Premium Essay

Logical Fallacies

In: English and Literature

Submitted By biancad210
Words 872
Pages 4
Logical Fallacies Fallacies are all around us. We see fallacies on the television, newspapers, and radio. People around the world experience logical fallacies on almost a daily basis. A fallacy is defined as “errors or flaws in reasoning” (Axelrod and Cooper 620).Fallacies used in advertisements are; band wagon, begging the question, confusing chronology with casualty, either-or reasoning, equivocating, failing to accept the burden of proof, false analogy, hasty generalization, overreliance on authority, oversimplifying, personal attack, red herring, slanting, slippery slope, sob story, straw man. I have gathered four advertisements that have fallacies. The fallacies are slippery slope, overreliance on authority, and hasty generalization. My first finding is an advertisement with the fallacy slippery slope. The advertiser tells people “Use this 3D White collection together and get a noticeably whiter smile in just two days”. Slippery slope is defined as pretending that one thing inevitable leads to another (Axelrod and Cooper 621). The advertisement has the celebrity Shakira smiling with beautiful white teeth. It has three Crest 3D White products a toothbrush, mouthwash, and toothpaste. Advertiser say’s “Reveal your inner rock star with a 3D White smile”. Also, it claims that “life opens up with a whiter smile”. This advertisement is pretending that life will be better if people use its products. It will also supposedly make your teeth glamorous white. The toothbrush is also labeled Pro-Flex, and this makes people think that professionals use it. The toothpaste claims to remove up to ninety percent of surface stains in five days. There is no proof your teeth will really be glamorous white. A slippery slope is only one type of fallacy, and overreliance on authority is another fallacy found in advertisements. Overreliance on authority is defined as...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Logical Fallacies

...Logical Fallacies Fallacies are common errors in reasoning that will undermine the logic of your argument. Fallacies can be either illegitimate arguments or irrelevant points, and are often identified because they lack evidence that supports their claim. Avoid these common fallacies in your own arguments and watch for them in the arguments of others. • o Slippery Slope: This is a conclusion based on the premise that if A happens, then eventually through a series of small steps, through B, C,..., X, Y, Z will happen, too, basically equating A and Z. So, if we don't want Z to occur, A must not be allowed to occur either. Example:If we ban Hummers because they are bad for the environment eventually the government will ban all cars, so we should not ban Hummers. In this example, the author is equating banning Hummers with banning all cars, which is not the same thing. o Hasty Generalization: This is a conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidence. In other words, you are rushing to a conclusion before you have all the relevant facts. Example: Even though it's only the first day, I can tell this is going to be a boring course. In this example, the author is basing his evaluation of the entire course on only the first day, which is notoriously boring and full of housekeeping tasks for most courses. To make a fair and reasonable evaluation the author must attend not one but several classes, and possibly even examine the textbook, talk to the professor, or......

Words: 1157 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Logical Fallacies

...Logical Fallacies American InterContinental University - Online PHIL201-1204A-02 October 20, 2012 Earl Barnett Logical Fallacies Fallacies are statements that might sound reasonable or sketchily true but are actually weak or dishonest. I will discuss and give me interpretation of some common logical fallacies. Mere Assertion & Circular Reasoning Mere Assertion is an argument that lacks factual support. It’s merely an opinion that is formed more so by belief then logical evidence. For example, “Robert is a vampire; I can feel his cold blood when I touch him.” This argument has no real logic behind it, only reasoning that makes sense to the person stating it. Circular Reasoning is an argument that aids support to a statement by repeating itself in a bolder definition. For example, I am human because my mother is human and my mother is human because I am human. Using the method of circular reasoning states that because I was conceived by my mother I am human as well. Both statements in my argument prove each other to be true, which makes my conclusion and premises the same. Ad Hominem & Red Herring Ad Hominem is an argument used to negatively portray ones character. This method of argument redirects ones attention from a certain topic by providing unrelated accusations about the person in support of the topic. For instance, in a court dispute over which parent should be granted full custody of their child, the defending lawyer states that the......

