Free Essay

Lyric Censorship: Language Is Power

In: English and Literature

Submitted By Biahnca
Words 1913
Pages 8
Lyric Censorship: Language is Power

Words create powerful emotions in all of us. They are used to express our feelings, thoughts and ideas, as well as communicate with one another. There are countless examples in history where we see language equating power. Within those examples we see people in the position of power, using this power of language to degrade their enemies and those they consider beneath them, and shape language in their favor. Music ties into language completely. The words of song lyrics convey powerful messages. As language is power, those in control seek to repress the power of this language in music, attempting to keep the power in their favor. But this attempt at censorship only gives those words even more influence and any attempt to infringe our right to free speech should be fought for to prevent its loss.

The censorship of lyrics has occurred globally and can be dated back as far as music and poetry can be traced. Let’s take Asia as an example. Under the ruling of the Taliban in Afghanistan, music became a crime (Korpe, 2004). Instruments were burned, and people were severely punished for singing or creating any kind of music that was not deemed acceptable by the government. In Kabal, President Rabbani went as far as to create an Office for the Propagation of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice, which was used to regulate the lyric of song in the favor of the government, and punish those who spoke ill towards those in power. In Pakistan, musicians had to hold a license which specified the kind of songs they could perform, namely songs that praised the mujahidin and songs with texts drawn from the mystical Sufi poetry of the region. But musicians always had the last laugh. They secretly rebelled against this oppression, and this can be seen with the example of Wairaz, a radio singer that stayed in Kabul under the Taliban rule. He sang for them: “Remember the poor are protected by God, one day he will answer their cries, and the oppressor will be punished” (Korpe, 2005, p. 23). Those in power allowed him to sing this for them, but apparently they did not realize the deeper meaning behind the words; words that are a beacon of hope for the people and a direct defiance of the power of the government who are oppressing them.

Another strong example of the power struggle for lyric censorship occurs in the country of Zimbabwe. On December 1, 1967, Zimbabwe invoked the Censorship and Entertainment Control Act, which is enforced by a council comprised of the Ministry of Home Affairs and the local police force (Muza, 2005). This act has survived from 1967 all the way until present day. A popular musician from Zimbabwe, Oliver Mtukudzi, could not have said it better: “As a musician, I have been appalled that the government has used its monopoly of the airwaves to restrict airplay of artists who they see as non-supportive of its policies. People who do not promote government’s image are often seen as being enemies of the government and attempts are made to silence them or undermine their careers. This is a gross abuse of human rights, so many of which have been violated in order to secure government’s grasp on power” (Muza, 2005, p.1). Mtukudzi has never openly spoken ill against the government of his country, but there is speculation that some of his songs imply metaphors that speak against the oppression in his country. His reasoning probably had something to do with the numerous cases of police brutality and detainment of those artists who did directly speak out against the government. One such example of this was the case of a performance of a revolutionary song called Madzangara Dzimu which was performed at a music festival by the band Green Arrows. That night, the band was arrested, beaten and imprisoned for two nights. And because of this, Madzangara Dzimu is one of the most recognized songs in the country and has one of the most popular songs that is smuggled into the country. But as Andy Morgan, a journalist in the region said: “Even if the censor could gather up all the CDs and cassettes and burn them, the songs would still be in people’s heads - which makes it so much more powerful” (Muza, 2005, p.2). The government of Zimbabwe can attempt to control the people by censoring music, but the people will always remember, and through that remembrance is a power greater than they will ever hold.

Censorship of music lyrics is not just something that affects the various places of the world, it also hits home. There are countless examples of this censorship involving Canada and the USA, which may come as surprising considering we are supposed to have some of the strongest rights and freedoms of free speech in the world. Though direct government intervention in North America is rare, the first real documented case of government interference occurred because of the 1963 Kingsmen song Louie Louie (Blecha, 2004). A song whose extremely mumbled lyrics were about a lonesome sailor pining for his girl, were misconstrued by parents who heard the song and as such, numerous complaints rang in to the US Attorney General of the time, Robert F. Kennedy, saying that the material of the song was vulgar and had gone too far. A two year investigation ensued and during that time, a radio and live performance ban was issued in 1964 of the song. But all of this negative publicity generated a frenzy of revenue to the band’s label of people wanting copies of the bands’ album. Their attempt to denigrate this song only caused it to be sought after by the youth of the day.

