Free Essay

Macro-Environnement

In: Business and Management

Submitted By oumaymabed
Words 1357
Pages 6
Nom et prénom :

Recherche : Environnement démographique, socio culturel et technologique au Maroc.

Nombre de pages : 6

Introduction :

« Le macro-environnement englobe l’ensemble des variables qui influencent les différents acteurs évoluant sur le marché »

(Marachesney, 1993)

Contrairement aux facteurs micro-environnementaux, les facteurs macro-environnementaux ne sont pas contrôlables par l’entreprise. Toutefois, l’entreprise doit les étudier et prévoir leurs effets sur ses activités. L’analyste ne peut se permettre d’ignorer ces aspects, leur impact et leurs tendances.

➢ L’environnement de l’entreprise est un ensemble de forces dynamiques

➢ Les changements de l’environnement créent de l’incertitude: des menaces, mais aussi des opportunités pour l’entreprise

➢ Les gestionnaires doivent anticiper ces changements pour assurer la survie et la rentabilité de leurs activités.

De cela on peut distinguer entre :

← Une entreprise passive, ou réactive :où les forces de l’environnement sont considérées comme des contraintes.

← Une entreprise proactive qui anticipe les changements et les transforme en opportunités.

Et donc, Quels éléments sont importants à connaître au niveau :

▪ démographique

▪ Technologique

▪ Économique

▪ Politico-légal ou réglementaire

▪ Socioculturel

Nous, on ne va présenter que les éléments qui concernent l’environnement : Démographique, technologique, et socioculturel

L’environnement démographique :

Les facteurs démographiques ont des impacts explicites et implicites sur l’économie, la société et l’environnement. Aujourd’hui, la corrélation entre population et développement suscite l’intérêt des chercheurs tandis que sa prise en compte constitue un soucie primordial des responsables et des décideurs, si l’ont tient compte de la rapidité avec laquelle la population évolue tant dans le temps comme dans l’espace.

Or, sa demande en besoins primordiaux ne cesse d’augmenter, dans un contexte de plus en plus marqué par la surexploitation, la pollution et le gaspillage des ressources naturelles. Ainsi, La situation de la jeunesse marocaine est caractérisée par des paradoxes saisissants, des disparités extrêmes en termes de ressources économiques, technologiques, sociales et culturelles qui diffèrent considérablement selon les régions, le genre et la situation sociale de la famille.

Dans une zone géographique donnée, vit une population qui a, éventuellement, la volonté et le pouvoir d’acheter un produit, qui fait d’elle une marché potentiel pour les entreprises d’une même profession.

Certaines données démographiques sont indispensables pour permettre d’estimer la demande théorique : • La population, sa taille qui est à la base du calcul des agrégats commerciaux classiques, son évolution dans le passé et ses projections à moyen terme. Par exemple: En 2012, le Maroc compte 32,3 millions d'habitants. Voici un graphique qui représente l’évolution de la population au Maroc

[pic] • La structure par âge représentée par une pyramide des âges mettant en évidence l’importance de chaque groupe, par exemple : celui des enfants, celui des seniors. Ce qui rend possible des prévisions. : [pic]
• Le nombre et la taille des ménages, un ménage étant un ensemble de personnes vivant sous le même toit. Un célibataire n’a pas les mêmes besoins qu’une famille nombreuse.
• La répartition de la population suivant le lieu de naissance qui permet de suivre le mouvement des migrations intérieurs et celui de l’immigration étrangère, ces flux pouvant influencer les habitudes de consommation et, notamment les dépenses d’installation. • La répartition géographique et la densité de la population par région qui favorisent la prise en compte des différences régionales de consommation et la mise en évidence des zones à forte consommation en volume. • Les parts respectives des populations urbaine et rurale dans la population totale, les tendances passées et à venir, etc.

Dans une optique de prévision, ces informations peuvent être complétées par des indicateurs dynamiques de changements tels que le taux de mortalité, au Maroc 4,76 décès/1.000 habitants d’après les statistiques de 2011, l’espérance de vie, le taux de natalité, 18,97 naissances/1.000 habitants et la croissance démographique (Taux de croissance) : 1,054% (2011).

