Premium Essay

Macro

In: Business and Management

Submitted By sabbir007
Words 651
Pages 3
Definition of 'Macroeconomics'
The term Macro has been taken from the Latin word Macros which means big. The field of economics that studies the behavior of the aggregate economy. Macroeconomics examines economy-wide phenomena such as changes in unemployment, national income, rate of growth, gross domestic product, inflation and price levels. Macroeconomics Concerns | Production | Prices | Income | Employment | NationalProduction/OutputTotal Industrial OutputGross Domestic ProductGrowth of Output | Aggregate Price LevelConsumer pricesProducer PricesRate of Inflation | National IncomeTotal wages and salariesTotal corporate profits | Employment andUnemployment in theEconomyTotal number of jobsUnemployment rate |

Therefore, as is clear from the above, the following issues/subjects define the scope of Macro Economics: 1. Aggregates of national income and its determination 2. Theories of Income and Employment. 3. Theory of Money and Banking. 4. Fiscal Theory. 5. Balance of Payment.
Scope and Importance of Macro Economics
Macro Economics is of much theoretical and practical importance. Let us see what are the importance and the scope where macro economics are being used. 1. To Understand the working of the Economy
The study of macro economics variables is requisite for considerate the operation of the financial system. Our main economic complexities are associated with the performance of total income, irredundant and the normal price scale in the fiscal. These variables are geometrically measurable in this manner facilitating the probabilities of analysing the effects on the functioning of the economy. 2. In Economic Policies
Macro Economics is extremely useful from the view point of the fiscal policy. Modern Governments, particularly, the underdeveloped economies are confronted with innumerable national problems. They are the

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Written Report

...Written Report MACRO COMPUTER SCIENCE What is a Macro Computer? A macro (short for "macroinstruction", from Greek μακρο- 'long') in computer science is a rule or pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence (often a sequence of characters) should be mapped to a replacement output sequence (also often a sequence of characters) according to a defined procedure. The mappings process that instantiates (transforms) a macro use into a specific sequence is known as macro expansion. A facility for writing macros may be provided as part of a software application or as a part of a programming language. In the former case, macros are used to make tasks using the application less repetitive. In the latter case, they are a tool that allows a programmer to enable code reuse or even to design domain-specific languages. Macros are used to make a sequence of computing instructions available to the programmer as a single program statement, making the programming task less tedious and less error-prone. (Thus, they are called "macros" because a big block of code can be expanded from a small sequence of characters). Macros often allow positional or keyword parameters that dictate what the conditional assembler program generates and have been used to create entire programs or program suites according to such variables as operating system, platform or other factors. The term derives from "macro instruction", and such expansions were originally used in generating assembly language code...

Words: 1595 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Masm

...CMLab Graphics A Tutorial of Writing MASM with VC++ 2005 Express Presented by Ken-Yi Lee Assembly Language 2007 CMLab Graphics Assembly Language 2007 MASM Microsoft Macro Assembler - MASM 8.0 included with Visual C++ 2005 - You can download MASM 8.0 and install it with Visual C++ 2005 Express by yourself 2 CMLab Graphics Assembly Language 2007 What do you need ? helloworld.asm helloworld.obj Editor Assembler (ml.exe) Linker (link.exe) helloworld.exe Debugger 3 Include Files Where Which Object File Libraries Where Which CMLab Graphics Assembly Language 2007 Visual C++ 2005 Express with MASM 8.0 Visual C++ 2005 Express - Editor, Linker, and Debugger • Custom build rules needed] • Set library paths and library dependencies [if • Select “console” as your subsystem MASM 8.0 - Assembler • Set include paths [if needed] 4 CMLab Graphics Assembly Language 2007 Visual C++ 2005 Express with MASM 8.0 (contd.) Download and Install Visual C++ 2005 Express - http://0rz.tw/253mH Download and Install MASM 8.0 - http://0rz.tw/8d1Xn • You should install VC 2005 Express first 5 CMLab Graphics Hello MASM ! A simple example to set up the environment CMLab Graphics Assembly Language 2007 HelloMASM - My Settings: • Project Name: HelloMASM • Solution Name: HelloMASM • Source code filename: hellomasm.asm • Additional library dependencies: Irvine32.lib user32.lib • Used...

