Axel discovers the answer when fanning himself with the deciphered text: Lidenbrock's decipherment was correct, and only needs to be read backwards to reveal sentences written in rough Latin.[1] Axel decides to keep the secret hidden from Professor Lidenbrock, afraid of what the Professor might do with the knowledge, but after two days without food he cannot stand the hunger and reveals the secret to his uncle. Lidenbrock translates the note, which is revealed to be a medieval note written by the (fictional) Icelandic alchemist Arne Saknussemm, who claims to have discovered a passage to the centre of the Earth via Snæfell in Iceland. In what Axel calls bad Latin, the deciphered message reads:
The Runic cryptogram
“ In Snefflls [sic] Iokulis kraterem kem delibat umbra Skartaris Iulii intra kalendas deskende, audas uiator, te [sic] terrestre kentrum attinges. Kod feki. Arne Saknussemm. ”

In slightly better Latin, with errors amended:
“ In Sneffels Jokulis craterem, quem delibat umbra Scartaris, Julii intra kalendas descende, audax viator, et terrestre centrum attinges; quod feci. Arne Saknussemm ”

which, when translated into English, reads:
“ Descend, bold traveller, into the crater of the jökull of Snæfell, which the shadow of Scartaris touches (lit: tastes) before the Kalends of July, and you will attain the centre of the earth. I did it. Arne Saknussemm ”
Snæfellsjökull
Professor Lidenbrock is a man of astonishing impatience, and departs for Iceland immediately, taking his reluctant nephew with him. Axel, who, in comparison, is cowardly and anti-adventurous, repeatedly tries to reason with him, explaining his fears of descending into a volcano and putting forward various scientific theories as to why the journey is impossible, but Professor Lidenbrock repeatedly keeps himself blinded against Axel's point of view. After a rapid journey via Lübeck and Copenhagen, they arrive in Reykjavík, where the two procure the services of Hans Bjelke (a Danish-speaking Icelander eiderdown hunter) as their guide, and travel overland to the base of the volcano.
In late June, they reach the volcano, which has three craters. According to Saknussemm's message, the passage to the centre of the Earth is through the one crater that is touched by the shadow of a nearby mountain peak at noon. However, the text also states that this is only true during the last days of June. During the next few days, with July rapidly approaching, the weather is too cloudy for any shadows. Axel silently rejoices, hoping this will force his uncle – who has repeatedly tried to impart courage to him only to succeed in making him even more cowardly still – to give up the project and return home. Alas for Axel, however, on the second to last day, the sun comes out and the mountain peak shows the correct crater to take.
After descending into the crater, the three travellers set off into the bowels of the Earth, encountering many strange phenomena and great dangers, including a chamber filled with combustible gas, and steep-sided wells around the "path". After taking a wrong turn, they run out of water and Axel almost dies, but Hans taps into a neighbouring subterranean river. Lidenbrock and Axel name the resulting stream the "Hansbach" in his honour and the three are saved. At another point, Axel becomes separated from the others and is lost several miles from them. Luckily, a strange acoustic phenomenon allows him to communicate with them from some miles away, and they are soon reunited.
After descending many miles, following the course of the Hansbach, they reach an unimaginably vast cavern. This underground world is lit by electrically charged gas at the ceiling, and is filled with a very deep subterranean ocean, surrounded by a rocky coastline covered in petrified trees and giant mushrooms. The travelers build a raft out of trees and set sail. The Professor names this sea as the Lidenbrock Sea. While on the water, they see several prehistoric creatures such as a giant Ichthyosaurus, which fights with a Plesiosaurus and wins. After the battle between the monsters, the party comes across an island with a huge geyser, which Lidenbrock names "Axel's Island".
A lightning storm again threatens to destroy the raft and its passengers, but instead throws them onto the coastline. This part of the coast, Axel discovers, is alive with prehistoric plant and animal life forms, including giant insects and a herd of mastodons. On a beach covered with bones, Axel discovers an oversized human skull. Axel and Lidenbrock venture some way into the prehistoric forest, where Professor Lidenbrock points out, in a shaky voice, a prehistoric human, more than twelve feet in height, leaning against a tree and watching a herd of mastodons. Axel cannot be sure if he has really seen the man or not, and he and Professor Lidenbrock debate whether or not a proto-human civilization actually exists so far underground. The three wonder if the creature is a man-like ape, or an ape-like man. The sighting of the creature is considered the most alarming part of the story, and the explorers decide that it is better not to alert it to their presence as they fear it may be hostile.
The travellers continue to explore the coastline, and find a passageway marked by Saknussemm as the way ahead. However, it is blocked by what appears to be a recent cave-in and two of the three, Hans and the Professor, despair at being unable to hack their way through the granite wall. The adventurers plan to blast the rock with gun cotton and paddle out to sea to escape the blast. Upon executing the plan, however, they discover that behind the rockfall was a seemingly bottomless pit, not a passage to the centre of the earth. The travellers are swept away as the sea rushes into the large open gap in the ground. After spending hours being swept along at lightning speeds by the water, the raft ends up inside a large volcanic chimney filling with water and magma. Terrified, the three are rushed upwards, through stifling heat, and are ejected onto the surface from a side-vent of a stratovolcano. When they regain consciousness, they discover that they have been ejected from Stromboli, a volcanic island located in southern Italy. They return to Hamburg to great acclaim – Professor Lidenbrock is hailed as one of the great scientists of history, Axel marries his sweetheart Gräuben, and Hans eventually returns to his peaceful life in Iceland. The Professor has some regret that their journey was cut short.

