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Litreature Review

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ashock
Words 15922
Pages 64
Prepared for: Dr. David Conner (Department of CARRS) Dr. Dale Rozeboom (Animal Science)

Prepared by: Victoria Campbell-Arvai Department of CARRS, Michigan State University August 17, 2009

Literature Review: A Comparison of Dairy Production Systems
SUMMARY
This literature review focused on studies comparing the effects of dairy production systems (pasture-based, conventional/confinement1, and mixed) on (i) environmental issues, (ii) social issues, (iii) economic issues, (iv) human health issues, and (v) animal welfare issues. The review was based on peer-reviewed research papers identified by experts at MSU, as well as (where specifically suggested) non peer-reviewed university and government reports. Additional studies were identified from the reference section of recommended papers, as well as via their citation index (primarily Google Scholar). A synopsis of each section is available below, as well as at the end of each section. There is a great deal of research –much of it based in the United States- on the environmental effects of all types of dairy farming, including intensive/confinement, mixed, pasture-based, and management-intensive rotational grazing (MIRG) operations. The vast majority of studies identified for this review focused on the fate and management of excess nitrogen and phosphorous, their effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and contributions to air quality and climate change. Many environmental mitigation efforts were suggested, including balancing nutrient inputs/outputs at the level of the farm, the watershed, and regionally; taking greater care in the timing of fertilizer and manure applications; increased testing for phosphorus and nitrogen in soil; and the use of riparian buffer strips and fencing to protect water bodies. In addition, many studies suggested that cattle stocking rates be calibrated to ensure that nitrogen...

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