Words: 496 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Macro

...Chris Macros: (Fat/carb/pro) is 50/300/225 2,451 total calories - 54.6/304.7/229.2 Current cardio done THROUGHOUT THE 3 sessions of slow-medium cardio, 400 calories burned in each 2 sessions of HIIT treadmill sprints (10 rounds, 15seconds on 45 off) _____________________________________________________ Meal 1:: (Fat/carb/pro) 80g fat free bisquick pancake mix (285 cals - 5/54/6) 1 (organic) whole egg (72cals - 5/0.4/6.3) 110g blueberries (63cals - 0.4/15.9/0.8) 160g fat free milk / skim milk (56cals - 0.3/7.8/5.5) 230g egg whites (120cals - 0.4/1.7/25.1) Totals: 676cals - 19.1g Fat, 79.8g Carbs, 43.7g protein Extras: tapatio sauce, cinnamon , stevia, sugar free vanilla, calorie free chocolate syrup, calorie free maple syrup, multivitamin and other vitamins. INSTANT COFFEE (with stevia, and sugar free vanilla) __________________________________________________________ Meal 3: (post workout meal) (Fat/carb/pro) One pound strawberries (145cals - 1.4/34.8/3) 2scoop whey (240cals - 2/6/48) 75g oats (288cals - 4.7/50.2/12) totals:673 cals - Extras: stevia (two 40mg scoops in oats), cinnamon , __________________________________________________________ Meal 4: back to the basics, chicken n ric(Fat/carb/pro) 65g long grain brown rice (weighed when raw) (240cals – 1.9/50.4/5.2) 8oz baked chicken (287 cals - 7.3/0/52) 10g almonds (58cals - 5.1/2.0/2.1) totals: 585 cals - 14.3/52.2/59.3 Extras: __________________________________________________________ ...

Words: 319 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Macro

...R-Z Essay Topics Plagiarism Donate a Paper View Cart / Checkout Differences in Macro and Micro Level Theories Rate This Paper: 1 2 3 4 5 Submit Length: 317 words (0.9 double-spaced pages) Rating: Red (FREE) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - There are many differences between macro and micro-level theories. Micro-level focuses on individuals and their interactions. For example the relationship between adult children and their parents, or the effect of negative attitudes on older people. Some criticize on micro-level theories becuase they focus on what older people do rather than on social conditionsand policies that cuase them to act the way they do. Macro-level focuses more upon social structure, social processes and problems, and their interrelationships. For example the effects of industrialization on older people's status, or how gender and income affect older people's well being. This approach tends to minimize people's ability to act and overcome the limits of social structures. Both micro and macro-leve theories can take one of three perspectives which include: interpretive perspective, normative, and conflict. Normative perspective says rules and status exist in society to provide socail control or social order. Social order is necessary for survival. This perspective focuses upon macro-level. For example structural-functionalism, role theory, modernization theory, and age-stratification...

Words: 840 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Macro

...MACRO ENVIRONMENT The Coca Cola Company and other organizations have their own weaknesses and strengths that can both affect the future performance of their respective business. Analyzing the future constraints is an advantage for the companies since they can identify the possible factors that tend to leave an impact on their business. PESTLE analysis is a popular method that focuses in the external factors of the business and the environment where it operates. PESTLE stands for Political, Economic, Sociological, Technological, Legal, and Environmental. All of them examine the changes in the marketplace. Political Analysis Political analysis examines the current and potential influences from political pressures. The non-alcoholic beverages falls in the category under the FDA and the government plays a role within the operation of manufacturing these products. In terms of regulations, the government has the power to set potential fines for the companies that did not meet their standard law requirement.  The changes in laws and regulations, such as accounting standards, taxation requirements and environmental laws and foreign jurisdictions might affect the book of the company as well as their entry in foreign country. Other than that, the changes in the nature of business as non-alcoholic beverages can gain competitive product and pricing pressures and the ability to improve or maintain the share in sales in global market as a result of action by competitors. The political...