There are several songs that have been banned or altered because of pressure by the government, parents, and those in positions of power. But in all cases, this attempt to destroy the message of the song has backfired and has given more power to the lyrics. Red Ragtop, by artist Tim McGraw, was discriminated against because the song implied abortion (ACLU, 2005). The song spear headed the campaign for a woman’s right to choose. The Doors’ single “Unknown Soldier” was banned from airplay at many radio stations because of its anti-war theme during the Vietnam War, but ended up as a top 40 song on the Billboard Top 100 (ACLU, 2005). And in the 1950s many black artists in North America were not recorded unless their songs had a message which could cross over to a white audience. A popular Ku Klux Klan poster that was circulated about the black artists attempting to break into the popular music scene, which is now an example of classic bigot literature said; “Help save the youth of America: Don’t buy Negro records. The screaming, idiotic words and savage music of these records are undermining the morals of our white youth in America” (Peck, 1978, p. 19). Wouldn’t they be pleased to know how popular rap, rhythm and blues, and soul music have become and the predominance of the black artists in the popular music scene of today?

One thing can be certain about the music scene of today, the attempts to censor music lyrics has left a mark. The largest mark was the introduction of the parental advisory label on music with lyrics that were labeled as possible to interpret as obscene. As such, depending on the label, the stores would be unable to sell these albums to young people. This was meant to be a hindrance to buy this seemingly offensive material but as we are all well aware, there has always been this “forbidden fruit” concept when parents, or those in authority, have told us we can’t do something or, in this case, can’t listen to something. As representatives from Peaches, Spec’s and Q Records chains said: “…if there’s a choice involved between a stickered and a sanitized version of the same album, kids almost always choose the “street version” because it indicates provocative --- read “hip” (Murphy, 1989, p. 10). People, not only young adults, love to rebel against authority and do what is not considered the social norm in order to appear cool or hip. Listening to lyrics deemed possibly offensive or obscene provides a perfect and safe out for that rebellious action we all want to feel. Attempting to censor music lyrics in the US and Canada has proven to backfire on those in authority to give the power to the lyrics themselves.

The words of song lyrics convey powerful messages. As language is power, those in control seek to repress the power of this language in music, attempting to keep the power in their favor. But this attempt at censorship only gives those words even more influence and any attempt to infringe our right to free speech should be fought for to prevent its loss. People in history and around the world have certainly proven that they will rebel against those in authority who attempt to control the language of music. Whether it be to repress those speaking out against the government, or to silence words and songs considered offensive, the people will always find ways around the barriers to access these songs. The Internet itself has caused a network of sharing and it would be next to impossible to silence the spread of supposed offensive lyrics in today’s age. But silencing those lyrics is not really the answer. Fighting prejudice and hate requires more speech, not enforced silence, and forcing anything on people has never gone over well in a free society. If you find a song on the radio offensive, there is always an “off” button or you can change the station. And everyone in this world have different thoughts and opinions; what one finds offensive, another finds enlightening. There will never be one common opinion as long as language continues to move forward and change. Language gives each person the power to change the world; why should artists who choose to write lyrics as their legacy be faced with possible censorship. References
American Civil Liberties Union. (2005). Brief timeline of censored music. Retrieved
February 5, 2010, from
Banton, B. (2009). Censorship the wrong way to fight hatred. Retrieved February 7,
2010, from
Blecha, P. (2004). Taboo tunes: A history of banned & censored songs. San Franciso,
CA: Backbeat.
Chastagner, P.C. (n.d.). The parent’s music resource center: From information to censorship. Retrieved February 5, 2010, from the-world/pmrc1.htm Dunn, S. (Director). (2006). Metal: A headbanger’s journey [Motion Picture]. USA: Universal Studios.
Garofalo, R. (2008). Rockin’ out: Popular music in the USA. Upper Sadie River, NJ:
Jones, S. (1991). Ban(ned) in the USA: Popular music and censorship. Retrieved
February 5, 2010, from
Korpe, M. (2004). Shoot the singer!: Music censorship today. London: Zed.
Murphy, R. (1989, September 6). Warning labels send records up the charts. Cincinnati
Enquirer, p. 10.
Muza, O. (2005). Zimbabwe: A case of music censorship before and after independence.
Retrieved March 22, 2010, from
Nuzum, E. (2001). Parental advisory: Music censorship in America. New York:
Peck, A. (1978, November 16). Stones lyric protest. Rolling Stone, p. 19.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Music Censorship: a Violation of Artistic Expression

