Free Essay

Living and Coping with Lupus

In: Science

Submitted By candjboyd
Words 1842
Pages 8
Living and Coping With Lupus
Cheryl A Boyd
January 15, 2012
Jeffrey Long

Living and Coping With Lupus
Many things pertaining to Lupus are still a mystery. The research to find a cure is an ongoing process with no cure in the near future. What is Lupus? Lupus is a chronic and debilitating autoimmune disease. A person living with Lupus is literally under attack by his or her own body. Lupus makes the immune system attack the body’s tissues and organs. There is no part of the body that is safe from this savage attack. The skin, tissues, organs, and joints are all at risk. A person with Lupus can suffer problems involving the joints, kidneys, heart, lungs, brain, and blood. Lupus although not as well-known as many other chronic and serious diseases such as leukemia, it is far more common. While a full life can be lived with Lupus it depends upon early diagnosis and consist treatment. Lupus left untreated can be fatal. More than 16,000 Americans are diagnosed with Lupus each year and many thousands more suffer from the disease without a diagnosis and do not know the disease he or she is suffering from is Lupus. This deadly and debilitating disease does not only strike in America, there are over fifteen million people stricken with the disease worldwide. Living with Lupus is a constant struggle to live a normal life and cope with the things most people do not even think about each day. I know this for a fact because I was diagnosed with Lupus six years ago and my life and my families lives have never been the same. This disease hit quickly and without warning. While there is at this time no cure for Lupus it is very important to educate the public on the diagnosis, symptoms, and treatment of Lupus.
There are over 1.5 million Americans today that are afflicted with some form of Lupus, while there are over five million worldwide. (Molly’ 2011) There are many different forms of Lupus, and symptoms vary in each patient and in severity. The most common form of Lupus that a patient can develop is Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE). Although (SLE) is the most common form of Lupus there are other types of Lupus as well. Discoid Lupus Erythematous is another commonly diagnosed form of Lupus along with Drug Induced Lupus.
Systemic Lupus Erythematous is the most common form of Lupus. Systemic Lupus Erythematous can attack any part of the body. SLE is a severe chronic illness with major side effects not only on the patients physical functioning but also psychological wellbeing. The disease will change every aspect of a patient’s life and the ability to do normal, everyday things will become a major struggle to accomplish. This is exemplified by the finding that the health related quality of life (HRQoL) tends to be lower in Systemic Lupus Erythematous patients than in patients with other chronic illnesses. (Lupus 2011.20 pp. 290-98) Lupus Nephritises is the most prevalent organ involvement in Systemic Lupus Erythematous. It affects up to 60 percent of patients and results in a substantial and devastating increase in morbidity and mortality.
The next form of Lupus is Discoid Lupus Erythematous or (DLE). This form of Lupus attacks mainly the skin. Discoid Lupus Erythematous causes painful rashes and sores all over the body and often leaves scars and light colored patches on the skin when healed. Discoid Lupus Erythematous is a chronic, scar producing, photosensitive dermatosis. (Jeffrey P. Callen, M.D. www. 1065529)
The last form of Lupus is Drug induced Lupus. This form of Lupus tends to go away when the patient stops taking the medication causing the problem. This is usually a much milder form of Lupus and is found more in men than in women. The fact that Drug Induced Lupus is more common in men is associated with the fact that the most common medications that cause Drug Induced Lupus are medications usually prescribed to men for certain types of heart disease. The drugs Hydralazine and Procainamide are two drugs most commonly associated with Drug Induced Lupus. The mechanism(s) for Drug Induced Lupus may vary by drug and by patient. In traditional drug induced Lupus there must be no pre-existing Lupus. ( (drug Saf0 2011. May 1, vol. 34 (5), pp. 357-74) Lupus does not care whom it attacks. It will pick on men, woman, children, and every race and nationality. There seems to be no one group that has immunity to lupus.
There are only a handful of different forms of Lupus but there is a plethora of symptoms that vary widely from patient to patient. These also may vary in the same patient in severness from day to day. Some patients will have all the symptoms at one time and another will suffer a butterfly shaped rash across the patient’s nose and cheeks or a change of the color in the face. According to the Lupus Foundation of America, the most common symptoms of Lupus include a rash, fatigue, joint pain and swelling, swollen glands, chest pain when breathing, sensitivity to the sun, a low blood count, mouth sores, seizures, hallucinations, and kidney problems. (www. 2011)