Words: 687 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Macro

...whole. Microeconomics | Macroeconomics | Microeconomics is the study of the individuals economy of a person, a company or a country. | Macroeconomics is the study of the economy as a whole. | Microeconomics is also known as price theory. | Macroeconomics is also known as income theory. | All kinds of requirements of an individual or a company can be identified. | All kinds of forces that affect the firms, consumers, or workers can be identified. | The demand & supply of the society individually are identified. | The aggregate demand & aggregate supply that are calculated on the basis of all firms demand & supply. | The word ‘Micro’ of microeconomics is derived from the Greek word ‘Micros’. | The word ‘Macro’ of macroeconomics is derived from...

Words: 447 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Macro

...Weekly Reflection Ruben I. Torres, Jr., Cheyenne Blue, Marsha Scott, Catherine Caughrean ECO 365 2-20-13 Dr. Lin Weekly Reflection In week one on ECO 365 our team discussed the many different areas which create economics in the modern world. The objectives were clearly outlined in the syllabus which Dr. Lin provided to Team A. Differentiate between Macroeconomics and Microeconomics The first objective we discussed was the difference between Macro and Micro economics. Since both studies deal with the economic decision making process, the one aspect which separates them would be that Microeconomics is the study of economics from the view point of a firm or individuals. Macroeconomics is the study of economics from the view point of a society or nation. This aspect would study the budget or a government or GDP of a nation. Supply and Demand The second area which we discussed was the effects of supply and demand. It was nice to get a better idea on how the costs of goods are affected by the amount of goods available for distribution at any given period. By studying the buying trends of individuals, companies are able to control the price and the supply of goods for consumers. If a company wishes to charge an outrages price for a product and have consumers pay the amount, they simply produce a low quantity of the product. A good example of this would be the way Sony released the new Playstation 3 (PS3). When the PS3 system first came...

Words: 495 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Macro

...Part B Question 1 Figure 1 The circular flow of income (Figure 1) shows connections between different sectors of our economic system. It revolves around flows of goods and services and factors of production between firms and households. Businesses produce goods and services and in the process of doing so, incomes are generated for factors of production such as wages and salaries going to people in work. Injections: The three injections -- investment, government purchases and export. These injection expenditures, like consumption, are used to purchase aggregate production through the product markets. Most importantly, injections add to the total volume of the basic circular flow. That is, they "inject" revenue into the product markets that is used for factor payments and becomes household income. Withdrawals are increases in savings, taxes or imports so reducing the circular flow of income and leading to a multiplied contraction of production (output). (1) Investment (I), Capital spending by firms - e.g. on new technology (2) Government (G), Government expenditure - e.g. on the NHS or defense (3) Export (X), e.g. Overseas consumers buying goods and service Leakages: The three leakages -- saving, taxes, and imports. These leakages, like consumption, are how the household sector divides up or uses its income. Most importantly, leakages subtract from the total volume of the basic circular flow. That is, they "leak" income away from the product markets, making...

Words: 971 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Macro

...Week 1 – Chapter 3 Measuring Macroeconomic Performance: Output & Prices * The main indicators of macroeconomic performance: 1. Rising living standards – economic growth | * Tendency for level of output (quality and quantity) to increase over time * Growth in the material wellbeing of the population * Is the responsibility of governments and international organizations | 2. Stable Business Cycle | * Low volatility in fluctuations of actual output around its trend or potential output Avoiding extremes of short-run macroeconomic performance * An economy that is growing excessively may be prone to inflation | 3. Relatively stable price level | * Maintaining the real value of the currency * Low (positive) rate of inflation | 4. Sustainable levels of public and national debt | * Public debt: during a budget deficit, the government must borrow from the private sector to meet its spending * Foreign debt: borrowing by domestic residents from foreign countries, influenced by economy’s current account deficits | 5. Balancing current and future consumption | * The relationship between investments and saving in an economy | 6. Full Employment | * Providing employment for all individuals seeking work * Does not mean zero unemployment | Measuring national or aggregate output/Production: Gross Domestic Product...

