Major Influences on Child Poverty at Both Local and National Level

In: Social Issues

Submitted By pogojo
Words 1374
Pages 6
Due to government measures (Department for Work and Pensions (DWP), 2004) there has been a significant decline in child poverty in the UK. According to the ‘Households Below Average Income’ survey 1994/95 – 2011/12 (HBAI), carried out by the Department for Work and Pensions, 2012, around 1.1 million children had been brought out of poverty between the period of 1998 - 2012. However, there are still approximately 3.6 million children living in poverty in the UK (HBAI, 2012) which is costing the UK around £25 billion each year (Child Poverty Action Group, CPAG, 2012). Much research has been carried out on child poverty, but as Magadi (2010) points out, very little is known about the extent and reasons as to why children are in severe poverty. This research will set out to discuss the major influences on child poverty at local and national level as well as addressing what measures are being taken to deal with the issues of severe child poverty within a primary setting.

Although income is a major contributing factor to poverty, Perry (2002) suggests that it should take in to account a variety of factors due to its multi-dimensional nature (cited in Magadi, 2010, p.298), such as material deprivation. Material deprivation identifies those who are unable to afford things that many people take for granted such as holidays, hobbies and leisure activities or not being able to afford to replace worn out furniture or electrical goods. Measuring poverty on income alone can only lead to an inaccurate calculation of a household’s income. Many experts believe that material deprivation can usefully complement low income as a more reliable combined measure. The DWP (2003) also supports this view; “a better measure of living standards at any point in time can be obtained by measuring both low income and material deprivation combined…” (cited in Magadi, 2010, p.299).

Severe child…...

Similar Documents

National Railroad Passenger Corporation Major Information Systems

... Trimester 49 5 Chapter 12: Kenneth C. Laudon & Jane P. Laudon, Essentials of Management Information Systems, 9th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2011 Internet Booking System (IB) is Amtrak’s business-to-customer (B2C) solution that provides internet accessibility for the creation of passenger reservations including eCommerce transactions that allow for pre-payment of reservations. Employee Information Management (EIM) is Amtrak’s human resources and payroll information system that permits Amtrak to manage and integrate major business functions and processes such as personnel management, organizational management, payroll, time management, training, and events management. Paper-Based Systems: Amtrak maintains a decentralized, paper-based filing system to support its administrative functions. Each department creates and maintains paper-based files specific to its area of responsibility. Personnel and medical files are maintained at various sites, depending on the work location of the employee. Police Incident Management System (IMS) is Amtrak’s system used to man-age and report incidents involving the Amtrak Police Department (APD). This includes functionality to manage the entire incident, from initial notification, all of APD’s activities to address the incident, as well as the documentation and reporting that is required to finalize the matter. The system also provides functionality to administer APD resource assignments and qualifications. Work Management Systems (WMS) are......

Words: 673 - Pages: 3

Parents Influence on Child Development

...Parents Influence on Child Development Parents play an important role in their children’s developmental stages such as; cognitive emotional health, social ability, personality and a healthy adult life. All four areas of a Childs development needs are influenced by their environment but most important their parents, or any power adult figure in their lives. If a child is born with a disorder, mental disability or illness of any type that is for a fact out of the parent’s control. In contrast, if a child slowly develops negative behavior in any four aspects, I believe the parents play a part in this. A parent influences what their child is exposed too, different people to new places. We were shown “Parenthood” a comedy that holds facts about family dynamics. For example Gil and Karen Buckman have a family of three kids, the oldest; Kevin needs to be in a special education environment. Due to Kevin’s behavior in school his teachers are able to detect an area in which he needs a more intimate learning experience. If any parent or myself were to have Kevin or a child similar to him, I would want him to accept his problem as well learn to live a healthy lifestyle. In order to make a child in Kevin’s shoes comfortable I would ensure he interacted with other kids his age who were both special ED and the regular student whenever he could, this way he would learn social skills. I believe that parents should tell their children why they love them, and have open relationships...

Words: 465 - Pages: 2

Poverty Level in Nigeria

...NIGERIA’S POVERTY LEVEL RISES, HITS 71.5% SOKOTO AND NIGER TOP LIST OF POOREST STATES POVERTY in Nigeria is rising with almost 100 million people living on less than $1 a day despite strong growth. The percentage of Nigerians living in absolute poverty — those who can afford only the bare essentials of food, shelter and clothing — rose to 60.9 per cent in 2010, compared with 54.7 per cent in 2004, the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) said. Although Nigeria's economy is projected to continue growing, poverty is likely to get worse as the gap between the rich and the poor continues to widen. "It remains a paradox ... that despite the fact that the Nigerian economy is growing, the proportion of Nigerians living in poverty is increasing every year," Statistician General of the Federation, Dr Yemi Kale, told reporters at a press conference in Abuja. “NBS estimates that this trend may have increased further in 2011 if the potential positive impacts of several anti-poverty and employment generation intervention programmes are not taken into account," The data showed that the North-East and North-West, where the Boko Haram sect originated, are the poorest regions in Nigeria. The South-West, which includes the thriving commercial hub Lagos, had the lowest levels of poverty. Meanwhile, Sokoto and Niger states topped the list of poorest states in Nigeria as poverty rate hit 71.5 per cent. The North-West and North-East geopolitical zones recorded the highest poverty rate in...

