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Maintenance and Training Manual

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By MrWildone42
Words 5576
Pages 23
David Simpson

David Simpson

Maintenance and Training Manual
Maintenance and Training Manual

1 Safety…………………………………………………………………. 2
A. Environmental Concerns................................................................ 2
B. Power protection............................................................................ 2
C. Dust, static, and heat issues............................................................ 3
D. Downloading unauthorized software............................................. 3
2 Maintenance and cleaning.................................................................... 4
A. Tower............................................................................................. 4
B. Monitor........................................................................................... 4
C. Keyboard........................................................................................ 4
D. Mouse............................................................................................. 5
3 Internal hardware installation and maintenance.................................... .6
A. Replacing a Motherboard.................................................................6
B. Power Supply...................................................................................7
C. CPU and Memory replacement........................................................9
D. Hard Drive Replacement................................................................ 12
4 Multimedia and mass storage devices.................................................. 13
A. Installing a video card.................................................................... 13
B. Installing a DVD drive................................................................... 14

Technical Description of the Environmental Concerns
Computer hardware has many parts that can have dangerous voltage levels that we need to be careful with when working on computers. The power supply is the main part that caution is needed. Computer hardware is very delicate and needs to be handled with caution and care. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) can damage hardware, an ESD discharge can produce up to 6000 volts. A charge of just 10 volts can damage computer hardware. There are ways to prevent this one is an antistatic glove to prevent static discharge between you and the equipment, another way is the use of a grounding strap. The grounding strap is put around your wrist and connected to ground; this will prevent a static buildup. Always hold hardware by the edges and avoid touching any of the contact points or components. Don’t use a graphite pencil to change DIP (dual inline package) switch settings, because graphite is a conductor of electricity, and the graphite can lodge in the switch, best thing to use is something plastic.
The disposal of obsolete computers and old hardware is important, there are Recycling places that will take this equipment and dispose of it according to the EPA guidelines. Most all cities will have one and it is good to know where they are at. If left in landfills, these elements slowly seep into the ground, harming soil and groundwater that eventually makes its way into our food and drinking water. The result of this contamination can be birth defects or damage to human organs including the brain, lungs, heart, kidneys and liver.
Power Protection
Have you ever been browsing on your computer, working on technical or important data, saving those precious family pictures, or been watching a great movie when the power went off? have I. Most of the times I'm just inconvenienced, but sometimes I loose valuable information, data, or CAD work.
We've all been through power failures--and they're never any fun. It's bad enough when the juice goes out before you've ground your morning coffee; it's far worse to have a blackout roll over a data-laden spreadsheet or a term paper you forgot to save. These days there's little reason to risk such a loss. Protection, embodied in an uninterruptible power supply, has never been more affordable. One of the eight units reviewed here costs only $45, and one of our Best Buys goes for $75. And aside from being able to step in seamlessly and sustain your PC while you save your files, even the cheapest UPS models provide some surge protection, guarding your network, phone, and coaxial TV connections. All of the UPSs we tested come with software that can shut your PC down automatically if you're not there.
Four of the products reviewed are low-profile units that have outlets on top and look like overweight power strips: APC's Back-UPS ES 725 Broadband, Powercom's King Office KOF-575S, PowerWare's PW3110, and Tripp Lite's Internet 750U. The other four devices--APC's Back-UPS RS 800VA, Belkin's F6C750-AVR, PowerWare's PW5115, and Tripp Lite's OmniVS1000--are more traditional-looking units that resemble small tower PCs. (The bigger, tower-style units usually have a larger battery and are more suited for business systems that run 24 hours a day.) All eight offer UPS basics: surge protection; battery backup; and a USB or serial port that, with software you run on your PC, allows a communications link between the UPS and your PC for controlled shutdowns during a power outage.
Dust, static, and heat issues
Nobody likes a dusty house, and computers are certainly not an exception. While dusty conditions may make us sneeze, dusty conditions can actually harm or even kill your computer. This is why you have to regularly clean the computer's actual components: the tower and what's inside. Inside the hard case of your computer there are many components that run very hot as they work. To keep things in check, a fan runs to help cool everything down. That’s one of the noisiest things you hear when your computer is running, incidentally. When regular household dust settles onto your CPU, it lands on the outside and on the inside as well. At some point, the normally inert dust starts to take a tole. It's not that it actually interferes with the electronics; it's that it prevents them from shedding heat, acting as a blanket that can ruin everything. Additionally, the hot hair blown around by the fan inside your computer comes out special vent holes designed for this purpose. Dust can settle into these vent holes sealing them up. When dust is blocking the vent holes, the hot air can’t escape and the computer ultimately overheats. If the dust makes it inside the computer, it can also land on the circuit board, insulating it and causing short circuits.

