Free Essay

Malachite

In: Science

Submitted By Kgaski000
Words 1559
Pages 7
Gems are highly prized minerals that have a common appeal to all cultures, and their legacy extends to prehistoric times. As far back as 20,000 years ago, our ancestors, the Cro-Magnon, ornamented their bodies with lavish strings of beads made from ivory, seashells, and gemstones (Cook). As is the custom today, the use of jewelry was determined by fashion and reflected one's rank in society. Malachite is cut into cabochons or slabs to be used in rings, necklaces, brooches, and in art objects (galleries.com). Though not a precious stone, its vibrant colour is highly prized.
Possibly the earliest order of copper, malachite is believed to have been mined in a Sinai and eastern deserts of ancient Egypt from was early as 300BCE. Single crystal are uncommon; when found, they are short to long prism. Malachite is usually found as botryoidal or encrusting masses, often with a radiating fibrous structure and banded in various shades of green. The beautiful green crystal has been used since ancient times in inlay work and in carvings of churches and cathedrals as it is found in huge boulders (Bonewitz pg 125). It was also used as a pigment for paint during the 15th century in Egyptian tomb paintings and much later in European art. The Victorians were also great admirers of opaque jewelry stones, and malachite was chosen to be one of their favorites, sometimes choosing it to set in gold. It also occurs as delicate fibrous aggregates and as concentrically banded stalactites (Bonewitz pg 125). Malachite occurs in the altered zones of copper deposits, where it is usually accompanied by lesser amounts of azurite. It is primarily valued as an ornamental material and gemstone. Single masses that weighed up to 51 tons were found in the Ural Mountains of Russia in 19th century (Yee). While doing researcher I was very surprised to learn that” Malachite, which can occur in nature in essentially a pure state, can be easily roasted in a crucible to the metal oxide, copper oxide, without the evolution of toxic gases and at modest temperatures attainable with an ordinary Bunsen burner (Cook). Minerals are generally identified by crystal form, color, luster, hardness, density, cleavage, and fracture. Some minerals also can be recognized by transparency, tarnish, tenacity, iridescence, effervescence, fluorescence, magnetism, radioactivity, taste, or smell. The mineral that I’m writing about is Malachite. Malachite is one of the most common and widespread secondary minerals of copper, occurring in the oxidized portions of copper deposits of all types. Malachite, also known as green copper carbonate, is usually associated with the blue copper carbonate, azurite. Specimens containing the two minerals are frequently out-standing beautiful because of their striking colors (geology.com). Here are a few physical characteristics of Malachite: Color is banded light and dark green or (if crystalline), just dark green. Luster is dull in massive forms and silky as crystals.
Transparency is opaque in massive form and translucent in crystalline forms. Crystal System is monoclinic; 2/m.
Crystal Habits in its massive forms are botryoidally, stalactite or globular. Crystals are acicular or fibrous and form in tufts and encrustations. Frequently found as pseudomorphs of azurite. Cleavage is good in one direction but rarely seen. Fracture is conchoidal to splintery. Hardness is 3.5-4.
Specific Gravity is 3.9+ (slightly heavy).
Streak is green.
Other Characteristics: Weakly effervesces in acid.