Words: 5901 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Macro

...COURSE MODULE ABI 204 / ECOMM INTRODUCTION TO E-COMMERCE Unit 1) Introduction to E-Commerce Objectives In this chapter, you will learn about: • The basic elements of electronic commerce • Differences between electronic commerce and traditional commerce • Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Commerce • Business Process Suitability for E-Commerce • Economic forces that have created a business environment that fosters electronic commerce • The ways in which businesses use value chains to identify electronic commerce opportunities Traditional Commerce and Electronic Commerce To many people, the term electronic commerce means shopping on the part of the Internet called the World Wide Web. But it is much broader and encompasses many more business activities than just Web shopping. Electronic commerce refers to business activities conducted using electronic data transmission via the Internet and the World Wide Web. The three main elements of e-commerce are: • Business-to-consumer • Business-to-business • The transactions and business processes that support selling and purchasing activities on the Web Other categories include: consumer-to-consumer and consumer-to-government. Electronic Commerce Electronic Funds Transfers (EFTs) have been used by banks for many years. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) occurs when one business transmits computer-readable data in a standard format to another business. Businesses who engage in EDI with each other are called trading...

Words: 8797 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Macro

...Endogenous growth theory addressed limitation associated with the neo classical growth model. To what extent is this assertion valid? Introduction Neo classical growth model is an approach in economics focusing on the determination of price, output and income distributions in markets through supply and demand. These is done through a hypothesized maximization of income- constrained utility by individuals and of cost constrained profits of firms employing available information and factors of production. This economic model was developed from the classical school of economics, which was dominant in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It can be traced to the marginal revolution of the 1860’s, which came up with the concept of utility as a key factor in deterging value in contrast to the classical views that the costs involved in production were value’s determinant. The Neo classical approach became increasing mathematical, focusing on the perfect competition and equilibrium. Neo classical growth model considered two factors production function with capital and labour as determinants of output. Besides, it added exogenously determined factor, technology, to the production function. Neo classical growth model uses this production function: Y=AF (K, L)……….(1) Y= Gross Domestic Production (GDP) K= Stock of Capital L= Amount of unskilled labour A= Exogenously determined level of technology. *Note a change in this exogenously variable and technology...

Words: 2574 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Macro

...VUELTA A LO ESENCIAL El porqué del tipo de cambio real Luis A.V. Catão XIsTE un interrogante en torno al cual giran la economía internacional, numerosos conflictos comerciales y la nueva misión supervisora del FMI: cómo determinar si una moneda está fundamentalmente subvaluada o sobrevaluada. George soros dio con la respuesta una vez, en 1992, cuando apostó Us$1.000 millones contra la libra esterlina y ganó, abriendo las puertas a una nueva era de especulación cambiaria a gran escala. Ante el asedio de soros y otros especuladores convencidos de que la moneda británica estaba sobrevaluada, la libra se desplomó y el Reino Unido tuvo que abandonar para siempre el mecanismo europeo de tipos de cambio, precursor del euro. Pero la maniobra ha demostrado ser irrepetible y no hay un método infalible para saber si una moneda está correctamente valorada. Esa falta de seguridad es sorprendente, teniendo en cuenta que el tipo de cambio es un precio fundamental en el quehacer económico y que existe un indicador capaz de resolver este interrogante con una abundancia de datos: el tipo de cambio real (TCR). E Lo que realmente cuestan las cosas la mayoría de la gente está familiarizada con el tipo de cambio nominal, el precio de una moneda en referencia a otra, expresado por lo general como el precio de una divisa extranjera en el mercado nacional. Así, si a una persona que tiene dólares le cuesta 1,36 dólares de EE.UU. comprar 1 euro, desde el punto de vista de la persona que...