Downloading unauthorized software
Most people know that unauthorized software can contain hidden viruses but it bears repeating. Random software from the Internet can have Trojans, programs designed to create back doors into your system, and at the very least adware and spyware that record what you are doing or shove annoying pop-ups in your face randomly.
Glitchy Software
The problems that arise from unauthorized software are not always intentional. Sometimes the software is just written poorly or is a cracked version of stable software. The badly implemented code can cause slowdown, issues with the registry and system crashes.
Firing Offense
Downloading unauthorized software onto computers in the workspace can be grounds for penalty, probation and even instant dismissal. The exact policy differs from company to company but if a computer network becomes damaged because you did not follow procedure, you are liable. If you are breaking the law and downloading and using unlicensed software, you are also liable for any legal ramifications.

Cleaning your Tower
1. A can of compressed air - You can get these at any office supply store. The idea here is to touch the internal components of a computer as little as possible.
2. A clean, dry cloth - Preferably this would be a cotton or microfiber cloth specially designed for cleaning computers, hence it would have anti-static properties. These can be bought at any office supply or computer supply store and they aren't expensive. You can even buy wipes that are pre-coated with anti-static cleaning fluid. If you can't find those, then get . . .
3. Some non-static computer cleaner - again, you can get this at an office supply store.
4. The right environment - This is more important than it seems. Remember that static is your primary enemy so you want to take precautions. Also remember that you're going to make whatever surface you're working on very dusty. Protect the surroundings as well as the machine.
5. A dust mask - A rag or t-shirt may do the job. This one is you're call, but if you're computer has gathered a lot of dust and grit, it's a good idea to take some precautions for yourself. A face cloth and protective eyeware can help ease the normal assault of allergens and other irritants a good cleaning can stir up.

Computer Monitor Cleaning
The two types of monitors are CRT and LCD.
CRT stand for Cathode ray tube while LCD is for liquid crystal display.
To clean a crt you will need a lint free cloth or soft paper towels and some of you normal window cleaner. DO NOT spray window cleaner directly on to the CRT! The window cleaner will run down into the groves at the bottom of your screen.
Instead spray a little of the window cleaner onto the lint free cloth or tissue and wipe the screen.
A CRT may be recognized if it has a long back as opposed to the short back of an LCD.
Cleaning a LCD is a much more delicate task.
Do not use any chemicals while cleaning an lcd. Simply use a lint free cloth and very gently 'buff' you screen. If after this and your screen is still dirty add a little water to the lint free cloth and pass it over the screen GENTLY.

How to clean a keyboard (quick clean) * First I should say that you WILL be surprised at how much debris comes out of your keyboard! * Before cleaning a keyboard, turn off the computer and unplug the keyboard from your case. * Take the keyboard outside or to a place that you don't mind getting dirty. * Turn the keyboard upside down and shake. When shaking turn the keyboard at many different angles to remove as much debris as possible. Shake until no or very little debris comes out. * Next use a can of compressed air or a vacuum to further remove dust. * If you use compressed air, make sure the extension nozzle is placed between the keys when cleaning. * Try to blow all the dust towards one side of the keyboard then to the other side.
NB IMPORTANT! A compressed air can has liquid contents inside and if turned upside down these contents will spill and damage your keyboard. Read the instructions on you compressed air can for details. * If you use a vacuum make sure that you suck dust from between all the spaces of the keyboard keys. * Now its time to clean that baked on dirt from the keys. * During the preceding steps no liquid should run into the keyboard. * Slightly wet a Q tip with alcohol or a cleaning agent. Do not soak, in fact no liquid should drip from the Q tip even when squeezed * Use the Q tip to wipe the spaces between and at the sides all the keyboard keys. * Then slightly wet a lint free cloth (remember liquid should not drip) and clean the top of the keys. * When finished dry the surface of you keyboard with dry cloth or tissue. To eliminate stickiness, dampen a lint free cloth or tissue with water and wipe the keys thoroughly. * Allow to entire keyboard to dry. It should not take very long since you used liquids sparingly.
Plug back in your keyboard into the computer and you're done!