Words: 897 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Logical Fallacies

...Logical Fallacies Defined Jamie Osborne American InterContinental University Abstract Fallacies can be viewed as a mistake or error. There are many different fallacies with different meanings for each. The following paper will discuss 9 logical fallacies. The paper will also include definitions for each of the 9 fallacies as well as examples of being applied to real life scenarios. Logical Fallacies defined Everyone has gotten into an argument with someone once or twice in their lifetime. Some people have mastered their skills in being argumentative while others are lacking in that department. The following will be a list of 9 different types of argument styles that could take place in one’s argument scenario. We have all been in an argument and more than likely used one or more of these in arguments that we have had in the past. The first logical fallacy to discuss will be Mere Assertion. By definition mere assertion means while arguing one’s point no matter what the opposing party may have to say their argument is right because that person believes it to be the truth. To further explain will an example P1- Mermaids are real and have inhabited the sea since the beginning of time. P2- Mermaids are in fact real and inhabit the sea because I believe they do. C- Mermaids are real and have inhabited the sea since the beginning of time because I believe they do. Therefore due to the fact that I believe that mermaids are real and that they inhabit the sea......

Words: 1322 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Logical Fallacies

...translation for “against the person”. It means when a claim during an argument, that is a personal attack or allegation and is not logical and is irrelevant. Example: “President Obama held a press conference to talk about the serious issue of ISIS but he obviously did not take it that serious because he wore a tan suit and not a grey or black one.” Red Herring: The term refers to fox hunting, when a smoked herring is dragged on the route of hunting to distracted the hounds’ scent. The argument is a sidetrack comment used to deflect from the actual issue at hand. Example: “I know I shouldn’t have spent this much money on a dress, but does it not accentuate my figure nicely?” Pseudo Question: A pseudo question is an open-ended question that has no answer. Example: If god loves all of us, why does he make some people struggle more than others? False-Cause: A false-cause is coming to the conclusion that something occurred by an inaccurate observation. Example: The Atlanta Falcons were a horrible team until I moved here in 2012 and they almost made it to the super bowl. Sweeping Generalization: A sweeping generalization is a wide range assumption that does not apply to all cases or situations. Example: Majority of all hip-hop artists are black, so therefore all black people love hip-hop. Slippery Slope: A slippery slope fallacy refers a...

Words: 449 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Effective Logical Fallacy

...Identify the Logical Fallacies 1. Mabel is not qualified to lead the school board because she used to drink liquor in her 20s. • This is anAd hominem fallacy: It attacks the character of the arguer rather than the argument. It is an error in reasoning because you should focus on the argument. 2. A child can be either an athlete or a good student. • This is an Either-or type fallacy: it presents someone with a limited choice when there are more choices. The error is that people will know they have more choices and discredit your argument. 3. Any change in health care will lead to socialism; we don’t want to live in a socialist country, so we can’t reform health care. • Begging the Question: Using circular reasoning to prove a conclusion. This is done in the news a lot and this type of fallacy goes unnoticed. The error is that the claim is false so the conclusion is false and people will notice this. 4. All teenagers text while they drive; therefore, we should raise the driving age to 21. • Hasty generalization: Using a part to make an inaccurate claim about a whole. This is wrong because if any part of the claim is wrong it will make the whole argument wrong. 5. If we don’t all drive hybrid cars, the world will end in the next decade because of environmental damage. • Slippery slope: Suggesting that one event will automatically lead to a chain of other events. This is wrong because the claim that the world will end isn’t supported be any......

Words: 581 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Logical Fallacies in Philosophy

...What Are Logical Fallacies? Unknown AIU Online What Are Logical Fallacies? There are two different kinds of reasoning in philosophy. One uses the logical synthesis of two or more true statements, it is called deductive reasoning. The other generalizes by observing a number of specific examples, it is called inductive reasoning. (Carroll, 2000) Both deductive and inductive reasoning requires us to use sound logic to reach valid conclusions. Without the use of this logic errors can occur, which in philosophy are called logical fallacies. Mere Assertion The first logical fallacy I am going to define is mere assertion. This is an argument of opinion. There is no guarantee that what you say will be expected. But all opinions whether they are believed to be true or not must be supported by evidence. Here is an example of a mere assertion fallacy. My cats love me because they sleep on my bed. Also when I open their cat food they come running, so they must love me. Both of these statements are not supported by evidence. They are just statements of opinion that I believe to be truth. Circular Reasoning The second logical fallacy I am going to define is circular reasoning. This is an argument where your conclusion and premise are the same. It is an argument that asks you to simply accept the conclusion without real evidence. Also it can be an argument that simply ignores an important assumption. So to avoid this fallacy you......