...Music Censorship: A Violation of Artistic Expression Brandi Yaeger University of Phoenix What if you were told that you could no longer listen to your favorite song anymore because the message that it sends does not conform to someone else’s way of thinking? What reasons are given for the censoring of music, or why have musicians been tortured, jailed, exiled or even killed? Why have certain forms of music been silenced? Music is an expression of ideas and emotions that reflect hopes, dreams and aspirations not only for the artist creating the music but in the listener as well. Music has been used as a form of expression of thoughts and emotions for centuries. People in power sometimes view these expressions conflicting to their current way of thinking what is proper lyrical content or negating to current governing practices. The implementation of music censorship has been done by governments, religions, educational systems and even families. In most cases this censorship is a violation of international conventions of human rights, ( George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), said “All censorships exist to prevent anyone from challenging current conceptions and existing institutions. All Progress is initiated by challenging current conceptions, and executed by supplanting existing institutions. Consequently the first condition of progress is the removal of censorships.” ( Although music censorship is imposed for various reasons, music is a form...

Words: 1485 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Speechless Freedom

...totally different standard because some people perceive music as being a form of art and literature while others view music as being immoral and detrimental to the Christian principles that are so prevalent in our society. Music censorship was introduced in 1927, by way of the Radio Act, which prohibited the use of obscene, indecent or profane language on radio airways. In 1934 the Federal Communications Commission was created by Congress and at this point, censorship encompassed not only music but all public mediums for artistic expressions. Censorship has been used as a tool to suppress artistic expressions from entertainment to literature and even though the First Amendment affords us the right to freedom of expression, censorship still has the power to dictate how we express our thoughts, feelings and ideas. The debate over censorship deals mainly with the First Amendment and whether or not it is constitutional for opposing groups or individuals to impose their beliefs upon our fundamental right to exercise freedom of speech. Music censorship has become a mainstream social issue because our right to freedom of expression is infringed upon and rap music has been targeted even more so because of the content of the content their songs. Music censorship is term used to describe the act of editing, altering or preventing the listener from hearing the music as the artist created it. This action directly impacts the artist because it takes away the right to freedom of......

Words: 1501 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...Censorship is a practice that restricts and music censorship is a very delicate matter. Music censorship is no new thing, it’s been going on regularly at least since the 1850s (Volz, 1991). Since music began, there is always someone trying to silence or censor something! Plato said “rhythm and harmony find their way into the inward places of the soul”. Music is art and art in all its forms has always been prone to censorship, usually because of the desire of artists to extend the boundaries of taste and challenge authority (2005) crystal ref encyclopedia Even though music censorship is no new thing and it has been around since the beginning of music, it is not right. I totally reject music censorship! The problem is always with the words. Words are lyrics and with those words artists creatively express their emotions, experiences, thoughts and feelings .Consequently creating an aesthetic quality, transforming words into lyrics. There is nothing more powerful than the written word. Talk is cheap but “words”- words are magic , words are deep. Words are the foundation of history, of feelings, of intrigue. Words teach, words punish. Words give you a release. Words are wonder. Words are weapons. Words can soothe and words can kill ! Words are the symbols that represent truth. Words bring accomplishment. Words bring things into being. Words are the written of what a person is seeing. Words create, they sedate, they equate, they elaborate and they dictate. Words instigate.......