Jennifer a patient diagnosed with Lupus in 2010 states that her biggest struggle with Lupus is just learning to accept the fact she has Lupus. It is very difficult to learn and to deal with the pain, fatigue, and other symptoms you have to deal with on a daily basis. Jennifer deals with the disease and its ramifications one day at a time. She is very thankful for the support and understanding she gets from her family and friends.
Cheryl a 48 year old mother of two was diagnosed with Systemic Lupus in 2006. She has gone from being an extremely active mom that coaches her children’s baseball and softball teams to finding it hard to walk now. She states the hardest thing about dealing with Lupus is all of the things you have to give up because you are simply not able to do them anymore. It is hard to walk because of painful swollen joints, it is hard to cook or sew or make cookies for your family because of the swelling and pain in the joints of the hands and fingers. It is hard not knowing what tomorrow will bring and not being able to make plans with your family. You never know if you will be able to get out of bed in the mornings and function as a normal person. It is a major accomplishment to be able to cook dinner or go to the grocery store.
Although Lupus primarily affects women and women of color are two to three times more likely to develop Lupus anyone can get Lupus. Men, women, Children, and teens are all at risk for Lupus. At present there is no cure for Lupus. Even though Lupus is more common than other chronic illnesses such as Leukemia it is a lot harder to diagnose. There is no single test to diagnose Lupus and it is often a very long and costly diagnosis to make. A doctor may have to run several tests and research a patient’s medial history to make a definite diagnosis of Lupus. The doctor may have to run many blood and urine tests on a patient to see if the patient has an over active immune system. In some cases the doctor may also have to do biopsies of the patient’s skin and kidney tissues to know for sure if there is an accurate diagnosis of Lupus.
There are many different ways to treat Lupus. The treatment a patient gets will depend on the symptoms of each patient and the severity of those symptoms. A doctor may prescribe Non Steroid Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) for swollen joints and pain. If the damage to the joints, swelling, and pain the patient suffers is more severe other stronger medications as well as NSAIDS will be prescribed. There are creams and ointments for rashes that can also be prescribed to help the patient. Many doctors commonly prescribe anti malaria medications such a plaquenel and corticosteroids to help treat and control the symptoms of Lupus. In very severe cases where the medications are not controlling the disease well a physician may prescribe chemotherapy drugs in low dosages. These drugs used to treat cancer can be given in a low dose to a Lupus patient to help control the severe and debilitating symptoms of the disease.
Lupus does not discriminate and will attack a person regardless of their sex, race, age, or nationality. Lupus is very hard to diagnose and there are many different things a doctor may have to do to get a firm diagnosis of Lupus. When a patient has been diagnosed with the disease there are many different treatments a person may have to try to find one that works for him or her. The treatment a patient gets depends on the severity of the symptoms they suffer. There are thousands of people diagnoses with Lupus in America each year and millions worldwide. Though Lupus is not as well-known as other chronic diseases like Leukemia and Multiple Sclerosis it is far more common. Living with Lupus is a constant and every day struggle to be able to function normally. A patient diagnosed with Lupus can live a full live if diagnosed early and is diligent with his or her treatment. The daily struggle with pain, stiffness, and fatigue makes it very difficult for a Lupus patient to do those things most people take for granted each day. Going on vacation, cooking for their family, working, and making plans with friends become increasingly hard to do. The medications you take are constantly changing and the treatment you get at any certain time depends upon the severity of the symptoms you have at the time. Medications such as NSAIDS, anti-Malaria Drugs, and Chemotherapy drugs help to battle the symptoms of the disease. With all that is known about Lupus the most important thing is still unknown. At this time there is still no cure for Lupus. The patients diagnosed with Lupus will have to continue to live with the fact that their body is attacking itself and causing them to live a life of extreme pain and fatigue due to an over active immune system. There are many organizations like Molly’s Fund and The Lupus Foundation of America that are working and searching for a cure. We have to make sure these organizations have the funding they need to do the research and hopefully one day finds a cure for this devastating disease.