Words: 532 - Pages: 3

Voting in Local and National Elections

...Lots of people don't vote. They've either lost hope in the system, or don't like their choices enough to bother going to the polls. Even some people who do vote, won't bother to vote in local elections. They vote for President and national races only. So, this might lead others to not get involved in local campaigns, which might lead people to think that local elections are unimportant. This is completely wrong! Local elections are the support base for the national offices. Local office holders run the cities, townships, and counties that support our states and ultimately our country. Without local officials you would have no schools, no parks, no streets, no local police, or myriad other services the cities supply to their residents. The races held in your towns, cities, townships, and counties affect you more directly than any national race does. Mayors and Aldermen decide budgets which affect your taxes, the price of water, the local funding for projects, and numerous other decisions. Just because the candidates don't get plastered all over cable news networks and they don't go on campaign tours, it doesn't mean that their views and platforms aren't important. Politics in America has become about looking good on television and saying the right thing to get a soundbite on the 5 o' clock news. It's more about having a good image than a good policy. Americans need to get out of this slump of voting for the candidate who has better hair, or nicer teeth. Voting is a...

Words: 420 - Pages: 2

The National Budget 2010/2011: Implications for the Local Governments

... Financial Year and to increase the Budget provision Equalization Grant: This Grant is provided for in the Constitution. It is aimed at providing a facility for relatively less endowed Local Governments to enable them give services that meet national standards. Unfortunately, however, it has been kept at a fixed amount of UShs 3.4bn since its inception, making it almost negligible. It seems to be in the Budget merely to meet the legal requirement. KEY OBSERVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. The National Budget 2010/2011 is focused on the major priority objectives of the National Development Plan. Local Governments have a critical role to play in its implementation. It is necessary to sequence public interventions in a manner that strengthens the factors of production and public sector management at the local level 2. Transfers to Local Governments are only 20% of the National Budget. The Budget Framework must change the outlays to supplement Decentralization. 3. Creation of new districts and other Local Governemnt units has serious implications on the administrative budget. The practice should ebe studied in view of embedding its criteria and feasibility in Law, and giving it proper direction. 4. There are issues in the Sectoral Grants regarding equity, access criteria, and allocation factors. The big variations in allocations between Local Governments calls for explanation by the respective Sector Ministries and a more...

Words: 2745 - Pages: 11

Major Influences on Child Poverty at Both Local and National Level

...Due to government measures (Department for Work and Pensions (DWP), 2004) there has been a significant decline in child poverty in the UK. According to the ‘Households Below Average Income’ survey 1994/95 – 2011/12 (HBAI), carried out by the Department for Work and Pensions, 2012, around 1.1 million children had been brought out of poverty between the period of 1998 - 2012. However, there are still approximately 3.6 million children living in poverty in the UK (HBAI, 2012) which is costing the UK around £25 billion each year (Child Poverty Action Group, CPAG, 2012). Much research has been carried out on child poverty, but as Magadi (2010) points out, very little is known about the extent and reasons as to why children are in severe poverty. This research will set out to discuss the major influences on child poverty at local and national level as well as addressing what measures are being taken to deal with the issues of severe child poverty within a primary setting. Although income is a major contributing factor to poverty, Perry (2002) suggests that it should take in to account a variety of factors due to its multi-dimensional nature (cited in Magadi, 2010, p.298), such as material deprivation. Material deprivation identifies those who are unable to afford things that many people take for granted such as holidays, hobbies and leisure activities or not being able to afford to replace worn out furniture or electrical goods. Measuring poverty on income alone can only lead...

Words: 1374 - Pages: 6

Both Parents Should Assume Equal Responsibility in Raising a Child.

...Is it true that both parents from a family should bare an equal responsibility in order to take care of their own children? I think it’s essential to raises up a child by providing them love and care from both sides of parents because as we grow up, our parents have already taken two really important roles to teach us many life lessons but also to nurture us by his or her life-long experiences. However I think due to gender differences, both parents may have different views and roles when they’re teaching the children. More importantly, if both of them assume equal responsibility in raising a child then the child may live in a family that surrounded by warmest love but at the same time the possibility of family breakdown or separation will be prevented and the child may have a positive attitude on choosing the right path in their upcoming futures, too. Throughout the childhoods of children, what are some major roles of both parents and why is it so important to share balance responsibilities in order to raise a child? To answer this question, we need to notice that in an economic perspective, nowadays in the society of Hong Kong, fathers still pretend a really major role in order to work outside and earn money to support the needs of the family, especially the tuition fees of children. But also due to this reason, fathers in a family who act as a breadwinner will always have less time to stay at home in order to communicate with their children properly and also to play...