Malachite is one of the most popular and beautiful semi-precious stones available. While it might be owned by millions, most people are not aware that the ornamental jewelry or figurines that own are created for the gemstone Malachite. Although its massive carvable forms are well known, its crystalline forms are much rarer and only recently becoming widely available to the average mineral collector (Lutgens). Malachite is named after the Greek word Mallow, which means green herb (Agosto). Fine specimens have come from the Ural Mountains, Russia; Tsumeb, Namibia; Chessy; France; Broken Hill on New South Wales, Australia, and Katanga, Congo. In the United States the outstanding locality is Bisbee, Arizona (Cook). While Malachite is extremely popular as ornamental jewelry and for making figurines, it is a relatively soft mineral. For instance, Malachite only scores 3.5 to 4 on Moh’s hardness scale. This means that while very stable, impact to the stone can chip it or destroy it. Sometimes a resin is applied to the stone to protect it from chips and scratches. This mineral is not only used for ornamental stuffs or a gemstone, but it is also used in ground form as a cosmetic (eye shadow). The results may be beautiful, but unfortunately they can also be hazardous to your health as the copper content of the dust released from this stone makes it toxic to breathe (gemstoneeducation.com). Also, avoid using salt, soap, acids and heat. Cleaning it under running water or placing it in a bowl of hematite stones overnight are the recommended methods of purification. However, when using water to clean malachite be cautious, since water can affect the coating of some malachite stones (Glimmer dream). The also make a Malachite Jewelry cleaner, it is made by Weiman. Do not expose your malachite to sun rays. You can charge them by keeping them together with rock crystal stones (Agosto).
The chemical composition of Malachite is basic carbonate of cooper, Cu2CO3 (OH) 2, but if double it will appear as this Cu4 CO3)2(OH) 4 (mindat). Malachite has a mineral impostor called pseudomalachite. Pseudomalachite Cu5 (PO4)2(OH) 4 it is a copper phosphate that has a massive crystal habit and color that are very similar to malachite's habit and color, although the two minerals have different structures (gem society.com). Pseudomalachite means "false malachite" in Latin and is very rare compared to malachite (gem society.com). A good test to see what one is really malachite is it effervescence in HCI. It dissolves with effervescence in cold hydrochloric acid and in this way can be distinguished from other green copper minerals (Hurlbut). Exterior coating of Statue of Liberty is made up of copper metal which protects the statue (nps.gov).
Malachite include such stunningly colorful minerals as dark blue azurite, Chrysocolla, Limonite, Chalcopyrite, Copper, Calcite, and Quartz. Malachite is part of Sedimentary, Metamorphic (minerals net). This is the first stone I have ever really been attracted to. It is a beautiful green. I really love the flow and colour of these crystals. I really wished I would have purchased one on our mine trip. It was so amazing to see the different type of Malachite they had on display. This beautiful gem would be the start of my gem collection. The Malachite is known as opaque gem. The opaque gems include representatives of metallic ores and rock-forming minerals, and with the exception of jade they are used mainly as ornamental stones (Hurlbut). Rock collectors and mineral collectors are two different kinds of rock-hound. Although both seek specimens that are good examples of their type, good rocks and good minerals never occur together. A good rock specimen contains all the right minerals in due proportion, but a good mineral specimen is always out of proportion for its rock type.
Here are a few folklores and legend that I found interesting. Throughout history, some people have come to believe that malachite possesses special powers to bring about peace, love, success in life, and personal protection from harm. Some people even wore them as a means to detect any kind of danger coming their way, thinking that the malachite would break into pieces when danger arrived. It’s been called the guardian stone. Gems were also thought to have mystical powers. Primitive cultures and even some modern people believe that gems and crystals have the ability to heal (crystalvaults.com). They say that Malachite is a natural birthstone, but not one of the zodiac birthstones that we are familiar with. . The beautiful green color is one of the natural birthstones for those born in mid-spring (20-April-20 May) and my birthday is April 26th. They say that the green crystals bring you renewal, success in the new ventures, and good health. Taurus are known for being “down to Earth,” the doers and the realists. They are affectionate, known for their tempers and very stubborn. That was very surprising to her because it described me all the way. What was interesting was that Malachite is said to have an effective remedy for female problems. Malachite can help regulate the menstrual cycle and cramps, for easing labor. It has been called the Midwife Stone. I wish I knew about it when I giving birth to my two kids.
It is funny how I will never look at rocks and minerals the same anymore. They are more than rocks and minerals now. All of my rocks that I collected for the GNAJ trip are now displayed in my home or my bookshelf. I really enjoy when someone comes in and ask why do you have rocks in your house? With the knowledge that I am now equipped with I explain to them what they are and how important they are. The geologist goes beyond a preoccupation with rocks and minerals. To the geologist these are only the beginning of a larger preoccupation: investigating the Earth's past, Earth's workings, and Earth's useful products.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Azurite

...from. The blue color of it always caught my eye and just seemed so mysterious looking compared to the other minerals. Azurite is formed in a couple different ways and is mined in different places all around the globe, with it being relatively abundant it has made its self useful in certain social and economic situations. The formation of azurite starts out with the oxidation of copper, thus forming the carbonate azurite. When this process happens under different conditions, such as pressure, heat, and occurrence of water, it can change its formation and alter the properties of the mineral. as azurite is underground it will slowly absorb water around it and with time will create small deposits of malachite. Azurite is usually found as a blue cluster with small green pieces of malachite in it, which can differ depending on how long the azurite was exposed to water. Even though azurite is a beautiful mineral it is still a soft mineral at that. With azurite being a soft copper carbonate mineral it registers on the Moh’s hardness scale as a 3.5-4.0, allowing it to be weathered easily. This weathering that occurs has a great affect on the shade of blue that the azurite will have. Azurite has been found in mines all around the world, even here in the United States. It is usually found in copper mines located in Australia, Chile, China, Africa, and some parts of Russia. Along with those foreign copper mines, azurite has been mined out of Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico, and...