Reference Page

1.) www.Molly’
2.) The Lupus foundation of America
3.) www.lupus. org
4.) Jeffrey P. Callen, M.D. 1065529
5.) (drug Saf) 2011 May, 1; vol su(5), pp 357-74
6.) Lupus (2011)20, pp 845-854

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Abstract Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic rheumatic autoimmune disease that affects multiple organ systems. The exact cause or causes of (SLE) is unknown, however genetic factors, gender, ethnic origin, and environmental factors have all been implicated in its development. Earlier diagnosis and more effective treatment options have significantly improved survival rates and life quality. Medical and pharmacologic treatment is usually tailored to the specific symptoms or organ systems that are involved due to its unpredictability and range of manifestations. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus affects primarily women of childbearing age and mostly in Asian, African American, and Hispanic populations. Treatment options include steroids, antimalarial drugs, and immunosuppressive agents. This overview will examine the etiology and effects of Lupus, how it impacts fertility and pregnancy in women, and life quality and expectancy. Various treatment options and alternative treatment methods will be discussed; considerations for employment and rehabilitation will be reviewed, as well as the future of therapeutic approaches. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Introduction The name “Lupus” is Latin for wolf and may have first been used to describe the lesions that resembled the bite marks and scratches made by a wolf's attack. The term “Lupus Erythematosus” was first introduced by physicians in the nineteenth century to describe skin......

Words: 5355 - Pages: 22

Free Essay


...2012 NUR427 Laurie Baumgartner RN, MSN, CNS, NP, CCRN Introduction This paper will examine the chronic disease of lupus. A big portion of information in the paper comes from a patient Anna. The areas of her life that are affected by the disease , and the motivators for lifestyle change are discussed. The education of Anna regarding the disease and learning model theory will be examined. What is Lupus? Lupus is a chronic autoimmune disease. The immune system fights off invaders in the body. The body develops antibodies to protect from invaders. The immune system affected by lupus cannot tell the difference between good and bad tissue. This process causes the immune system to attack itself. There are many different types of lupus. The type Anna has is cutaneous and systemic. Cutaneous affects the skin. Systemic lupus in her case affects the joints. Cutaneous lupus causes skin rashes/lesions. The most familiar rash is the butterfly rash. The rash occurs on the bridge of the nose and across upper cheeks. Systemic lupus cause the joints become painful and inflamed. Anna The interview with Anna was held over a couple of days. Anna was diagnosed a year and a half ago with lupus. Anna believes that she has had the disease for longer than a year and a half. The rashes that she experienced had been occurring since she was 19. Anna is now 41 years old. Anna is married......

Words: 1722 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Personal Impact Paper

...disease their lifestyle changes completely. The purpose of this assignment is to research the personal impact of a patient living with a chronic disease. I will discuss how the life style of this patient changed completely from being an active super model and independent to be dependent on her family. I will discuss the social, financial and personal effects that has incurred with this patient. I will also discuss how the patient learned about her disease, educational experience, and motivators the patient used in learning about her disease. (Towner & Inter-mountain Healthcare,Utah,USA, 2008). Sonya D is middle aged African American woman whom had a career as a super model; until she was diagnosed with Lupus. A married woman and mother of a teenager, she enjoyed walking and spending family time with her spouse and daughter. Patient is not obese, non-smoker and non-alcoholic. She had been extremely tired and in bed a lot. She noticed her extremities going numb and went to the doctor for a physical, not expecting to hear the diagnosis of Lupus. Lupus is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system produces antibodies to cells within the body. This leads to widespread inflammation and tissue damage. Researchers believe it is linked to genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Lupus may be characterized by periods of illness and remissions. Lupus has a variety of clinical manifestations and can affect joints, skin, brain, lungs, kidneys, and blood...