Ball mouse
Computer maintenance also involves the dusting of your mouse.
To clean a ball mouse, turn your mouse upside down and twist the plate that surrounds the mouse ball.
Take out the ball and wash it in some soap water and then dry it.
Where you removed the ball from, there will be movable bars (most of the time 3 bars). Dust might be rolled up on these bars. It is best to remove dust using tweezers or toothpicks even your fingernails if you have any!
Be gentle as these bars are not the strongest and might slip out of position, trust me i know! If any dust falls into the mouse structure simply turn right side up and tap it on a firm surface.
When finished replace the ball and lock back the plate.
Cleaning the mouse mat often will decrease the amount of dust gathered inside of the mouse.
Clean your mouse and it's mat twice a month.

Optical Mouse
Things You'll Need before you start: Isopropyl alcohol, Cotton swabs, and a Cloth
1. Unplug the optical mouse from your computer.
2. Dampen a cotton swab with isopropyl alcohol. Squeeze out any excess alcohol and wipe the bottom of the mouse with the swab. Remove any dirt or residue from the LED light and lens.
3. Dampen a cloth with isopropyl alcohol. Wipe the top and bottom of the optical mouse with the cloth.
4. Plug the optical mouse back in when it's completely dry.

NOTE: When it comes to cleaning your optical mouse, most are different and have some differences in the cleaning process. Do your research on the web for the best steps for cleaning your mouse.

Sequential Process of Replacing a Motherboard
Pre-Steps to be performed prior to replacement:
Step 1: Insure that the motherboard is compatible with the case you are going to be putting it in.
Step 2: This step is often missed but it is necessary, insure that you have all drivers for hardware. Drivers for motherboard will be replaced with new drivers for your new motherboard. If you have hardware such as a video card, wireless LAN card, modem, or any card plugged into a slot that is separate from the motherboard. These drivers you need to back up or have the driver install cd for them.
Step 3: Insure you have all the proper tools needed for the replacement
Steps for motherboard removal
Step 1: Remove the power cord to insure there is no power to the computer.
Step 2: Place computer case on a large area like a table for adequate room to work.
Step 3: open the case on the side where the motherboard is located.
Step 4: First remove the power cord from the power supply, making sure the new motherboard has the same connection type. If it does not match, then the power supply must also be replaced.
Step 5: Disconnect the drive ribbon cables and move them out of your way, most motherboards have a primary and secondary IDE connectors. Make a note on which one is your primary as it will be connected to your boot drive. In order to remove the motherboard, you not only have to disconnect all connections between the motherboard and components in the case, you should also remove any cables that are simply in the way.
Step 6: Now it's time to remove the PCI adapters and the video card. All of the adapters that mount in motherboard slots are secured to the back rail of the case with single screw each, though the screws are often missing in systems that have been worked on. When removing the screws, put them safely in a small container so they don’t get lost. Be sure to handle all cards removed by the edges to prevent static damage. Place them on a non-conductive surface to also prevent damage. Never stack the cards on top of each other.
Step 7: This is the tricky part. All motherboards have a series of small two wire connectors that go to the case. They run the hard disk access light, power lite, power switch, case speaker. These are all small format connectors that easily pull off; the power switch is the only one you really need to reconnect when you replace the motherboard. All the others are just extras
Step 8: Once all the connections have been removed, look for the screws that mount the motherboard to the case. There are usually 4 to 7 screws holding the motherboard in place, I recommend using a screwdriver that has a clip to hold the screw to the screwdriver. Once the screws are removed, make sure there is clearance and remove the motherboard slowly in case it hangs up on something.