Socio-culturel :

Notre comportement est influencé par un nombre important de facteurs socioculturels, c’est-à-dire par des groupes plus ou moins structurés comme la famille, les groupes d’appartenance, les groupes de référence ou la culture. Chaque individu fait partie d’un ou plusieurs de ces groupes, ce qui peut parfois provoquer certaines contradictions au niveau comportemental.
Les facteurs sociaux :

Le comportement d’un individu ne peut pas être totalement expliqué par des variables individuelles car des relations se tissent entre les hommes créant ainsi des groupes qui influencent le comportement, de leurs membres. C’est ce qu’on nomme la socialisation.

La socialisation est un donc processus par lequel un individu s’approprie la culture et les valeurs de sa collectivité d’appartenance et construit son identité, ce qui permet sa participation à la vie collective donc à la vie en société.

La culture : se définit en ce sens comme un ensemble de connaissance transmis par des systèmes de croyance, par le raisonnement ou l’expérimentation, qui la développent au service du comportement humain en relation avec la nature et le monde environnant.

Il s’agit surtout de bien prendre en compte les aspects liés aux modes et aux styles de vie, ainsi que toute variable socioculturelle et religieuse ayant une incidence sur une société donnée (dans notre cas : la société marocaine).

Nos jours, les études de marché envisagent toujours l’analyse de l’environnement socioculturel d’un pays avant de procéder à des investissements, il faut donc étudier l’environnement socioculturel de l’organisation. Par exemple au Maroc : Son emplacement géographique fait de lui un pays multiculturel, vu la diversité de sa population arabe, berbère, africaine, musulmane, juive…Cette mosaïque d’ethnies confère au Maroc une grande richesse culturelle. La gastronomie a ainsi une grande place dans la culture marocaine.

L’environnement socioculturel est dans ses dimensions une composante essentielle du développement. En tant que domaine d’activité, elle contribue puissamment – Par le biais du patrimoine matériel et immatériels des industries créatives et des divers moyens d’expression artistique- au développement économique à la stabilité et à la protection de l’environnement.

Technologique

Toute connaissance venant de l’extérieur du microenvironnement qui permet de faire progresser ou risque de menacer les activités de l’entreprise. Elle Influence aussi bien les décisions de l’entreprise quant à la production et à la commercialisation, mais aussi les choix des consommateurs (réceptivité, connaissances, convivialité, etc.). Cette connaissance peut être transformée en un avantage concurrentiel.

La technologie peut affecter:

← les standards de vie (ex. apparition des micro-ondes, ordinateurs...)

← La pratique marketing: 4 P (ex. commerce électronique).

Ainsi, l’environnement technologique peut avoir comme facteurs :

❖ Dépenses publiques en recherche et développement.

❖ Investissements publics et privés dans la technologie.

❖ Nouvelles découvertes, nouveaux développement (tramway…).

❖ Vitesses des transferts technologiques.

❖ Taux d’obsolescence.

❖ Taux d’automatisation.

❖ Cout de l’énergie

❖ Impact des changements technologiques

❖ Aides au financement à la recherche et l’innovation

Cependant, l'intégration des TIC au Maroc n'est qu'à ses débuts, il nécessitera l'existence d'une ressource humaine qualifiée, ce qui met en question l'enseignement marocain dont une reforme en matière d'intégration des TIC, entre autres, s'avère indispensable. Ainsi, les PME/PMI Marocaines restent fortement sous-équipées en TIC.

Ainsi, Comme tout pays émergent, le Maroc représente un immense potentiel de développement pour les grandes entreprises internationales qui ont pour certains investies fortement sur des activités liées aux TIC. C'est le cas notamment dans les télécommunications où la libéralisation devrait permettre d'accroître ce développement d'une concurrence bénéfique aux utilisateurs. L'offre évolue aujourd'hui beaucoup plus vite que la conscience de ce qu'elle peut apporter ; il est donc important d'épauler les entreprises en leur apportant un niveau de conseil adapté et de continuer de leur apporter des solutions.