Words: 1149 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Philosophical Foundations in Psychology

...The Qualitative Report Volume 14 Number 1 March 2009 61-80 Lived Experiences of Adult Children Who Have a Parent Diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease Amy Blanchard, Jennifer Hodgson, Angela Lamson, and David Dosser East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina Little is known about the experience among adult children who have a parent with Parkinson’s Disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to explore, appreciate, and describe their experiences using a phenomenological methodology. Narratives were collected from seven participants who have a parent diagnosed with PD and analyzed according to Colaizzi’s (1978) phenomenological data analysis method. Seven thematic clusters were identified and an exhaustive description is presented to summarize the essence of their lived experience. The study indicates a strong sense of essential positivism from the participants’ stories, and overall, it seems PD has brought some degree of biological, psychological, socially, and/or spiritual meaning to their lives that they may not have otherwise noticed or experienced. Key Words: Parkinson’s Disease, Phenomenology, Biopsychosocial-spiritual, Adult, Children and Illness Introduction “The bond between mother and child is so deeply rooted in our emotions that we fear to discuss openly anything that threatens the bond” – Glenna Atwood (1991) Establishing links between chronic illnesses and family impact are not novel (e.g., Cooke,......

Words: 9280 - Pages: 38

Free Essay


...DEFINITION FROM WIKI (understand and write it yourself) In ecology, resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem to respond to a perturbation or disturbanceby resisting damage and recovering quickly. Such perturbations and disturbances can include stochastic events such as fires, flooding, windstorms, insect population explosions, and human activities such as deforestation and the introduction of exotic plant or animal species. Disturbances of sufficient magnitudeor duration can profoundly affect an ecosystem and may force an ecosystem to reach a threshold beyond which a different regime of processes and structures predominates.Human activities that adversely affect ecosystem resilience such as reduction of biodiversity, exploitation of natural resources,pollution, land-use, and anthropogenic climate change are increasingly causing regime shifts in ecosystems, often to less desirable and degraded conditions. Interdisciplinary discourse on resilience now includes consideration of the interactions of humans and ecosystems via socio-ecological systems, and the need for shift from the maximum sustainable yield paradigm to environmental management which aims to build ecological resilience through "resilience analysis, adaptive resource management, and adaptive governance". The concept of resilience in ecological systems was first introduced by the Canadian ecologist C.S. Holling  in order to describe the persistence of natural systems in the face of changes in ecosystem......

Words: 15264 - Pages: 62

Premium Essay

Medical/Surgical Critical Thinking Paper

...with difficulty breathing (dyspnea), and shortness of breath. Based upon how the patient presented and the results of the diagnostic tests that were conducted the patient was admitted to the progressive care unit of Banner Thunderbird. Diagnostic tests that were conducted was a chest X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultra sound to determine if there is a build up or either fluid and/or air in the pleural spaces of the lungs or a tumor that is causing the patient to have difficulty breathing. Non-imaging tests that are conducted would be a blood studies and arterial blood gas test. The blood studies would be able to dictate if the patient has a bacterial or viral infection, pneumonia, rheumatic fever, a pulmonary embolus, or lupus, and the arterial blood gas test will be able to show how well the lungs are taking in oxygen by measuring oxygen and carbon dioxide within the arterial blood that is drawn (Pagana & Pagana, 2010). After collecting the patients medical history, and the results of all the diagnostic tests that were conducted it was determined that the patient had air and fluid accumulation in the pleural spaces in the lungs and needed to have a ultrasound guided thorocentesis to collect a sample of...