Words: 856 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Aa Sex

...Portrayal of Women in Rap and Music Videos :: 4 Works Cited Length: 1724 words (4.9 double-spaced pages) Rating: Blue       Price: $24.95 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Misogyny and degradation of women is present in almost every genre of music, yet the one genre that completely revolves around demeaning women is rap. Over the years rap and rap music videos have continually become more sexual and degrading towards women. Rap has been criticized numerous times for this reason, and that is because rap is one of the most popular genres of music for the younger generations. It is more than a genre of music, it is a complete industry filled with clothing and other merchandise. The reason this constant demeaning of women exists is because rap as a genre that rewards the objectification of women. The excuses used to justify the misogyny in rap are incomplete and lack accurate support. The most effective way for this continuous cycle ends, is if the fight and protest comes from the women themselves. Men are the problem in the objectification of women but in order for it to stop, women need to step up and take control of the situation. Women need to act sooner rather than later because in recent years the rap industry has become more and more sexual. Ra... ... middle of paper ... ...Society 113 (2000): 255-69. JSTOR. 29 November 2009 . McLune, Jennifer. "Hip-Hop's Betrayal of Black Women." Perspective on Contemporary Issues.......

Words: 5327 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Hi Hop

...This article is about the cultural movement. For the music genre, see Hip hop music. For other uses, see Hip hop (disambiguation). Graffiti of "hip hop" in Eugene, Oregon Hip hop is a form of musical expression and artistic subculture that originated in African-American and Hispanic-American communities during the 1970s in New York City, specifically the Bronx.[1][2][3] DJ Afrika Bambaataa outlined the four pillars of hip hop culture: MCing, DJing, B-boying and graffiti writing.[4][5][6][7] [8] Since its emergence in the South Bronx, hip hop culture has spread to both urban and suburban communities throughout the world.[9] Hip hop music first emerged with disc jockeys creating rhythmic beats by looping breaks (small portions of songs emphasizing a percussive pattern) on two turntables, more commonly referred to as sampling. This was later accompanied by "rap", a rhythmic style of chanting or poetry presented in 16 bar measures or time frames, and beatboxing, a vocal technique mainly used to imitate percussive elements of the music and various technical effects of hip hop DJ's. An original form of dancing and particular styles of dress arose among fans of this new music. These elements experienced considerable refinement and development over the course of the history of the culture. The relationship between graffiti and hip hop culture arises from the appearance of new and increasingly elaborate and pervasive forms of the practice in areas where other elements of hip hop...

Words: 8353 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay


...considerable prose literature grew up after King Alfred. Middle English Literature (1100-1500) Literature in England in this period was not just in English and Latin but in French as well and developed in directions set largely in France. Epic and Elegy gave way to romance and Lyric. English writing revived fully in English after 1360 and flowered in the reign of Richard II (1372-99). It gained a literary standard in London English after 1425 and developed modern forms of verse, prose and of Drama. The conquest of England in 1066 by William of Normandy displaced English as medium of literature. The language of new rulers was French. Saxons dealing with the King had to learn French and French was the language of court and the law for three centuries. Four genres of Middle English are: i. 1. Fabliau 2. Lyric 3. Dream Allegory 4. Ballad Geoffrey Chaucer Chaucer is the best story teller and the narrative poet. Chaucer tells his stories in a most effective way. He has the knack of transforming an old tale into a new one in such a manner that its appeal increases manifold and its human interest becomes perennial (lasting/permanent). An important feature of Chaucer's descriptive power is that his individual portrait also represents the type. Initially perhaps the sketches were devised to provide representatives of the chief classes of English society under the higher nobility. The portraits of the pilgrims are not all drawn in the same way. It is true......