Power Supply Replacement
You can’t repair your desktop PC’s power supply, you can only replace it. Don’t ever open your computer’s power supply or try to fix it yourself. Remember — replace, don’t try to repair. The power supply stores powerful jolts of electricity, even when the computer is turned off and unplugged. Power supplies are safe until you start poking around inside them.
Step1: Turn off your PC, unplug it, and remove your computer’s case.
Locate your PC’s old power supply sitting in a corner of your PC’s case. The power supply’s back end fits snugly against the back of your PC so that its built-in fan can blow out the hot air. On its other side, dozens of colorful cables flow from a small hole.
Step 2: Make sure the new power supply’s cables will plug into the correct spots by putting a strip of masking tape on the end of each plug and writing down its destination.
Each cable ends with one of several types of plugs. The plugs are shaped differently to mesh with their particular connector.
Step 3: Unplug the power cables from the motherboard (the large, flat, circuitry-and-slot-filled board).
Two power supply cables plug into the motherboard: one pushes into a large, 20- or 24-pin connector (left), the other pushes into a smaller, 4-, 6-, or 8-pin connector (right). On motherboards set up to run two video cards, you’ll also remove a four-pin connector that looks just like the ones plugging into older CD/DVD drives (see Step 4).
Step 4: Unplug the power cables from the hard drives and the CD/DVD burners (new on left, old on right), as well as any other places on the motherboard.
Motherboards usually include small four-pin connectors for controlling switches and fans. Your old power supply will probably have some dangling cables that don’t plug into anything. (Those cables are thoughtfully supplied to power any future upgrades.)
Step 5: Remove the four screws that hold the power supply to the computer’s case.
Be careful not to remove the screws holding the power supply’s internal fan. To see which screws are which, try loosening the screws slightly and wiggling the power supply from inside the case. Also, the screws that hold the power supply in place are generally closer to the outside edge of the computer’s rear. The screws that hold the fan are generally closer to the fan’s edge.

Step 6: Lift out the power supply.
If the power supply is cramped, you may need to loosen the screws holding some drives in place and pull them forward a bit. If the power supply still won’t come out, make sure that you’ve removed all the screws. Some power supplies have extra screws around their base to hold them down.
Step 7: Buy a replacement power supply.
If you can’t purchase a replacement power supply online, take the old one to the store and look for a replacement. If you’re planning on adding more computer gear — a powerful graphics card, more hard drives, or more DVD burners — buy a power supply that has a higher wattage.
Step 8: Plug your new power supply into the wall before installing it, just to listen for the fan.
If the fan doesn’t work, return the power supply for one that works. If you do hear the fan, though, unplug the power supply before beginning to install it.
Step 9: Make sure that the power supply’s voltage is set correctly, if necessary.
On the back of some power supplies, near the fan, a red switch toggles the power to either 120 volts or 220 volts. If you’re in the United States, make sure that the switch is set to 120 volts. If your country uses 220 volts, flip the switch to the 220-volt setting.
Step 10: Place the new power supply in the old one’s place, and tighten the screws, then reconnect the cables to the motherboard, the drives, the fans, and the power switch.
Step 11: Reconnect the power cord and plug your computer back in.
Its power cord should push into the socket near the fan.
Step 12: Turn on the power and see whether it works.
Do you hear the fan whirring? Does the computer leap to life? If so, then all is well.
Step 13: If the fan is not spinning, try plugging a lamp into the power outlet to make sure that the outlet works.
If the outlet works, exchange the power supply for a new, working one.
Step 14: Turn off the computer and put the case back on, then turn the computer back on.
Is everything still working right? If it is, put a cool glass of iced tea in your hands. Congratulations!
Processor Replacement Procedure
Step 1: The first step is to verify that the replacement CPU matches the motherboards socket type.
Step 2: Make sure the computer is turned off
Step 3: Carefully disconnect all of the cables from the back of your computer, place the computer on a stable working platform, and remove the outer case. Discharge any static electricity from your body by touching the computer's power supply.
Step 4: Depending on the layout of your case and motherboard, you may need to remove the motherboard tray to gain access to the processor slot or socket (usually only with tower cases). To remove the tray, you may need to remove some screws surrounding it before you pull it out. Either way, once you have access to the processor area of the motherboard, proceed to the next step.
Step 5: Carefully remove the new CPU from its packaging.
If you are installing a Socket 7 processor, proceed with the following steps:
Step 1: Find the heat sink and fan release locks, then release the heat sink and fan release locks and carefully remove them.
Step 2: Locate the processor socket, and then lift the lever (90 degrees) on the side of the socket.
Step 3: Carefully pull the older processor out of the socket, by lifting strait up.
Step 4: Find the white dot on the corner of the new processor. This is the missing pin. Find the missing hole in one of the corners of the socket, and line it up with the dot on the processor.
Step 5: The processor will fit into the socket with no force at all. All Socket 7 sockets are Zero Insertion Force (ZIF) sockets.
Step 6: When the processor is flat and all the way in, push the lever on the socket back down securing the new processor in place.
Step 7: Apply the thermal compound on the surface of the CPU before placing the heat sink and fan on the CPU. (This step is important as the compound allows the heat transfer of the CPU to the heat sink)
If you are installing a Slot 2 processor, proceed with the following steps:
Step 1:
Step 2: Locate the processor slot, and then slide the retention mechanism (included with the CPU) onto the four protruding screws surrounding the slot.
Step 3: Gently screw the retention mechanism into place at each of the four corners, being careful not to over tighten.
Step 4: Push the two heats ink/fan support pegs into the appropriate holes a short distance away from one side of the CPU slot. Slide the included supports onto each end of the cooling device
Step 5: Push the spring-loaded CPU latches inward (located at the top two corners of the cartridge) and gently slide the processor into the retention mechanism. Make sure the heats ink/fan supports are aligned with the pegs
Step 6: Push the CPU latches outward, then slide the cooling device support clips forward until they latch onto the support pegs
Step 7: Use the included fan cable to connect the fan to the appropriate connector on the motherboard
Step 8: Replace the motherboard tray and the expansion cards if you had to remove them. Then replace the outer case and move the computer back to its original location. Reconnect all of the cables.
Step 9: Start up the computer. If you can see the initial BIOS output, you have installed the CPU correctly. If not, turn off and unplug the computer, then go back through the installation steps. If you still can't get your system to work, contact the CPU manufacturer.
Memory upgrade or adding more memory
When deciding to add more memory the first thing is to determine the following:
1: check to see how many memory slots your motherboard has.
2. Find out which memory type your motherboard supports
3. If you have 4 slots and only 2 are used, then making the decision on what you want to add in the second 2 slots.
4. If all slots are full, then the purchase of new memory is needed.
5. How much memory is there and how much you want to add
Step 1: Power down the computer and remove the power cord
Step 2: If just adding 2 memory stick, the memory sticks are slotted and will only go in one way. Place the first stick into the slot and firmly press until the locks on both ends click into place.
Step 3: If replacing all 4 slots, carefully press the memory lock release levers until the memory lifts up and is free then remove them.
Step 4: If 2 different sets of memory type are added, then one matching set must go in the first two slots and the second matching set in the last two slots.
Step 5: Pick the first set and carefully press on one at a time until the memory locks lock in place and then add the next 3 following the same procedure.