At the very end of the book, Axel and Lidenbrock realize why their compass was behaving strangely after their journey on the raft. They realize that the needle was pointing the wrong way after being struck by an electric fireball which nearly destroyed the wooden raft.
Inspiration
The book was inspired by Charles Lyell's Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man of 1863 (and probably also influenced by Lyell's earlier ground-breaking work "Principles Of Geology", published 1830–33). By that time geologists had abandoned a literal biblical account of Earth's development and it was generally thought that the end of the last glacial period marked the first appearance of humanity, but Lyell drew on new findings to put the origin of human beings much further back in the deep geological past. Lyell's book also influenced Louis Figuier's 1867 second edition of La Terre avant le déluge which included dramatic illustrations of savage men and women wearing animal skins and wielding stone axes, in place of the Garden of Eden shown in the 1863 edition.[2]
Main characters Professor Otto Lidenbrock – A man of science and astonishing impatience and the uncle to Axel. Axel – The nephew of Professor Lidenbrock, overly cautious and unadventurous student. Hans Bjelke – A Danish-speaking Icelander eiderdown hunter who becomes their guide; dependable, resourceful and imperturbable. Grauben – The goddaughter of Professor Lidenbrock.
Prehistoric animals featured This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (March 2012)
Amazing Stories cover illustrating a scene from the novel Pterichthys Dipterides – A two-finned fish Leptotherium – A gazelle-like creature Merycotherium – A cattle-like creature Anoplotherium Mastodon Megatherium Unidentified Pterosaur (probably Pterodactylus) Unknown species of giant bird, probably a Teratorn Ichthyosaurus Plesiosaurus

Notes The 1871 English language edition published by Griffith and Farran (named Journey to the Centre of the Earth at Project Gutenberg) is an abridged and altered translation. It changes the Professor's name to Hardwigg, Axel's name to Harry (or Henry) Lawson, and Grauben's name to Gretchen. It omits some chapters, and rewrites portions of and adds portions to others. The Redactor's note by Norm Wolcott, at Project Gutenberg, claims that this translation is the most popularly reprinted one, despite the flaws. The 1877 translation by Ward, Lock, & Co., Ltd., translated by Frederick Amadeus Malleson, is more faithful, though it too has some slight rewrites (according to the Redactor at its Project Gutenberg page, where its title is translated as Journey to the Interior of the Earth). The 1877 translation by Ward, Lock, & Co., Ltd., translated by Frederick Amadeus Malleson was adapted by AD Classic Books' 2008 edition of Journey to the Centre of the Earth. In this edit by A.R. Roumanis, antiquated writing and out of date sayings were replaced which makes this the most modernized version available. The novel frequently uses the device of the Professor explaining or arguing scientific matters with Axel, in order to communicate scientific facts on which the world-view is based. In the midst of their descent, this role reverses at one point, as Axel points out strata to the Professor as another example of the same story-telling method. Many things postulated in the novel are now known to be incorrect, including the temperature of space being minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit, and volcanoes erupting due to a reaction between water and chemicals in the Earth's crust.