Words: 10241 - Pages: 41

Premium Essay

Micheal Jackson Life

...1987 Bad album, and named after Jackson’s signature dance move, the moonwalk. Michael Jackson was 58 when he died. Dubbed the "King of Pop," singer-songwriter Michael Jackson was born in Gary, Indiana. As a child, he performed as the lead singer of the Jackson family's popular Motown group, the Jackson 5. No single artist – indeed, no movement or force – has eclipsed what Michael Jackson accomplished in the first years of his adult solo career. Jackson changed the balance in the pop world in a way that nobody has since. He forced rock & roll and the mainstream press to acknowledge that the biggest pop star in the world could be young and black, and in doing so he broke down more barriers than anybody. But he is also among the best proofs in living memory of poet William Carlos Williams' famous verse: "The pure products of America/go crazy." When Jackson died on June 25th, 2009, of apparent cardiac arrest in Los Angeles at age 50, the outpouring of first shock, then grief, was the largest, most instantaneous of its kind the world had ever known, short of the events of September 11th, 2001. What immediately became obvious in all the coverage is that despite the dishonour that had come upon him, the world still respected Michael Jackson for his music – for the singles he made as a Motown...

Words: 16963 - Pages: 68

Premium Essay

The Case of Mike and Marty Scanlon

...writer, he has written nonfiction books, journal and magazine articles, novels, and stage plays. Contents Contents INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS LESSON ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 1: PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE OF THE MIND LESSON 2: THE MIND AT WORK LESSON 3: MOTIVATION, EMOTION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERSONALITY RESEARCH PROJECT LESSON 4: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS LESSON 5: PSYCHOLOGY FOR TWO OR MORE CASE STUDIES SELF-CHECK ANSWERS 1 7 9 43 75 117 127 147 167 171 iii YOUR COURSE Instructions Instructions Welcome to your course, Essentials of Psychology. You’re entering a course of study designed to help you better understand yourself and others. For that reason, you can think of this course as practical. It should be of use to you in living your life and reaching the goals you set for yourself. You’ll use two main resources for your course work: this study guide and your textbook, Psychology and Your Life, by Robert S. Feldman. OBJECTIVES When you complete this course, you’ll be able to ■ Describe the science and methodologies of psychology in the context of its historical origins and major perspectives Outline the fundamental structure of the human nervous system and explain how it relates to the organization of human sensory perception Relate altered states of consciousness to sleep, hypnosis, meditation, sensory deprivation, and physiological responses to psychoactive drugs Discuss the basic concepts of behavioral psychology, including classical...

Words: 49230 - Pages: 197

Premium Essay


...Chapter 1 SIGMUND FREUD AN INTRODUCTION Sigmund Freud, pioneer of Psychoanalysis, was born on 6th May 1856 in Freiberg to a middle class family. He was born as the eldest child to his father’s second wife. When Freud was four years old, his family shifted and settled in Vienna. Although Freud’s ambition from childhood was a career in law, he decided to enter the field of medicine. In 1873, at the age of seventeen, Freud enrolled in the university as a medical student. During his days in the university, he did his research on the Central Nervous System under the guidance of German physician `Ernst Wilhelm Von Brucke’. Freud received his medical degree in 1881and later in 1883 he began to work in Vienna General Hospital. Freud spent three years working in various departments of the hospital and in 1885 he left his post at the hospital to join the University of Vienna as a lecturer in Neuropathology. Following his appointment as a lecturer, he got the opportunity to work under French neurologist Jean Charcot at Salpetriere, the famous Paris hospital for nervous diseases. So far Freud’s work had been entirely concentrated on physical sciences but Charcot’s work, at that time, concentrated more on hysteria and hypnotism. Freud’s studies under Charcot, which centered largely on hysteria, influenced him greatly in channelising his interests to psychopathology. In 1886, Freud established his private practice in Vienna specializing in nervous......