Words: 1828 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Macro

...I.D. # 6 Classroom days: MTWR Classroom hours: 8:00a – 10:05a Chapter 1: Ten principles of economics 1. Give three examples of important trade-offs that you face in your life. a. ‘Guns and Butter’ meaning people spend more money and taxes on weapons, guns, to keep safe than they would to spend money on consumers goods to feed their family and keep them healthy. b. ‘Efficiency and Equality’ people are worried about getting the most benefits from resources and having the most of things rather than being able to split a good amount to everyone. c. ‘there aren’t no such thing as a free lunch’ meaning, when you are doing something to be good at something but also trying to balance another deed, you will always be cutting time, or money from opportunity. Nothing will be balanced 2. What is the opportunity cost of seeing a movie? d. The opportunity cost of seeing a movie is the foregone value of a similar activity. Going to spend money on a movie when you can spend money going rock climbing and having the same amount of enjoyment. 3. Water is necessary for life. Is the marginal benefit of a glass of water large or small? e. The marginal benefit of anything is only measurable relative to the consumer. A glass of water has little marginal value to me. I have a ready supply of water, and lack of it doesn't affect my health. f. The marginal value of a glass of clean water is, to many people, very high, because they have little...

Words: 667 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Macro

...I. The Consumer Price Index ( CPI ) : 1. Overview of the CPI : A. Introduction: A consumer price index (CPI) measures changes in the price level of consumer goods and services purchased by households. The CPI, in the United States is defined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics as "a measure of the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services.". In Viet Nam, the General Statistics Office reports the CPI each month. The CPI is a statistical estimate constructed using the prices of a sample of representative items whose prices are collected periodically. Sub-indexes and sub-sub-indexes are computed for different categories and sub-categories of goods and services, being combined to produce the overall index with weights reflecting their shares in the total of the consumer expenditures covered by the index. It is one of several price indices calculated by most national statistical agencies. The annual percentage change in a CPI is used as a measure of inflation. A CPI can be used to index (i.e., adjust for the effect of inflation) the real value of wages, salaries, pensions, for regulating prices and for deflating monetary magnitudes to show changes in real values. In most countries, the CPI is, along with the population census and the USA National Income and Product Accounts, one of the most closely watched national economic statistics. B. Problems in measuring the cost of living: When the Bureau of Labor Statistics...

Words: 410 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Macros

...ActiveSheet.Range(“A1”) es lo mismo que ActiveSheet.Cell(1,1). Con uno referencias en LETRANUMERO y en la otra con (numero columna, Numero fila) Option Explicit: Puesto al principio de cualquier modulo obliga a declarar las variables que usemos InputBox(Mensaje, Título, Valor por defecto, Posición horizontal, Posición Vertical, Archivo ayuda, Número de contexto para la ayuda) Es para meter un valor por ventana y guardarlo en variable Val(String): Convierte un String en numero La siguiente tabla indica las funciones para transformar el input en lo que sea: Lista de Funciones de Comprobación. IsNuméric(Expresión). Comprueba si expresión tiene un valor que se puede interpretar como numérico. IsDate(Expresión). Comprueba si expresión tiene un valor que se puede interpretar como tipo fecha. IsEmpty(Expresión). Comprueba que expresión tenga algún valor, que se haya inicializado. IsError(Expresión). Comprueba si expresión devuelve algún valor de error. IsArray(Expresión). Comprueba si expresión (una variable) es un array o no. IsObject(Expresión). Comprueba si expresión (una variable) representa una variable tipo objeto. IsNull(Expresión). Comprueba si expresión contiene un valor nulo debido a datos no válidos. Nothing. No es propiamente una función, sirve para comprobar si una variable objeto esta asociada a un objeto antes de hacer cualquier operación con ella. Recuerde que para trabajar con una variable objeto antes debe asignarse a uno (mediante la...

Words: 400 - Pages: 2