Words: 2856 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Toni Morrison

...Synopsis Born on February 18, 1931, in Lorain, Ohio, Toni Morrison is a Nobel Prize- and Pulitzer Prize-winning American novelist, editor and professor. Her novels are known for their epic themes, vivid dialogue and richly detailed black characters. Among her best known novels are The Bluest Eye, Song of Solomon and Beloved. Morrison has won nearly every book prize possible. She has also been awarded honorary degrees. Early Career Born Chloe Anthony Wofford on February 18, 1931, in Lorain, Ohio, Toni Morrison was the second oldest of four children. Her father, George Wofford, worked primarily as a welder, but held several jobs at once to support the family. Her mother, Ramah, was a domestic worker. Morrison later credited her parents with instilling in her a love of reading, music, and folklore. Living in an integrated neighborhood, Morrison did not become fully aware of racial divisions until she was in her teens. "When I was in first grade, nobody thought I was inferior. I was the only black in the class and the only child who could read," she later told a reporter from The New York Times. Dedicated to her studies, Morrison took Latin in school, and read many great works of European literature. She graduated from Lorain High School with honors in 1949. At Howard University, Morrison continued to pursue her interest in literature. She majored in English, and chose the classics for her minor. After graduating from Howard in 1953, Morrison continued her education at......

Words: 2057 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay


...What about Violence in Movies? Manabu Ozawa from Japan |[pic] | | |PHOTO BY THOMAS PETERS | | |"Action movies with violence take heat from adults who blame | | |them for real life violence because they are closer to reality | | |than other movies." | | "The question whether movie violence should be regulated or not is a difficult and complicated matter." Although many people criticize violent movies, if there is a movie which does not contain sex and violence, who will go to see that movie? Most major movies, such as "Lethal Weapon", "Die Hard", and "Independence Day", were really popular in spite of the fact that the "good guy" killed more people than the "bad guy" did. In my opinion, Hollywood tends to produce few kinds of movies--action, panic, love story, and comedy. Whenever I watch a movie or a video, there is at least one murder in each movie. The biggest number of deaths are in the panic movies, in my opinion. Action movies with violence take heat from adults who blame them for real life violence because they are closer to reality than other movies. For example, in "Natural Born Killers" we can see around 50 deaths, whereas in "Independence Day" thousands of people die. In both movies, tons of people are killed, though the ways to kill are different. The big difference between them is about reality. |[pic] ...

Words: 20424 - Pages: 82

Premium Essay

How Effective Was Nazi Propaganda 1933

...How effective was Nazi propaganda 1933-1938? One of the main tools of Hitler’s rising Nazi regime was the scrupulous propaganda which enabled the Nazi party to keep the German people in check and under their control, exposing them to only what they saw necessary and vital for Nazi prosper. This helped raise the ideal race that the Nazis strived so wholeheartedly to create. But, how can we determine whether it was effective? To do this, we must look at the various techniques that were used by the ministry of propaganda, and to what extent they worked and helped the Nazi prosper. However, we can only speculate. We will never fully know statistics about how effective Nazi propaganda was, since there was no market research, very few non-Gestapo conducted opinion polls to look at, and even if there were many others, the information would not be accurate and the opinions affected.  If there had been polls conducted, the results would have shown exactly what Goebbels and Hitler wanted people to think - this was achieved by making sure that only certain things were safe to think - and more importantly safe to say. Hitler was able to gain more and more followers and appeal to the people due to the severe state of the German economy and the critical state of the people that had no savings, no assets and practically no food. The Versailles treaty had simply been a recipe for destruction for the Weimar Republic and the crisis was the last straw leading to its demise. Hitler was the......