Words: 1313 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Logical Fallacies

...we identify Logical Fallacies? By: Tabitha Harris American InterContinental Online University July 16, 2013 Abstract This purpose of this paper is to identify and explain what literature experts call Logical Fallacies. This document will include reasonable vocabulary, logical definitions, and sound examples of how to and how not to include these fallacies into your writings. There will be some suggestions made to assist with recognizing and examining some of the logical fallacies located within the writings of others, as well as in your own. By the end of this paper, your thoughts will be enlightened, and your knowledge of logical fallacies stronger, whether you’re a reader, writer, or just someone looking to learn. How do we identify Logical Fallacies? Logical Fallacies are arguments or false statements that appear to be true, when in fact, they’re not. Logical fallacies can also be accurate and are used to pursue someone to accept a single thought or feeling. People use logical fallacies to prove a point and to support reasoning behind a thought. There are different types of fallacies that I will go over in this paper. Fallacies often dilute arguments and by learning to recognize them in your own writing helps boost your ability to identify them in others’ writings, as well. This document will point out and explain key fallacies to look for in your writings and literature in general. (Career Education Corporation [CEC], 2010) LOGICAL FALLACIES: *......

Words: 892 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Logical Fallacies

...Logical Fallacies Nicole Smith American Intercontinental University Online Abstract Logical fallacies are mistakes in philosophical reasoning. One must be able to determine when a fallacy is being used as an argument so they are prepared to argument against such fallacy. Logical Fallacies There are several logical fallacies to watch for when making a philosophical argument. A mere assertion is someone asserting a lie to make it seem as a truth. It usually lacks any facts that would support it being true. This type of fallacy does not have any logic behind it. As an example, if I said that my boss is stupid. I have no facts that supports that she is stupid and in fact since she is in a management position at the company she is more than likely not stupid. Circular reasoning is an argument that starts with what the person making the argument is try to end up with. For example, my daughter is my child because I am her mother and therefore she is my child. This argument is stating the argument at the beginning and at the end, which makes it a circular reasoning and also a logical argument. Ad hominem is making an argument specifically against an opponent, which makes the argument personal and attacking the person’s character instead of their argument. Also referred to as, an appeal to motive (Bennett, 2012). An example of this would be if two presidential candidates were having a debate and one of the candidates brought up that the other candidate may have used......

Words: 831 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Many Types of Logical Fallacies

...the many types of Logical Fallacies .American Intercontinental University PHIL 201- 1401B-02 Week 3 Individual Assignment Introduction: Logical Fallacy: A logical fallacy is an error in reasoning. In other words, it is a factual error or a failure to logically support the conclusion in an argument. An argument is a group of statements about a specific topic where a stand is taken applying premises needed to support their conclusion. A fallacy is a type of argument where the person uses bad arguments to support their conclusion but in order to be a fallacy it must be believed some of the time (Eemeren & Grootendorst, 1995). The different types of fallacies are mere assertion, circular reasoning, Ad hominem, red herring, pseudo-questions, false cause, sweeping generalizations, slippery slope, and equivocation or changing meanings. Mere Assertion: Arguments by mere assertion simply mean a person uses a strong statement instead of any real fact to argue a point. Just because an argument is stated emphatically does not mean that statement is in fact true. In mere assertion even if there are facts to the contrary or that contradict the argument it will continue o be supported. Arguments by mere assertion are also considered rhetoric. Rhetoric is supporting the argument despite the fact there is no evidence the argument is true. It is a form of persuasion or blind faith in the mere assertion. Circular Reasoning: Circular reasoning is a type of fallacy where the......

Words: 1375 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Examples Of Logical Fallacies

...vote for that candidate. I compared and contrasted my candidate with one of her opponents. I focused on making her opponent look bad. My argument is full of logical fallacies; therefore it is not a good argument. One logical fallacy in my paper is “He talks about reducing taxes, but how can we listen when we know he cheated on his wife with three different women”. I distract the readers from his plan to lower taxes with his personal life. This logical fallacy is a red herring. Another example of red herring in my paper is “Karen Xue is a divorced woman, but what an amazing job she has brought woman in this country together”. I distract readers from her personal life with something good she has done in society. A red herring is distracting the readers from the important point....