Words: 749 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Removal of Methylene Blue and Malachite Green Dye Using Different Form of Coconut Fibre as Absorbent

...172 Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 2013, 9, 172-177 Removal of Methylene Blue and Malachite Green Dye Using Different Form of Coconut Fibre as Absorbent Y.C. Wong*, M.S.R. Senan and N.A. Atiqah Faculty of Agro Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli Campus, Locked Bag 100, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia Abstract: In this study, coconut fibres are grounded and sieved into the size of 150 μm granular form and filament form of uniform size 2.0 cm for absorption test of methylene blue and malachite green dye in single dye solution were studied. As a result, granular form of coconuts have higher percentage removal dye of methyelene blue and malachite green blue which is 98.3% and 99.0%. This study shows a major approach of turning the agricultural waste to an added value product which is absorbent for wastewater treatment especially in textile industries sector. Keywords: Coconut fibre, absorption, melethylene blue dye, malachite green dye. 1. INTRODUCTION Water pollution has become a serious problem around the world including Malaysia. Malaysia is one of the country that fall into this negatively impacts on the sustainability of water resources. Many industries sector in Malaysia such as textile, paper, paint, pharmaceuticals, food, leather, cosmetics, tannery, printing and plastics used wide verieties of dye in order to color their product for example such as batik in textile industry. Among those industries sector in Malaysia, textiles industry......

Words: 4229 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Isolation and Process Optimization of Textile Dye Degrading Bacteria

...Title: Isolation and Process Optimization of textile dye degrading bacteria Abstract: Bacteria can remove dyes from wastewater and soil, leading to a decrease in their toxicity. The detoxification rate depends upon media and culture conditions. The decolourization/removal of textile dyes like bromophenol blue, methylene blue, methyl green, and malachite green, in addition to various other industrial dyes, using bacteria isolated from soil has been an important area of research for bioremediation and the present work is focused on this specific aspect. The effect of independent variables such as time, temperature, pH, and agitation on decolorization efficiency of bacteria has been optimized. Biodegradation of methylene blue and bromophenol blue was demonstrated by monitoring the effects of the different parameters and determining optimal conditions for degradation activity.   Introduction Several industrial activities, such as textile dyeing, olive oil extraction and the manufacture of pulp and paper are characterized by intensive water consumption rates. They release huge amounts of more or less coloured effluents into the environment. As far as synthetic dye release is concerned, textile dyeing facilities and the manufacture of dyestuffs are two major polluting sources. In addition, traditional textile dyeing processes generate a large amount of coloured effluents, because about 100 litres of water are required to process 1 kg of dyed fabrics. Moreover, up to 15% of......

Words: 6765 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Lab Report !

...encased in three heavy layers which are highly resistant to damage. The spores can be centrally, sub- terminally, or terminally located. The size and location of the spore within the vegetative cell are significant in differentiating organisms. The Schaeffer- Fulton Spore staining technique is a differential staining method where malachite is the primary stain which stains the endospore green while safranin is the counter stain that stains the vegetative part of the bacterial pink such that both the structures can be viewed under the microscope with ease. Materials and Methods: The bacteria used for staining endospore was Bacillus subtilis, and the staining technique used was Schaeffer- Fulton Spore stain. A smear of the bacterial species was prepared. The smear was air- dried and heat fixed. Then a small piece of paper was taken with the width of the paper slightly smaller than that of the glass slide. A beaker with water was boiled and a staining rack was put above the steam to hold the glass slide. The slide was then flooded with malachite green and placed on top of the rack so that the stain would not dry. The slide was constantly flooded with malachite green while being moistened by steam. The slide was allowed to cool to prevent it from breaking. The slide was drained and rinsed with water for 30 seconds. The slide was then...