Adaptations
Film 1959: Journey to the Center of the Earth, USA, directed by Henry Levin, starring James Mason and Pat Boone. In the film, the character of Axel becomes Alec and is more adventurous than cowardly as he is in the novel. The film introduces a main antagonist. 1978: Viaje al centro de la Tierra, Spain, directed by Juan Piquer Simón, starring Kenneth More and Pep Munné. It was distributed in Great Britain and the US as Where Time Began. 2008: Journey to the Center of the Earth is a 3-D film by Eric Brevig. Cast members include Brendan Fraser, Anita Briem and Josh Hutcherson. The film follows as a sequel to the original book. 2008: Journey to the Center of the Earth – A direct-to-DVD release by The Asylum, which is a loose adaptation of the original book. It was released as Journey to Middle Earth in the United Kingdom.

Walt Disney Pictures began work on a "Journey" in the late 1990s, but was not happy with the appearance of the subterranean caverns, so the project was scrapped and the cavern scenes were altered and used in the production of their 2001 film Atlantis: The Lost Empire.
Television

An animated television series, Journey to the Center of the Earth, first broadcast in 1967 on ABC, starring the voices of Ted Knight, Pat Harrington, Jr., and Jane Webb, only loosely based on Verne's novel.[3] A limited animation television special in the Famous Classic Tales series was aired by CBS in 1977. A 1989 movie called Journey to the Center of the Earth took only the title and a general idea from the Verne novel, and had a unique plot aimed at a teen audience. It was written by Debra Ricci, Regina Davis, Kitty Chalmers, and Rusty Lemorande, and was directed by Lemorande and Albert Pyun. It stars Emo Philips, Paul Carafotes, Jaclyn Bernstein, Kathy Ireland, Janet Du Plessis, Nicola Cowper, Lochner De Kock, and Ilan Mitchell-Smith. It was based on an uncompleted version, more faithful to Verne's text, written and directed by Lemorande, that had been left unfinished because of Cannon Films' premature closure. In 1993, NBC aired a made-for-TV film version with a cast including John Neville, F. Murray Abraham and Kim Miyori. The film used the title and general premise of Verne's novel, but had its heroes carry out the journey in an earth-penetrating machine.[4] A television series was supposed to follow, but was never produced.[citation needed] The Wishbone 1996 episode "Hot Diggety Dawg" was based on the novel, featuring several major scenes starring the title character as Professor Lidenbrock. The 1999 Hallmark Entertainment movie starred Treat Williams, Jeremy London, Bryan Brown, Tushka Bergen, and Hugh Keays-Byrne (this version deviates considerably from Verne's original). A TV film version by RHI Entertainment starring Rick Schroder, Peter Fonda, Victoria Pratt, Steven Grayhm and Mike Dopud was shot on location in and around Vancouver on high definition video during the summer of 2007. The show aired on February 4, 2008 and been released on DVD. Victoria Pratt and Peter Fonda's characters were added to the original story.
Theater
A stage version of Journey to the Center of the Earth, written by Gerald Fitzgerald and directed by Steven-Shayle Rhodes, was produced at Pegasus Theatre in Dallas, Texas in 2000, with substantial changes made to the characters and the plot. In 2014, Fitzgerald's 2-act script was adapted into a 3-act melodrama format and presented at the Pocket Sandwich Theatre in Dallas, directed by Joey Dietz.
Other
A thrill ride based on the book, Journey to the Center of the Earth, is open at The Mysterious Island section of Tokyo DisneySea's theme park. A water ride at Water World in Federal Heights, Colorado called 'Voyage to the Center of the Earth' is loosely based on the book. Video games called Journey to the Center of the Earth: in the early 1980s by Ozisoft;[5] in 1988 by Chip Software [6] for the Commodore 64; in 1989 by Topo Soft [7] for the ZX Spectrum and in 2003 by Frogwares.[8] A board game adaptation of the book designed by Rüdiger Dorn was released by Kosmos in 2008.