En bref, on peut analyser que l’entreprise répond à un double objectif ; l’évaluation des différents éléments susceptibles d’affecter son activité, l’identification des opportunités ou des menaces environnementales. Le macro environnement correspond aux composants généraux pouvant avoir une influence sur la totalité des organisations.

Pour réaliser une analyse du macro environnement de l'entreprise, nous pouvons utiliser deux méthodes :

- La méthode Pestel : Analyse les influences environnementales de l'entreprise (Politique, Economique, Socioculturel, Technologique, Ecologique, Légal). Il sert de liste de contrôle, chaque fois qu'un facteur évolue, l'environnement concurrentiel va être modifié. Il sert également à prévoir l'impact futur des forces environnementales.

- La méthode des scénarios : Représentation plausible et détaillée de plusieurs futurs envisageables, obtenue à partir de la combinaison de tendances structurelles très incertaines. C'est une méthode utile si l'on veut une projection de sa stratégie à long terme et si le nombre de paramètres environnementaux importants et incertains est limité.

[pic]

-----------------------
1

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Macro

...National defence–costs of provision (no observed market price) is included in GDP * It is likely that GDP is positively related (correlated) with economic wellbeing * Variety of G&S * Health and education * Value Added: Market value of a firm’s production less the cost of inputs purchased from other firms Methods Of Measuring GDP: The Production Method: [GDP = Sales – Cost of inputs] * The sum of value added MUST equal to the cost of the final product. ------------------------------------------------- Firm Sales Cost of inputs Value Added ------------------------------------------------- Intel Incorp 20,000 0 20,000 ------------------------------------------------- Macro Soft 5,000 0 5,000 ------------------------------------------------- Bell 80,000 25,000 55,000 ------------------------------------------------- PC Charlie’s 100,000 80,000 20,000 ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- PC Charlie’s final sales = $100,000 ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- Sum of Value Added = $100,000 The Expenditure Method represented by the National Income Accounting Identity [Y = C + I + G +NX] ------------------------------------------------- Australian GDP March Quarter......

Words: 5901 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Macro

...Macroeconomics | Microeconomics is the study of the individuals economy of a person, a company or a country. | Macroeconomics is the study of the economy as a whole. | Microeconomics is also known as price theory. | Macroeconomics is also known as income theory. | All kinds of requirements of an individual or a company can be identified. | All kinds of forces that affect the firms, consumers, or workers can be identified. | The demand & supply of the society individually are identified. | The aggregate demand & aggregate supply that are calculated on the basis of all firms demand & supply. | The word ‘Micro’ of microeconomics is derived from the Greek word ‘Micros’. | The word ‘Macro’ of macroeconomics is derived from the Greek word ‘Macros’. | ‘Micro’ means small or part. | ‘Macro’ means big or whole. | The area of microeconomics is relatively small limited. | Macroeconomics deals with the wide area of the economy. | In microeconomics, related data & information are easy to provide. | In macroeconomics, it is difficult to provide necessary information. | Microeconomics focuses on supply & demand & other determine price level. | Macroeconomics focuses on the aggregated demand & aggregated supply which determine income theory. | In microeconomics, decision making is relatively easy. | In microeconomics, decision making is relatively complex. | Adam Smith is the founder of microeconomics. | John M. Keynes is the founder of......

Words: 447 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Macro Factors

...MACRO FACTORS AFFECTING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT SUBMITTED BY: AAYUSH VERMA INTRODUCTION A business firm is an open system. It gets resources from the environment and supplies its goods and services to the environment. There are different levels of environmental forces. Some are close and internal forces whereas others are external forces. External forces may be related to national level, regional level or international level. These environmental forces provide opportunities or threats to the business community. Every business organization tries to grasp the available opportunities and face the threats that emerge from the business environment. The term business ‘typically’ refers to the development and processing of economic values in society. Normally, the term is applied to portion of economic activities whose primary purpose is to provide goods and services for society in an effective manner. It is also applied to economics and commercial activities of institutions which having other purposes. Business may be defined as “the organised effort by individuals to produce goods and services to sell these goods and services in a market place and to reap some reward for this effort.” Functionally, we may define business as “those human activities which involves production or purchase of goods with the object of selling them at a profit margin”. Business organizations cannot change the external environment but they just react. They change their internal business......