Words: 764 - Pages: 4

Child Poverty

...Analyze a Sociological Issue Abstract Analyze a Sociological Issue Over the last nine weeks this course has taught me about different social problems that our society live in, but tries to cover it up by pushing it under a rug. Although I know our society has issues, I just didn’t think of them in this way since starting class and doing the research we’ve done, have taught me so much. Many of society issues are social inequality, poverty, urbanization, discrimination against race, and culture. When learning about these issues, I’ve decided to do my paper on Poverty and Children in the United States. Poverty within the United States has become a major issue that affects our society and at hand families with children are coming face to face with this issue every day of their life. Poverty has become a major issue in our society today due to the result of our economy and the decision that one makes in life. And sad to say when the economy is always on the defense at failing, the children of our society have to pay a high price. There’s many reason and factors that can be related to one’s poverty. Some factors that can take place to which can place a child at poverty could be, single parent, unemployment, homelessness, abuse, or mother having more kids she can take care of. Over time history shows that poverty in the United States has raised a great deal. Many of us can’t even imagine how it feel to live in poverty, even if it’s looking us right in our eyes, we still...

Words: 1845 - Pages: 8

Child Poverty

... essential to their ability to succeed in such a dynamic society. The personal and social consequences of childhood poverty and its influence on healthy development are very costly. It is estimated that poverty in the United States may be as high as $500 billion a year or roughly 4% of the U.S. gross domestic product (Stein 2006). In New York about 40% of the children now live with families at or below the poverty line (appx 700,000 boys and girls) (Stein 2006). The child poverty rates in New York from 1978 through 2006 including rates for children with married and single mothers have increased from 18.3% to 26.4%. Not surprisingly the overall rise in poverty is correlated to a rise in unemployment. It is noted that one in five children (19.9%) in New York lives below the “traditional poverty line (Stein 2006). The depth of this poverty is particularly pertinent since research suggest that it plays a critical role in the extent that child development is compromised. There are programs that can help and address these issues, New York State residents have access to a wide variety of anit-poverty programs designed to support low income families. Furthermore, in several instances, New York expands their eligibility criteria for federally funded program enabling a broader group of children and families to access benefits. Qualitative Approaches & interviews Question: How would you describe the level at which states are achieving in addressing child poverty? The......

Words: 3075 - Pages: 13

Both Parents Should Assume Equal Responsibility in Raising a Child

...The one thing that every eighteen year old student in Malaysia fears the most besides the S.P.M. exams is National service. A number of students are chosen from every school in every state in Malaysia to go for National service training. Out of all the students chosen only a few will be excited to go for this training. The rest will be too lazy or just too scared to go for the training. I was chosen and like the rest at first I felt like it was a waste of time especially since I had to go for the second batch. I tried to come up with as many excuses not to go but my parents said that I had to go. So the time came after six months off waiting after getting the message that was sure to be the death of me. So after months of waiting the day finally came where I had to board the bus to Damai, Johor. Well to tell you the truth I was a little excited that I was about to go on a kind of adventure that would may or may not change my life. When the bus left the station I was a little worried about living my family behind. But that all changed when we hit the highway. There were hills that were filled with so much greenery that it was so hard to believe. Being a city kid the only jungle I see every day was the concrete jungle. The guys and girls who were on the same bus with me were singing and cracking jokes on the bus. After five hours of travelling, we arrive at the camp and training center. As we entered, I felt like a part of me had died. The campsite was like a war zone...

Words: 1430 - Pages: 6

Comparing National, State and Local Labor Laws

... Comparing National, State and Local Labor Laws Jessica Amos BSM 206 Professor December 29, 2013 Abstract Our employment or labor laws have been developed to process a smooth transition for employers and employees. Employment laws bestow rules and regulations in order to govern in cooperation of places of employment that work together to protect both employer and employee. These labor laws confer the issues that are interrelated between the working conditions, retirement, child labor laws, incentives and benefits, OSHA and others. Both employer and employee need these laws so as to not exploit one another and or to hold company policy and procedures. However, we at this time are developing more and more ways to protect our employees in their workplace that helps in aiding the relationship between the employer and employee. In past years regulations were not as developed as they are today. Protection for employees are becoming vastly integrated and productively reviewed continually. This all in the attempt to make sure the employee has rights and protection under these regulations as well as the employer for the workplace. Although some may be different than others varying from state to state, local and federal, the same remain true; regulations are there in order to protect both the employer and employee, so that employees will have rights and protection in order not to be abused from employers. Employment laws can be vast but the regulatory examinations of these are...