Hard Drive Replacement
Step 1
Back up your data from the original hard drive. You can use a system backup program to create an image of your entire operating system and drive or just copy your important files to a USB flash drive, writable disk or other removable medium. One main reason for this is every computer has device drivers for the hard where inside your computer. For example if you have a separate video card (not part of the motherboard), then that video card has video drivers it will need to run. A full system backup is recommended. It is always a good idea to keep a back-up of all system and hardware drivers. There are driver backup utility programs available.
Step 2
Power off your computer, then locate the power switch on the back of your computer and flip it to OFF or unplug it.
Step 3
Remove your computer’s case. Depending on the model you may have to unscrew some screws before lifting the case off. Consult your computer’s documentation for more details.
Step 4
Locate the hard drive you want to replace. Unplug the cables from the back of the hard drive and remove it from your computer. Check jumper settings, if you have only one hard drive on the cable then it must be set to a single drive with no slave. If you have a second hard drive or CD-ROM on the cable then your hard drive must be jumped to primary master. You may have to unscrew the hard drive before removing it.
Step 5
Check jumper settings on the new hard drive to match the one you are replacing. Insert the new hard drive into the same position as the old one. Screw the hard drive into place if the original hard drive was screwed into place.
Step 6
Connect the cables that were plugged into the back of the original hard drive to the new hard drive.
Step 7
Close your computer’s case, enable its power switch and turn it on.
Step 8
Restore the original data. If you replaced the hard drive Windows was installed on, you will need to reinstall Windows, restore from a system disk that came with your computer or restore from a full-system backup.