Words: 8288 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Macro

...are embedded transparently in Web pages and that cause actions to occur. The best-known active content forms are Java applets, ActiveX controls, JavaScript, and VBScript. Active content also includes graphics and Web browser plug-ins. Malicious ‘cookies’ can destroy files stored on client computers. Plug-ins are programs that interpret or execute instructions embedded in downloaded graphics, sounds, and other objects. Active content, including all forms, enables Web pages to take action. Active content gives life to static Web pages. Virus A virus is software that attaches itself to another program and can cause damage when the host program is activated. • Worm viruses replicate themselves on other machines. • A macro virus is coded as a small program and is embedded in a file. • A Trojan horse is a program hidden inside another program or Web page that masks its true purpose. • A zombie is a program that secretly takes over another computer for the purpose of launching attacks on other computers. Communication Channel Threats The Internet is not at all secure. Messages on the Internet travel a random path from a source node to a destination node. Internet channel security threats include: • secrecy • integrity • necessity Secrecy Threats Secrecy is the prevention of unauthorized information disclosure. Privacy is the protection of individual rights to nondisclosure. Secrecy is a technical issue requiring......

Words: 8797 - Pages: 36

Free Essay

Macro

...Weekly Reflection Ruben I. Torres, Jr., Cheyenne Blue, Marsha Scott, Catherine Caughrean ECO 365 2-20-13 Dr. Lin Weekly Reflection In week one on ECO 365 our team discussed the many different areas which create economics in the modern world. The objectives were clearly outlined in the syllabus which Dr. Lin provided to Team A. Differentiate between Macroeconomics and Microeconomics The first objective we discussed was the difference between Macro and Micro economics. Since both studies deal with the economic decision making process, the one aspect which separates them would be that Microeconomics is the study of economics from the view point of a firm or individuals. Macroeconomics is the study of economics from the view point of a society or nation. This aspect would study the budget or a government or GDP of a nation. Supply and Demand The second area which we discussed was the effects of supply and demand. It was nice to get a better idea on how the costs of goods are affected by the amount of goods available for distribution at any given period. By studying the buying trends of individuals, companies are able to control the price and the supply of goods for consumers. If a company wishes to charge an outrages price for a product and have consumers pay the amount, they simply produce a low quantity of the product. A good example of this would be the way Sony released the new Playstation 3 (PS3). When the PS3 system first......

Words: 495 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Macro

...Definition of 'Macroeconomics' The term Macro has been taken from the Latin word Macros which means big. The field of economics that studies the behavior of the aggregate economy. Macroeconomics examines economy-wide phenomena such as changes in unemployment, national income, rate of growth, gross domestic product, inflation and price levels. Macroeconomics Concerns | Production | Prices | Income | Employment | NationalProduction/OutputTotal Industrial OutputGross Domestic ProductGrowth of Output | Aggregate Price LevelConsumer pricesProducer PricesRate of Inflation | National IncomeTotal wages and salariesTotal corporate profits | Employment andUnemployment in theEconomyTotal number of jobsUnemployment rate | Therefore, as is clear from the above, the following issues/subjects define the scope of Macro Economics: 1. Aggregates of national income and its determination 2. Theories of Income and Employment. 3. Theory of Money and Banking. 4. Fiscal Theory. 5. Balance of Payment. Scope and Importance of Macro Economics Macro Economics is of much theoretical and practical importance. Let us see what are the importance and the scope where macro economics are being used. 1. To Understand the working of the Economy The study of macro economics variables is requisite for considerate the operation of the financial system. Our main economic complexities are associated with the performance of total income, irredundant and the normal price scale in......