Words: 3015 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Cherished and Cursed: Toward a Social History of the Catcher in the Rye

...4141- 4141--- Cherished and Cursed:Towarda Social History of The Catcher in the Rye STEPHEN J. WHITFIELD THE plot is brief:in 1949 or perhaps 1950, over the course of three days during the Christmas season, a sixteen-yearold takes a picaresque journey to his New YorkCity home from the third private school to expel him. The narratorrecounts his experiences and opinions from a sanitarium in California. A heavy smoker, Holden Caulfield claims to be already six feet, two inches tall and to have wisps of grey hair; and he wonders what happens to the ducks when the ponds freeze in winter. The novel was published on 16 July 1951, sold for $3.00, and was a Book-of-the-Month Club selection. Within two weeks, it had been reprinted five times, the next month three more times-though by the third edition the jacket photographof the author had quietly disappeared. His book stayed on the bestseller list for thirty weeks, though never above fourth place.' Costing 75?, the Bantam paperback edition appeared in 1964. By 1981, when the same edition went for $2.50, sales still held steady, between twenty and thirty thousand copies per month, about a quarter of a million copies annually. In paperback the novel sold over three million copies between 1953 and 1964, climbed even higher by the 1980s, and continues to attract about as many buyers as it did in 1951. The durabilityof The author appreciates the invitationof Professors Marc Lee Raphaeland Robert A. Gross to present an early......

Words: 12326 - Pages: 50

Premium Essay

Violence in Media

...Violence in Media As young adults, we experience the exposure of violence in all mediums of communication, such as TV shows, movies, video games, and music lyrics. We may have stopped counting how many crime investigation shows are in primetime or how many ways of killing people are in the Saw series. We just keep consuming those materials and even look for more violence as excitement. As we become so obsessed with the genre, we may have forgotten the importance of awareness to the issue. Statistics give us a better idea about the big picture. According to Media Education Foundation, researches indicate that about 89 percent of the top-selling video games contained violent content, almost half of which was of a serious nature. Two-thirds of Hollywood films released in 2001 were rated “R.” (Media Violence Facts, 2005) In September 2000, Federal Trade Commission (FTC) reported that 80 percent of “R” rated movies, 70 percent of restricted video games, and 100 percent of music with “explicit content” warning labels were being marketed to children under 17. With this amount of exposure, researchers estimated that by the time the average child is eighteen years old, they will have witnessed 200,000 acts of violence and 16,000 murders. (TV-Turnoff Network, 2001) Those numbers reminds us to think about the issue. Is it too much? What effect does it have on our life, especially for children and adolescents? As we are still looking for the correct answers, multiple cases have......

Words: 4071 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Phil Literature

...PHILIPPINE LITERATURE Philippine literature is the body of works, both oral and written, that Filipinos, whether native, naturalized, or foreign born, have created about the experience of people living in or relating to Philippine society. It is composed or written in any of the Philippine languages, in Spanish and in English, and in Chinese as well. Philippine literature may be produced in the capital city of Manila and in the different urban centers and rural outposts, even in foreign lands where descendants of Filipino migrants use English or any of the languages of the Philippines to create works that tell about their lives and aspirations. The forms used by Filipino authors may be indigenous or borrowed from other cultures, and these may range from popular pieces addressed to mass audiences to highly sophisticated works intended for the intellectual elite. Having gone through two colonial regimes, the Philippines has manifested the cultural influences of the Spanish and American colonial powers in its literary production. Works may be grouped according to the dominant tradition or traditions operative in them. The first grouping belongs to the ethnic tradition, which comprises oral lore identifiably precolonial in provenance and works that circulate within contemporary communities of tribal Filipinos, or among lowland Filipinos that have maintained their links with the culture of their non-Islamic or non-Christian ancestors. The second grouping consists of works that......