[9] Rick Wakeman's album Journey to the Centre of the Earth combines song, narration and instrumental pieces to retell the story and Return to the Centre of the Earth tells the story of a later set of travelers attempting to repeat the original journey. A concept album called Journey to the Centre of the Earth by Rick Wakeman, was released in 1974. Rick Wakeman released a second concept album called Return to the Centre of the Earth in 1999. An 8-part radio serial was produced for BBC Radio 4 by Howard Jones in 1963. It starred Bernard Horsfall and Jeffrey Banks. A radio drama adaptation was broadcast by National Public Radio in 2000 for its series "Radio Tales". Alien Voices, an audio theater group led by Leonard Nimoy and John de Lancie, released a dramatized version of Journey to the Center of the Earth through Simon and Schuster Audio in 1997. A 90-minute radio adaptation by Stephen Walker directed by Owen O'Callan was first broadcast on BBC Radio 4 Extra on 20 November 2011 and re-broadcast on 11 and 12 November 2012. Nicholas Le Prevost starred as Professor Otto Lidenbrock, Nathaniel Parker as Axel and Oliver Senton as Hans. Rosemary McNab, an original female character who funds and accompanies the expedition (and has affairs with both Hans and Otto along the way), was played by Kristen Millwood.[10] Christopher Lloyd's character of Doctor Emmett Brown, one of the two main fictional characters of the Back To The Future film series, attributed the origins of his lifelong devotion to science to having read as a child the works of Jules Verne in general, and Journey to the Centre of the Earth in particular. (This is evident when he reveals that he tried to dig to the Center of the Earth at the age of twelve.) Back to the Future Part III, especially, pays homage to Journey of the Centre of the Earth where Dr. Brown carves his initials in a mineshaft after storing the time machine, just like Arne Saknussemm did to help guide future explorers. At the end of the film, it is also revealed that Dr. Brown's two sons are named Jules and Verne. The first part of the second season of Around the World with Willy Fog by Spanish studio BRB Internacional was "Journey to the Centre of the Earth". Edgar Rice Burroughs wrote the Pellucidar series using the Journey to the Centre of the Earth concept. The surname of Kathy Ireland's character in Alien From L.A. (1988), a film about a girl who falls through the earth and discovers a repressive subterranean society, is Saknussemm. The 1992 adventure/role-playing game Quest for Glory III by Sierra Entertainment used Arne Saknoosen the Aardvark as a bit character for exploration information, alluding to the explorer Arne Saknussemm. The DC Comics comic book series Warlord took place in Skartaris, a land supposed to exist within a Hollow Earth. Its creator, Mike Grell, has confirmed that "the name comes from the mountain peak Scartaris that points the way to the passage to the earth's core in Journey to the Center of the Earth."[11] Louis MacNeice's final play Persons from Porlock contains a reference to Journey to the Centre of the Earth at the beginning. Because his mother used to read it aloud to him, Hank became 'completely fascinated' with 'caves and pot-holes and things' (p 111). At the end of the play 'Herr Professor Lidebrock' is one of the characters Hank meets down the pot hole. Hank says to him, 'Oh, my dear Professor, I've always wanted to meet you, since my mother used to read me your adventures. How you went down the volcano and ran into all those mastodons. But, of course, in your case you got out again.' The Professor replies, 'That was because I am a character in fiction.' He continues, 'Jules Verne invented me'(p 141).[12] Halldór Laxness, the only Icelandic author to be awarded the Nobel Prize, situated his novel Under the Glacier in the area of Snæfellsjökull. The glacier has a mystic quality in the story and there are several references to A Journey to the Center of the Earth in connection with it. In the Exile computer game series and its remake, the Avernum series, the player's party is exiled to a vast underground cavern similar to the one described in A Journey to the Center of the Earth. It also contains a subterranean ocean and networks of tunnels, but it is lit by bioluminescent mushrooms rather than an electric phenomenon. One of the goals of several of the games is to escape from the cavern.