Words: 651 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Macro

...Chris Macros: (Fat/carb/pro) is 50/300/225 2,451 total calories - 54.6/304.7/229.2 Current cardio done THROUGHOUT THE 3 sessions of slow-medium cardio, 400 calories burned in each 2 sessions of HIIT treadmill sprints (10 rounds, 15seconds on 45 off) _____________________________________________________ Meal 1:: (Fat/carb/pro) 80g fat free bisquick pancake mix (285 cals - 5/54/6) 1 (organic) whole egg (72cals - 5/0.4/6.3) 110g blueberries (63cals - 0.4/15.9/0.8) 160g fat free milk / skim milk (56cals - 0.3/7.8/5.5) 230g egg whites (120cals - 0.4/1.7/25.1) Totals: 676cals - 19.1g Fat, 79.8g Carbs, 43.7g protein Extras: tapatio sauce, cinnamon , stevia, sugar free vanilla, calorie free chocolate syrup, calorie free maple syrup, multivitamin and other vitamins. INSTANT COFFEE (with stevia, and sugar free vanilla) __________________________________________________________ Meal 3: (post workout meal) (Fat/carb/pro) One pound strawberries (145cals - 1.4/34.8/3) 2scoop whey (240cals - 2/6/48) 75g oats (288cals - 4.7/50.2/12) totals:673 cals - Extras: stevia (two 40mg scoops in oats), cinnamon , __________________________________________________________ Meal 4: back to the basics, chicken n ric(Fat/carb/pro) 65g long grain brown rice (weighed when raw) (240cals – 1.9/50.4/5.2) 8oz baked chicken (287 cals - 7.3/0/52) 10g almonds (58cals - 5.1/2.0/2.1) totals: 585 cals - 14.3/52.2/59.3 Extras:......

Words: 319 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Macro

...R-Z Essay Topics Plagiarism Donate a Paper View Cart / Checkout Differences in Macro and Micro Level Theories Rate This Paper: 1 2 3 4 5 Submit Length: 317 words (0.9 double-spaced pages) Rating: Red (FREE) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - There are many differences between macro and micro-level theories. Micro-level focuses on individuals and their interactions. For example the relationship between adult children and their parents, or the effect of negative attitudes on older people. Some criticize on micro-level theories becuase they focus on what older people do rather than on social conditionsand policies that cuase them to act the way they do. Macro-level focuses more upon social structure, social processes and problems, and their interrelationships. For example the effects of industrialization on older people's status, or how gender and income affect older people's well being. This approach tends to minimize people's ability to act and overcome the limits of social structures. Both micro and macro-leve theories can take one of three perspectives which include: interpretive perspective, normative, and conflict. Normative perspective says rules and status exist in society to provide socail control or social order. Social order is necessary for survival. This perspective focuses upon macro-level. For example structural-functionalism, role theory, modernization theory, and......

Words: 840 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Macro Systems

...Macro Systems Holly Regan BSHS/325 February 16, 2015 Mary Carlisle Macro Systems What are systems in the social environment? Systems are a set of elements that are interrelated to make a functioning whole. Systems larger than a small group denotes a macro system which involves focusing on the social, political, and economic policies and conditions that affect people’s overall access to resources and quality of life. Macro practice in social work, then, consists of striving to improve the social and economic circumstance in which people live (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2010). Empowerment is a process used to assist individuals, families, groups and communities to use their strengths to overcome the challenges they presently face by implementing resources and tools around them. Personal empowerment is in reference to an individual’s competence and strength and ability to create change and focuses on ways to develop personal power and self-efficacy. It also points toward a biased state of mind, a feeling of competence within oneself, and experiencing a sense of control. Interpersonal empowerment refers to one’s ability to influence others and is derived from two sources. The first source is based on social status such as class, sex, and gender and the second source is power which comes from learning new skills and securing new positions in addition to successful interactions with others and the respect others have for us. Political empowerment is in......