Words: 488 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Identify the Logical Fallacies

...I can often remember hearing do something with your time as a kid However I cannot remember to many times when someone came up with a decent activity for these youths who don’t have opportunities as some of peers however they make do. Some of these ways make headlines do to the fact that kids are wild and sometimes dangerous. Most of these kids have no activities other than school or sports. The problem starts when all of the bottled up energy comes pouring out at the end of the day. Energy mixed with peer pressure can lead to trouble yet people will sentence children to life with no outdate because of something that under different circumstances would be deemed ok behavior. Or legal if modified,america ispl throwing away good people because of things America her great self if also guilty of as a child I was labeled a hyper active kid I had all kids of pinned up energy that I just didn’t know what to do with witch led to negative activities and most times didn’t start out that way . We as nation are losing because we are losing our future witch is our children. Some of the brightest. Smartest and creative talented generation we have had in quite a while however if we throw our youths to the wolves who will lead us in the future. As a kid I can remember Vietnam war were you could be sentenced to the military instead of jail time now it’s like lock them up throw away the key its ungodly to say the least.......

Words: 504 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Logical Fallacies And Rhetorical Devices

...In English class, students watching political commercials learned how to use logical fallacies and rhetoric. Logical fallacies are logical mistakes which means mistakes that don’t make any sense that somehow do make sense. Students made a storyboard and used a video editing website to make a political advertisement. Also, the political commercial helps you understand and choose which political party you belong to. Also, in class, students created platforms and learned how to use ethos, pathos, and logos in the political commercial. Pathos is the pathway to your heart. Ethos is how trustworthy a person is and a person that has good character. Also, ethos is defined as a credible and respected person. Logos is using facts and evidence to back up politicians arguments. Students learned that political candidates can twist their words around and can lie to your...

Words: 776 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Explain The List Of 5 Logical Fallacies

...The list of 5 logical fallacies that are important to avoid in my work are listed below: 1. Red Herring: Red Herring is one of the logical fallacies that we see in some paper where there is uses of unrelated argument. So, I want to avoid the use of argument which is not related to my subject because uses of unrelated argument can distract my reader. Example: Before controlling the population, we must know how the animal suffers when there is global warming. Because, the argument that I provided in the example is not related to the subject. 2. False Analogy: False Analogy is another logical fallacy that I want to avoid in my work. It is the comparison between two subjects which are totally dissimilar to each other which...

Words: 350 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Logical Fallacy

...Biased Sample is a logical fallacy in which the author makes an assumption just from a single data and lacks equality in some way. Most of the time, the data is unfair and therefore doesn’t give a correct analysis. This kind of sample can result as a result of poor data collection in which the researcher doesn’t attempt to collect as much information as possible. Also this kind of sample might result from unawareness in collecting the information. A good example for Biased Sample is the widely recognized belief of people refusing to go to countries like Ethiopia and Sudan because every time these countries appear on the news, it always talks about poverty, war and all bad news. This is one of the most commonly heard explanations especially from westerners when asked why they don’t want to go to Africa. Especially people who only hear about Africa from the news and watch National Geography have this kind of understanding. This statement is biased because Africa is not the place where only the bad events like poverty, war and HIV/AIDS occur. The western media only concentrate on these characters and give their attention to the negative news only. Therefore by presenting only the worst side of Africa, people are mislead and forget all the good things that Africa has to provide for the rest of the world. But for those who got the chance to go to countries in Africa, they see the truth and experience the other side of...

Words: 253 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Identify the Logical Fallacies

...Free Speech- is it really free? Freedom of speech, is it really free? My answer is no! According to The Constitutional Amendments (US Constitution-Bill of rights, 1791); The first amendment states that; “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging The Freedom of Speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and petition the government for a redress of grievances.” So why is it when people protest, or speak out against something they don’t like they are find guilty and pressed with charges for treason? The United States of American is no longer the land of the free, and hasn’t been for many years. The court systems are corrupt, the government does nothing to help its people and for some reason they think they are the world police. The thing that gets me is there was a law just pasted for gay couples to be married in all 50 states, when (if you’re a god believer) in the bible it states that marriage is meant for a male and a female. I’m not saying I’m against gay marriage but when you give them the right to hang their rainbow colored flag, and have marches, and protest and etc. They are okay because with today’s societally everyone is over sensitive they let them go so no one’s feelings get hurt or they are afraid of being sued for speaking their minds. I find it a little funny to believe that speaking your mind can led to a law suit. Now if someone from the south......

Words: 539 - Pages: 3