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...Phase5 IP Literature: Reflecting on the big picture LITR201-1502A-08 Professor Wright Terralyn Montgomery May 7, 2015 Literature can be defined as creative writing from creative imaginations. Poetry, non-fiction, fiction, and drama are literature works. It describes tradition and cultures beginning centuries ago. “Saving Sourdi” was set in the United States of America. It takes place at the family operated restaurant. Literature affects people personally according to their current area of their life. It all depends on one’s ability to want to learn literature. We will always find a work of literature that shows values, morale, and attitudes of society. “The men had been growing louder, until they were our only customers, and, finally one of them staggered up and put his arm across Sourdi’s shoulders. He called her his “China doll” and his friends hooted at this”. (Chai, 2001, p.81-82) “He was just this funny looking white kid…Chopstick-boy I called him just to be mean”. (Chai, 2001, p.84) The “Birthmark” was told in third person. The wife’s unwanted birthmark on her face caused problems in their marriage. He wanted to remove her birthmark which caused her death. In “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” the grandmother hats symbolizes her demise in life. She held onto her hat the whole story even after death. The town of Toomsboro means day of doom due to the fact everybody died. The Misfits car described it was built like a hearse which symbolizes death. “Battle......

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...Symbolism, theme, and other literary elements within literature Michelle Deckard ENG125 Instructor Heather Neilson 08/18/2014 Symbolism, theme, and other literary elements within literature Literary works are a way of escaping or comparing to day to day life. Many works can grab you with extensive word usage, language, emotion, and even setting. Symbolism which is used in most literary works such as, The Worn path, by Eudora Welty and Good country people by Flannery O’Connor which also have similar themes. Theme consistent in both works is similar due to the religious nature portrayed in, The Worn path and Good country people. Though each are similar each portray a different aspect of faith, from redemption to triumph. Perception of literary elements based on the characters within each work, are portrayed differently the overall themes are similar. Symbolism can be described as one thing meaning more than its literal meaning. (Clugston, 2014) For instance, Welty’s, The Worn path, is seen instantly like: “Seem like there is chains about my feet, time I get this far, she said, in the voice of argument old people keep to use with themselves. Something always take a hold of me on this hill-pleads I should stay.” (Saunders, 1992) The worn path itself is symbolic of the journey of life that has been traveled many times over. Even the character, Phoenix Jackson, her name alone is a symbol. Phoenix is representative of a mystical bird that rises in the......

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...muhammad hasan askari Literature and Revolution* What is the relationship between literature and revolution? Should lit- erature assist revolution and, if so, to what degree? Before deliberating on these questions we should first determine the precise meaning of the term ìrevolution,î because many champions of revolution are found to be generally unaware of what the term implies and what we ourselves understand it to mean. A host of problems arise from the lack of a proper understanding of the word, whether in literature or in politics. A further difficulty is that, like all other terms, the meaning is not determined so much by an individualís sense-experiences as by the requirements, and sometimes even the convenience, of parties founded on political and sociological beliefs. In any case, an exploration of the word ìrevolutionî reveals several meanings. 1. We first encounter a common manís concept of revolution. Since some degree of force generally accompanies every revolutionary act, an individual witnesses some bloodletting, mayhem and plunder. All nations experience such things on a large or small scale. As a result, the instant the word ìrevolutionî is mentioned, the mind inevitably conjures up images of bloodshed and carnage. Rulers, whether individuals or groups, usually do not relinquish power easily, they have to be forced out, so revolutionary groups themselves encourage this concept of revolution. The fact that the concept becomes a noose......