Words: 1201 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Macro Analysis of France Conjoncture

...Macro Novembre 2014 Sarah Petroff Magalie Gauze Brieuc Lambert Alexandre Mauz « Un économiste est quelqu’un qui voit fonctionner les choses en pratique et se demande si elles pourraient fonctionner théorie » Stephen M. GOLDFELD Dans ce dossier, nous tenterons d’analyser la conjoncture économique française et son évolution entre 2013 et 2014. Nous avons ainsi étudié les variables endogènes à la croissance, leur évolution et leur impact sur l’évolution du PIB. Dans un souci de réflexion nous avons également cherché à mettre ces dernières en parallèle avec les valeurs de référence. Notre analyse s’inscrit dans un cadre national et international. Sommaire : Tableau 0 économie réelle : 2 Tableau 1 : Environnement international (tableau en annexe) 3 Tableau 2 : Environnement national 6 Tableau 3 : Taux de chômage et taux d’utilisation 7 Tableau 4 : Salaires, prix 8 Tableau 5 : La demande intérieure : consommation-épargne 10 Tableau 6 : L’investissement 13 Sources : 17 Annexes 18 Tableau 0 Économie Réelle Évolution en % | Insee 2012 | 2013 Insee | 2014 Insee | PIB | 0,4 | 0,4 | 0,4 | Consommation des ménages | -0,5 | 0,3 | 0,1 | Contribution à la croissance | -0,26 | 0,16 | 0,053 | Investissement | 0,3 | -0,6 | -0,6 | Contribution à la croissance | 0,036 | -0,071 | -0,069 | Dépenses Publiques | 1,7 | 1,9 | 1,6 | Contribution à la croissance | 0,44 | 0,49 | 0,42 | Commerce extérieur(contribution) | 0 ,7 | 0,1 |......

Words: 6187 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Macro

...MACRO ENVIRONMENT The Coca Cola Company and other organizations have their own weaknesses and strengths that can both affect the future performance of their respective business. Analyzing the future constraints is an advantage for the companies since they can identify the possible factors that tend to leave an impact on their business. PESTLE analysis is a popular method that focuses in the external factors of the business and the environment where it operates. PESTLE stands for Political, Economic, Sociological, Technological, Legal, and Environmental. All of them examine the changes in the marketplace. Political Analysis Political analysis examines the current and potential influences from political pressures. The non-alcoholic beverages falls in the category under the FDA and the government plays a role within the operation of manufacturing these products. In terms of regulations, the government has the power to set potential fines for the companies that did not meet their standard law requirement.  The changes in laws and regulations, such as accounting standards, taxation requirements and environmental laws and foreign jurisdictions might affect the book of the company as well as their entry in foreign country. Other than that, the changes in the nature of business as non-alcoholic beverages can gain competitive product and pricing pressures and the ability to improve or maintain the share in sales in global market as a result of action by competitors. The......

Words: 687 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Macro

...inflation rate. Use the consumer price index to calculate the inflation rate, which is the percentage change in the price index from the preceding period. That is, the inflation rate between two consecutive years is computed as follows: Inflation rate in year 2= CPI in year 2-CPI in year 1CPI in year 1 ×100 Example This table (Figure 2) shows how to calculate the consumer price index and the inflation rate for a hypothetical economy in which consumers buy only hot dogs and hamburgers. Figure 2 Smriti Chand. (2015). The Circular Flow of Income: Meaning, Sectors and Importance. Derive from http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/macro-economics/national-income-macro-economics/the-circular-flow-of-income-meaning-sectors-and-importance/30771/ SparkNotes Editors. (n.d.). SparkNote on Measuring the Economy 1. Derive from http://www.sparknotes.com/economics/macro/measuring1/section2.rhtml N. Geogory Mankiw. (2012). Measuring the Cost of Living. Principles of Macroeconomics, 7e. (pp. 217-220) 小小真怪. (2014) Measuring the Cost of Living. Derive from http://wenku.baidu.com/view/c79dc95eeefdc8d377ee3226?fr=prin...