Install a graphics card
Before you start, you'll need to gather these elements:
New graphics card
Phillips screwdriver
Antistatic wrist strap (optional)
Required attention span: 20 to 30 minutes

Step 1. Uninstall current graphics card drivers. Before you install your new card, you'll need to uninstall your current graphics card's drivers to avoid any potential conflicts. Right-click My Computer and select Properties. Under the Hardware tab, find the button to open the Device Manager. Your graphics card should be listed under the Display Adapter heading. Double-click the name of your graphics card to open a properties window for your current card. Still with us? We're almost there (it takes longer to describe the path than it does to actually click your way though it). Last step: Under the Driver tab, click the Uninstall button.
Step 2. Remove old card. Turn off your PC and unplug it from the wall. Open the case and locate the AGP slot--it's the brown-plastic slot typically found above the white-plastic PCI slots. Make sure you first ground yourself by first touching a metal part of your PC case or by wearing an antistatic wrist strap. (Grounding yourself will prevent you from getting shocked and from unintentionally damaging your PC's components.) If you are replacing a graphics card, you'll need to remove a small screw attached to the back plate prior to taking out the card.
Step 3. Install new card. It wouldn't hurt to page through your new card's instruction manual at this point. Then, take your new graphics card out of its foil wrapper and slide it into your motherboard's AGP slot. Press down firmly with even force until it is securely in place (your system won't boot up unless the card is in all the way). Screw it into the back plate and close up your case.
Step 4. Install new drivers. Turn on your PC and install the drivers. Windows XP should automatically recognize the new hardware and walk you through the installation wizard. If Windows doesn't detect the card, click Settings from the Start menu. Open the Control Panel and click Add Hardware. From there, a wizard will help you install the new drivers from the CD that came bundled with your new card. It's a good idea to check the graphic card vendor's Web site for more up-to-date drivers, just in case the vendor has released drivers since manufacturing your card. Once you've downloaded the drivers, simply restart your PC. Now, you're ready to start gaming.

Installing a DVD drive
Your computer or laptop needs one of two types of CD/DVD drives: SATA or IDE. The most foolproof way to see what type of drive your computer can take is to open it up and take a look at the drive or drives it’s currently using. You’ll need to carry out this task before you can replace or add any disc drive in your desktop computer.
Step 1: Remove the old drive, if necessary, by unplugging its power and data cables, unscrew the drive from the case or pull on its rails, and slide it out of the front of your computer case.
If the drive’s cable is small (bottom), then your computer uses SATA drives. (The SATA connector is often labeled, too.) If you see a wide, flat ribbon cable (top), then your computer uses IDE drives. See Figure 1

Step 2: Identify the power cables that move from your computer’s power supply — that massive box in the corner that sprouts all the wires — to your drive.
Your drive either uses a SATA power cable (bottom) or a Molex power cable (top). SATA power connectors are almost always black; Molex connectors are almost always white. Both of them only fit one way — the right way. (Note DVD Drives and Hard Drives used the same type of SATA/IDE connectors.) See Figure 1

(Figure 1)

Step 3: Remove the old drive, if necessary, by unplugging its power and data cables, unscrew the drive from the case or pull on its rails, and slide it out of the front of your computer case.
If your adding a new drive to a vacant drive bay, you can skip this step.

Step 4: If you’re replacing an existing IDE drive, set its jumper to match your old drive’s setting, either Master or Slave. If you’re adding a second IDE drive, set its jumper to Slave.
If you’re installing a SATA drive, jump to the following step

Step 5: Attach rails to your DVD drive, if your case uses them, and then slide the new DVD drive into the front of your computer (screw the drive in place if it doesn’t use rails).
You need a vacant drive bay, which is an opening where your disk drive normally lives. You may need to pry out a rectangular plastic cover from the front of your computer before the drive slides in. (Sometimes you must pry out a thin foil protector from behind the plastic cover, too.)
Step 6: Connect the drive’s data and power cables.
The plugs fit only one way, so don’t force them
Step 7: Replace your computer’s cover, plug in the computer, and turn it on.
When Windows boots up, it should recognize the new or replacement DVD drive and automatically list it in your Start menu’s Computer program.

Step 8: (Optional) If your drive came with disc-burning software, install it.
Some drives come with free disc-burning software that’s more powerful — but more complicated — than the disc-burning tools built into Windows 7. However, the software often lets you duplicate music CDs, a task Windows 7 still lacks.

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