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...“The research process” Flowchart 1. Identify the research problem: In this first phase you consider a research problem based in your interests and in your field. 2. Perform a literature review: Search for literature related to the problem to gain knowledge about the topic. 3. State the purpose of the study: It is important to be specific and clear when stating your purpose at the study. 4. Develop a research plan: Steps for developing and conducting your research that includes also how and when to collect data. 5. Contact stakeholders: Includes internal and external members of an institution who must review your research before conducting it, explaining and describing the potential benefits and plans of your research. 6. Conduct the study: Data collection begins and then is analysed to determine the significance of the results. 7. Summarize the results: Develop a conclusion of your results, as well as some suggestions and improvement if needed. Words: Conduct: The way that something is managed or directed. Example: He conducted research about scientific excavations. Implication: Something that is suggested, or happens, indirectly. / A possible future effect or result. Example: His implication of immediate changes surprised us. Parameters: A rule or limit that controls what something is or how something should be done. Example: Ministers will meet next week to set the parameters for the peace conference. Derived:...

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...Short talk In students’ point of view, literature is just a subject in our school education or a compilation of various writings impart of our history. However, in its deeper sense, how literature affects our life? Literature is the body of written works of language, period or culture. It must be an analysis of experience and a synthesis of the findings into a unity. It not only describes reality but also adds to it. They are a depiction of the different facets of common man’s life. It also serves as a food for thought and a tonic for imagination and creativity. Most of all, literature offers us lessons, motivations, and inspirations that help us to develop and improve our personality. We read literary works not only neither for pleasure nor a requirements in school. Authors also write literary pieces not just to gain income nor be famous. The purpose of literature in our lives is not only to narrate the appropriate sequence of events in the story. It is also not only to have knowledge in the past and present happenings in our life but to know the hidden reasons why it is written. It is because literature improves our personality by reminding us something we neglected and forget motivates and inspires us. It teaches us how to become a better person in our society and how we can contribute to our country’s success. We must remember, you must open your mind not only for the things seen but in the things not visible that contribute a meaningful part of our life....

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...give for literature is "written books that have value and are timeless". The thing about good literature is that it does not have to be recent. Many works of literature from hundreds of years ago are still interesting and valueable to the modern day reader. Although times have changed, human nature really has not. People still can relate and have the same feelings as the characters in a book from centurys ago. Humans still have man vs self conflict, experience madness, jealousy, joy and sadness and can really appreciate literature that portray emotions that they have experienced. Literature can not be any old book, it has to be good. A book that does not interest the reader or provide any significant value will not stand the test of time. Good literature is drama-filled and will keep the reader on edge guessing what will come next. Also, it is helpful if the literature has a lesson or value. Humans from the 21st century are able to learn from the themes of older literature and relate them to what they have going on in their modern day lives. A meaningless book can be entertaining but will not have the same effect as a book that is able to hook the readers interest but also apply to everyday life. 3. Iv never been a person who has loved to read literature. A lot of times i have found myself bored and uninteristed in what i am reading. With that said i have learned to appreciate good literature. In my opinion the best type of literature to read is dramatic literature.......

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...Literature BSHS 441 January4, 2012 Literature International Rescue Committee. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.rescue.org/ International Rescue Committee (IRC) is providing a massive information through their website, which includes the locations, contact information, and types of services. In this website each page relates to one type of service as we see. IRC is a great provider of advocacy for those whom are in any condition that are seeking help. For those people, who just experienced earthquake or those who moved to new destination looking for someone to help them. In this website nothing is confusing or unclear. Each individual is responsible for task that is assigned no matter where in the world is. As the website shows IRC is providing these information online to be accessible for anyone who is looking for help with any background, color, age, or condition. IRC is one of the greatest agencies in Human Services field. Refugees International. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.refintl.org/ Refugees International is another Human Services agency in all around the world that provides great help to whoever is in need. RI has done a great job in directing people through their website. Information is completely available to be followed. RI is really strong in providing advocacy for refugees based on testimonies and also the status of funding. Advocating for someone who just experienced the traumatic event is really important which has been done and will be...

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