Words: 971 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Macro Economics

...The Nature and Scope of Macroeconomics by Smriti Chand Macro Economics The Nature and Scope of Macroeconomics! Introduction: The term ‘macro’ was first used in economics by Ragner Frisch in 1933. But as a methodological approach to economic problems, it originated with the Mercantilists in the 16th and 17th centuries. They were concerned with the economic system as a whole. In the 18th century, the Physiocrats adopted it in their Table Economies to show the ‘circulation of wealth’ (i.e., the net product) among the three classes represented by farmers, landowners and the sterile class. Malthus, Sismondi and Marx in the 19th century dealt with macroeconomic problems. Walras, Wicksell and Fisher were the modern contributors to the development of macroeconomic analysis before Keynes. Certain economists, like Cassel, Marshall, Pigou, Robertson, Hayek and Hawtrey, developed a theory of money and general prices in the decade following the First World War. But credit goes to Keynes who finally developed a general theory of income, output and employment in the wake of the Great Depression. Contents: Nature of Macroeconomics Difference between Microeconomics and Macroeconomics Dependence of Microeconomic Theory on Macroeconomics Dependence of Macroeconomics on Microeconomic Theory Macro Statics, Macro Dynamics and Comparative Statics Transition from Microeconomics to Macroeconomics Stock and Flow Concepts 1. Nature of......

Words: 11722 - Pages: 47

Premium Essay

Macro Economics

...MACROECONOMICS & THE GLOBAL ECONOMY Instructor SATYENDRA TIMILSINA What is Macroeconomics? • It is that branch of economics, which deals economic affairs at large i.e. total or aggregates • Concerns itself with variables such as – – – – Aggregate output of the economy Extent to which its resources are used Size of National Income General Price Level Introduction • Managers have to deal with economic environment at two levels – micro level and macro level • Micro level includes market structure and the strength of competitors. Firm’s decision making is mostly influenced by the activities of its rival forms. The following are some factors that affect firms decision at micro level – Level of competition – Cost of production and – Product differentiation Introduction • Macro level includes the overall system. This is something that the firm assumes to the given. • Decision making of the firm is affected by the macroeconomic environment. • The following macroeconomic factors have a strong effect on firm’s decision making – Overall Demand – Price Level – Rate of interest – Tax policies and – Exchange Rates Introduction • It is important for managers to know the macroeconomics because an unprecedented change in any of these factors can upset the revenue and cost of the firm, affecting the profitability and returns. • The problem can be minimized or managed if managers know the working of an economy and thereby, judge......

Words: 496 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Macro

...those neoclassical models, did not fully explain economic growth. But these economists favoured models that replaced this variable with variables that were explicit in their growth model. The endogenous growth model still is known as the AK model and it was one of the very models of its kind ( Moffatt, 2015). Bibliography Exogenous (Neoclassical) growth model, 2015 [online] Available at: http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/imtithal/Documents/502%20ECO/LEC2.pdf Moffatt. M,2015. An Introduction to endogenous growth models. [onlie] Available at: http://economics.about.com/cs/economicsglossary/g/endogenous_g.htm Smriti. C.,2015. The Endogenous growth : models and policy implication [online] Available at: http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/macro-economics/growth-models/the-endogenous-growth-theory-models-and-policy-implications/31170/ Suman. S., 2015. 5 major limitations of neo-classical model of growth. [online] Available at: http://www.economicsdiscussion.net/neo-classical-theory/limitations-neo-classical-theory/5-major-limitations-of-neo-classical-model-of-growth/13046 Supriya. G., 2015. Neoclassical theory of economic growth (explained with diagrams). [online] Available at: http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/economics/neoclassical-theory-of-economic-growth-explained-with-diagrams/38321/ Vanessa. C., 2013. A beginner’s guide to endogenous growth theory. [online] Available at: http://www.romeconomics.com/beginners-guide-endogenous-growth-theory/ What is......

Words: 2574 - Pages: 11