Words: 17320 - Pages: 70

Free Essay

The Birthday Party

...On-line Resources Welcome to Part 1 of TAG’s on-line resources for our production of The Birthday Party by Harold Pinter. These resources are divided into 2 parts. Part 1 is intended to give an insight into Pinter, his style of writing and the play itself by looking at previous productions of The Birthday Party. Generally aimed at Higher Drama students, this pack complements units 1, 2 and 3 of the syllabus. However, these resources are also useful for the Knowledge and Understanding elements of Standard Grade as well as the Special Study for Advanced Higher Drama. I have collated information from various sources in order to provide material for use before your students see TAG’s production. In September 2003, Part 2 will be available to download from TAG’s website. This section of the resources will focus on the process of creating our production of The Birthday Party. It will include contributions from the Director, the Designer, the Performers and other members of the creative team. I hope that Part 2 will open up TAG’s working methods and provide a real insight into how a theatre company works. Please feel free to reproduce any section of the on-line resources for your use in the classroom. We are always aiming to provide the most effective and beneficial resources for teachers and so please do offer any comments you have regarding either part of this pack. We welcome and appreciate all feedback. I very much hope that you and your pupils find the resources useful and......

Words: 7552 - Pages: 31

Free Essay

European Classical Literature

...B.A. (HONOURS) ENGLISH (Three Year Full Time Programme) COURSE CONTENTS (Effective from the Academic Year 2011-2012 onwards) DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH UNIVERSITY OF DELHI DELHI - 110007 0 Course: B.A. (Hons.) English Semester I Paper 1: English Literature 4(i) Paper 2: Twentieth Century Indian Writing(i) Paper 3: Concurrent – Qualifying Language Paper 4: English Literature 4(ii) Semester II Paper 5: Twentieth Century Indian Writing(ii) Paper 6: English Literature 1(i) Paper 7: Concurrent – Credit Language Paper 8: English Literature 1(ii) Semester III Paper 9: English Literature 2(i) Paper 10: Option A: Nineteenth Century European Realism(i) Option B: Classical Literature (i) Option C: Forms of Popular Fiction (i) Paper 11: Concurrent – Interdisciplinary Semester IV Semester V Paper 12: English Literature 2(ii) Paper 13: English Literature 3(i) Paper 14: Option A: Nineteenth Century European Realism(ii) Option B: Classical Literature (ii) Option C: Forms of Popular Fiction (ii) Paper 15: Concurrent – Discipline Centered I Paper 16: English Literature 3(ii) Paper 17: English Literature 5(i) Paper 18: Contemporary Literature(i) Paper 19: Option A: Anglo-American Writing from 1930(i) Option B: Literary Theory (i) Option C: Women’s Writing of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (i) Option D: Modern European Drama (i) Paper 20: English Literature 5(ii) Semester VI Paper 21: Contemporary Literature(ii) Paper 22: Option A: Anglo-American Writing from 1930(ii) Option B:...

Words: 4049 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Philippine Literature

...GENERAL TYPES OF LITERATURE Literature can generally be divided into two types: prose and poetry. Prose consists of those written within the common flow of conversation in sentences and paragraphs, while poetry refers to those expressions in verse, with measure and rhyme, line and stanza and has a more melodious tone. I. Prose There are many types of prose. These include novels, biographies, short stories, contemporary dramas, legends, fables, essays, anecdotes, news and speeches. 1. Novel. This is a long narrative divided into chapters. The events are taken from true-to-life stories and spans a long period of time. There are many characters involved. 2. Short Story. This is a narrative involving one or more characters, one plot, and one single impression. 3. Plays. This is presented in a stage. It is divided into acts and each act has many scenes. 4. Legends. These are fictitious narratives, usually about origins. 5. Fables. These are fictitious and they deal with animals and inanimate things who speak and act like people and their purpose is to enlighten the minds of children to events that can mold their ways and attitudes. 6. Anecdotes. These are merely products of the writer’s imagination and the main aim is to bring out lessons to the reader. 7. Essay. This expresses the viewpoint or opinion of the writer about a particular problem or event. 8. Biography. This deals with the life of a person which may be about himself, his......

Words: 13467 - Pages: 54