Words: 155674 - Pages: 623

Free Essay


...A kid with Hepatitis A can return to school 1 week within the onset of jaundice. 2. After a patient has dialysis they may have a slight fever...this is normal due to the fact that the dialysis solution is warmed by the machine. 3. Hyperkalemia presents on an EKG as tall peaked T-waves 4. The antidote for Mag Sulfate toxicity is ---Calcium Gluconate 5. Impetigo is a CONTAGEOUS skin disorder and the person needs to wash ALL linens and dishes seperate from the family. They also need to wash their hands frequently and avoid contact. positive sweat test. indicative of cystic fibrosis 1. Herbs: Black Cohosh is used to treat menopausal symptoms. When taken with an antihypertensive, it may cause hypotension. Licorice can increase potassium loss and may cause dig toxicity. 2. With acute appendicitis, expect to see pain first then nausea and vomiting. With gastroenitis, you will see nausea and vomiting first then pain. 3. If a patient is allergic to latex, they should avoid apricots, cherries, grapes, kiwi, passion fruit, bananas, avocados, chestnuts, tomatoes and peaches. 4. Do not elevate the stump after an AKA after the first 24 hours, as this may cause flexion contracture. 5. Beta Blockers and ACEI are less effective in African Americans than Caucasians. 1. for the myelogram postop positions. water based dye (lighter) bed elevated. oil based dye heavier bed flat. 2.autonomic dysreflexia- elevated bed first....then check......

Words: 72133 - Pages: 289

Free Essay


...SITUATION : Arthur, A registered nurse, witnessed an old woman hit by a motorcycle while crossing a train railway. The old woman fell at the railway. Arthur rushed at the scene. 1. As a registered nurse, Arthur knew that the first thing that he will do at the scene is  A. Stay with the person, Encourage her to remain still and Immobilize the leg while While waiting for the ambulance. B. Leave the person for a few moments to call for help. C. Reduce the fracture manually. D. Move the person to a safer place. 2. Arthur suspects a hip fracture when he noticed that the old woman’s leg is  A. Lengthened, Abducted and Internally Rotated. B. Shortened, Abducted and Externally Rotated. C. Shortened, Adducted and Internally Rotated. D. Shortened, Adducted and Externally Rotated. 3. The old woman complains of pain. John noticed that the knee is reddened, warm to touch and swollen. John interprets that this signs and symptoms are likely related to  A. Infection B. Thrombophlebitis C. Inflammation D. Degenerative disease 4. The old woman told John that she has osteoporosis; Arthur knew that all of the following factors would contribute to osteoporosis except  A. Hypothyroidism B. End stage renal disease C. Cushing’s Disease D. Taking Furosemide and Phenytoin. 5. Martha, The old woman was now Immobilized and brought to the emergency room. The X-ray shows a fractured femur and pelvis. The ER Nurse would carefully monitor Martha for which of the......

Words: 53501 - Pages: 215

Premium Essay

Cure Your Tooth

...Mantesh TABLE OF CONTENTS Cure Tooth Decay Book Description Foreword By Timothy Gallagher D.D.S. President of the Holistic Dental Association Introduction 100% Real Dental Healing Testimonials Leroy from Utah Ms. Steuernol from Alberta , Canada Mike from Ashland , Oregon Pioneering Tooth Cavity Remineralization CHAPTER 1 DENTISTRY'S INABILITY TO CURE CAVITIES Reaffirm Your Choice to Cure Your Cavities The Real Cause of Cavities Remembering Your Connection Fear of the Dentist How Conventional Dentistry Works Micro-organisms Conventional Dentistry’s Losing Battle Against Bacteria The Failure of Conventional Dentistry Chapter 1 References CHAPTER 2 DENTIST WESTON PRICE DISCOVERS THE CURE Lack of Nutrition is the Cause of Physical Degeneration The Healthy People of the Loetschental Valley, Switzerland Modern Swiss were Losing Their Health The Healthy People of the Outer Hebrides Gaelics on Modern Foods are Losing Their Health Genetics and Tooth Decay Aborigines of Australia Nutritive Values of Diets Compared Fat-soluble Vitamins and Activators Mantesh Why Tooth Decay with Modern Civilization? Weston Price's Tooth Decay Curing Protocol Dr. Price's Protocol Summarized Chapter 2 References CHAPTER 3 MAKE YOUR TEETH STRONG WITH FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS How Teeth Remineralize 101 Hormones and Tooth Decay Cholesterol The Miracle of Vitamin D Vital Fat-Soluble Vitamin A Cod Liver Oil Heals Cavities Weston Price’s Activator X More......