Words: 1757 - Pages: 8

Both Parents Should Assume Equal Responsibility in Raising a Child.

...A child’s health and well-being are important and also contribute to a healthy, productive adolescence and adulthood. Parents can play an important role in helping their children use or strengthen behaviors, skills, attitudes, and motivation that promote their physical and mental health and overall well being in childhood, adolescence and well into their adulthood. (McBride, 1998) As you grow up, you are taught many life lessons from your experienced parents. Your parents' duty is to nurture you, so that you can grow up to become a person who is strong and able to support yourself. (Allen, 2013) Parents must realize that when it comes to raising a child, they both must put in an equal amount of effort so that the child learns new things, prevents family breakdowns or arguments and prevents the child from straying off the 'right' path as they say. It is a typical situation where the father is the one who is assumed as not being apart of raising their child. The first reason why both parents, a father and mother, should have equal opportunities to raise their children is that the father, by his masculinity nature, will be better to give his child the sense of braveness and teach them to defend themselves against anyone who could hurt them in their environment. By the father involving himself in this way in his child’s life would certainly increase the method of analyzing any trouble they could possibly find themselves being involved in in the future and enhance and......

Words: 303 - Pages: 2

Observation Child Development Level 2

... required to follow when any indecent is taken place. Trained first-aiders will be on hand always, so that they can treat your child’s injuries or diseases. If an injury is serious or suspicious, the nursery contacts www.rador.gov.uk, which will inform the nursery if the incident is serious, and therefore if it needs to be reported to OFSTED, social services ect. This will then be done as soon as possible. Health and safety at work this is a rule in place insuring safety in the nursery after an incident, and putting a warning in place to prevent any accidents happening. For example, if someone spilt water on the floor, a wet floor sign would be placed after cleaning the water up, because the substance may not be completely dry. This prevents a child or adult from slipping on that area and hurting themselves. COSHH this means control of substances, like substances that are hazardous to health. The regulations require an assessment of risk to be undertaken staff will know straight away where to put harmful substances such as cleaning substances. Food hygiene food needs to be prepared and cooked carefully, as if not, the food can damage peoples bodies and make them ill. These are regulations that require any company providing food, such as nursery, to follow. The management requires identity how and when food can go wrong, and how to insure prevention of this. The four c's cleanness: hands, surfaces, and equipment (anything that food comes into contact with must......

Words: 878 - Pages: 4

Essay Rearing Child with Both Parents

...In our modern world, besides traditional family model with children and both parents, there exist other types of family including single-parent family. However, in my opinion, I still think that a child should be raised in a home with both parents. I would like to explain my reasons here. Firstly, to bring up a child, there are so many things to do. Therefore, just one parent, however hard he/she tries, will encounter many problems in managing to do all these things. In daily life, we can witness stressed single parent who becomes bad-tempered and shout at their children although they don't do anything wrong. On the contrary, both parents can divide work efficiently between each other and so they will have less pressure and less stress, which in turn can help to maintain a happy family life.  Secondly, I think that having both parents will provide the child's development with better balance because each parent has their own irreplaceable characteristics. For example, a father is in general stronger and braver than a mother and conversely, a mother is softer and more carefully. Consequently, lacking one parent will take from the child an example of the corresponding qualities. I know this very well from my own experience. My father went away when I was a child. My mother has been trying extremely hard to bring me up and I am so grateful for her devotion and her care for me. However, I have to admit that I can not develop completely some manly qualities such as determination,......

Words: 315 - Pages: 2

Both Sides of Child Abuse

...Both Sides of Child Abuse When someone intentionally inflicts moral, sexual pain, physical pain on a child is committing child abuse. When a child is abuse it is typical that they were abused as a child themselves. Life struggle can contribute to some abuse due to unemployment, stress, and poverty. When a child is abused it is usually people that have the need to feel power over something. Disabled children are more than likely to be abused children with special needs can cause a great deal of stress. Children are often the target of abuse they are less powerful than the abuser. Does child abuse damage children to become damaged adults? Sexual abuse has been involved in cases of neglect on children (Bottoms, B., & Epstein, M., 1998). Around eighty percent of children that were abused as kids will grow up to be abusers especially the ones that have been sexually abused. Most parents that abuse actually believe it is their right as a parent. Abusers really think this teaches children a lesson, it does it teaches children not to trust. Abuse is higher in families of mixed races and mixed religion (Bottoms, B., & Epstein, M., 1998). Abusers have a very short temper they explode at the slightest little things. Jobless or part-time working parents are the likely abusers (Bottoms, B., & Epstein, M., 1998). Retired people are the least likely to abuse a child. However someone that sexually abuses a child is one difficult human to figure out. Most child abusers have...

Words: 932 - Pages: 4