Words: 66501 - Pages: 267

Free Essay

Medical Surgical Nursing

...00_078973706x_fm.qxd 1/14/08 2:42 PM Page i NCLEX-PN ® SECOND EDITION Wilda Rinehart Diann Sloan Clara Hurd 00_078973706x_fm.qxd 1/14/08 2:42 PM Page ii NCLEX-PN® Exam Cram, Second Edition Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and author assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Nor is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. ISBN-13:978-0-7897-2706-9 ISBN-10: 0-7897-3706-x Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Rinehart, Wilda. NCLEX-PN exam cram / Wilda Rinehart, Diann Sloan, Clara Hurd. -- 2nd ed. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-7897-3706-9 (pbk. w/cd) 1. Practical nursing--Examinations, questions, etc. 2. Nursing--Examinations, questions, etc. 3. National Council Licensure Examination for Practical/Vocational Nurses--Study guides. I. Sloan, Diann. II. Hurd, Clara. III. Title. RT62.R55 2008 610.73'076--dc22 2008000133 Printed in the United States of America First Printing: February 2008 Trademarks All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have......

Words: 177674 - Pages: 711

Free Essay



Words: 159309 - Pages: 638

Free Essay


...62118 0/nm 1/n1 2/nm 3/nm 4/nm 5/nm 6/nm 7/nm 8/nm 9/nm 1990s 0th/pt 1st/p 1th/tc 2nd/p 2th/tc 3rd/p 3th/tc 4th/pt 5th/pt 6th/pt 7th/pt 8th/pt 9th/pt 0s/pt a A AA AAA Aachen/M aardvark/SM Aaren/M Aarhus/M Aarika/M Aaron/M AB aback abacus/SM abaft Abagael/M Abagail/M abalone/SM abandoner/M abandon/LGDRS abandonment/SM abase/LGDSR abasement/S abaser/M abashed/UY abashment/MS abash/SDLG abate/DSRLG abated/U abatement/MS abater/M abattoir/SM Abba/M Abbe/M abbé/S abbess/SM Abbey/M abbey/MS Abbie/M Abbi/M Abbot/M abbot/MS Abbott/M abbr abbrev abbreviated/UA abbreviates/A abbreviate/XDSNG abbreviating/A abbreviation/M Abbye/M Abby/M ABC/M Abdel/M abdicate/NGDSX abdication/M abdomen/SM abdominal/YS abduct/DGS abduction/SM abductor/SM Abdul/M ab/DY abeam Abelard/M Abel/M Abelson/M Abe/M Aberdeen/M Abernathy/M aberrant/YS aberrational aberration/SM abet/S abetted abetting abettor/SM Abeu/M abeyance/MS abeyant Abey/M abhorred abhorrence/MS abhorrent/Y abhorrer/M abhorring abhor/S abidance/MS abide/JGSR abider/M abiding/Y Abidjan/M Abie/M Abigael/M Abigail/M Abigale/M Abilene/M ability/IMES abjection/MS abjectness/SM abject/SGPDY abjuration/SM abjuratory abjurer/M abjure/ZGSRD ablate/VGNSDX ablation/M ablative/SY ablaze abler/E ables/E ablest able/U abloom ablution/MS Ab/M ABM/S abnegate/NGSDX abnegation/M Abner/M abnormality/SM abnormal/SY ab......

Words: 113589 - Pages: 455