Words: 399 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Homework 1

...paper. 3. A simple experiment would allow you to determine which bottle contains what solution is placing a few drops of each on litmus paper. The hydrochloric acid will turn the blue paper red because it is an acidic solution. The sodium chloride solution will not show any change on the paper because it is a neutral solution. Finally, the sodium hydroxide will turn the red litmus paper blue because it is a basic solution. 4. An experiment that would allow me to determine which bottles contains solid sodium chloride or solid sodium carbonate would be to add hydrochloric acid to each and observe the reactions to see if carbon dioxide would form. The sodium carbonate would bubble. 5. The chemical reaction for heating of malachite is Cu(OH)2 CO3 + heat= CuO+H2O. The...

Words: 670 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Dye Degradation Proposal

...Research Proposal MSc Part 2 Sem 3 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Mr. Akshay L. Shettigar has satisfactorily completed his proposal entitled “Biodegradation study of Triphenylmethane dye Crystal Violet by bacterium isolated from textile effluent.” for the year 2014-2015. Signature of the Project guide Signature of the Examiner (Prof. Mrs Radhika Birmole) Date and college Stamp Signature of the H.O.D. Proposal (i) Project Title: Biodegradation study of Triphenylmethane dye Crystal Violet by bacterium isolated from textile effluent. (ii) Introduction: Synthetic dyes are extensively used in textile dyeing, paper printing, colour photography, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and other industries [1]. Over ten thousand different dyes with an annual production of over 7x105 metric tons worldwide are commercially available [2]. 2% of dyes that are produced are discharged directly in aqueous effluent and 10% are subsequently lost during the textile coloration process [3]. Major classes of synthetic dyes include azo, triphenylmethane and anthraquinone dyes, some of them are known to be very toxic and mutagenic to living organism. With the increasing use of wide variety of dyes pollution by dye-waste water is becoming increasingly alarming. Colour removal, in particular, has recently become a major scientific interest. Although......

Words: 7251 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

Egyptian Wall Painting

...Egyptian blue was the first synthetic pigment ever produced by man; it is considered a great technology development in the ancient Egypt, as it appeared in Egypt during the third millennium BC. [9] This pigment consists of the mineral cuprorivaite (CaCuSi4O10), a blue tabular crystal about 15–30 mm in length, residual silica (quartz and/or tridymite) and an amorphous silica-rich phase. This pigment was made by mixing calcium salt (carbonate, sulfate or hydroxide), a copper compound (oxide or malachite), sand (silica), and an alkali flux (sources of alkali could either have been natron from areas such as Wadi Natrun and El-Kab, or soda-rich plant ashes).[10] This mixture then is heated to produce a colored glass or frit and ground to a powder.[11] Synthesis of the pigment can be summarized as follows: a mixture of quartz, calcium salt, copper salt or copper carbonate (malachite), and flux such as soda or potash are heated at 900–950 C under normal atmospheric conditions for 24 h[12,13] according to the following equation:[14] Figure 1. (a) A general view of the exterior of the temple of Hathor. (b) A plan of the temple. (c) A column representing the well-known shape of...

Words: 1175 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Diagnosis of Infected Person

...strains are variants of single species; just have different genes carried on the plasmids which can transfer from one bacterium to another. Well known strains are bacillus anthracis and bacillus thuringensis. Bacillus anthracis, or Anthrax, is a disease that affects cattle, sheep, and horses that have adapted/mutated and infect humans. Bacillus thuringensis is a microbial insect pathogen that produce crystalline toxins, and is used to spray on plants to reply and protect from insects. To help identify if this is the causing bacteria, one would use endospore staining, where malachite green is applied to a heat-fixed smear and heated to steaming for 5minutes, and helps penetrates the endospore wall. Then the smear is washed for 30seconds to remove the green from all other cell parts. Next, safranin is applied to the smear to stain the rest of the cell. The smear will be red or pink for cell parts, and malachite green will be the endospores. A gram stain would also will be used to identify the bacterium is bacillus. Bacillus would be a gram-positive, because it retains the violet crystal stain, and appear purple. They are positive because they are easily killed by penicillins and cephalosporins. Escherichia is the next genera and is the most common inhabitants of human intestinal tract. It is also one of the most familiar organism in microbiology. Its presence in water and food are as fecal contamination. It’s not considered pathogenic, but could cause urinary tract infections,......

Words: 743 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Organizational Theory

...HSBC USA Inc. HSBC Bank USA, N.A. Hang Seng Bank Limited HSBC Bank A.S. 62% MENA3 HK HK Turkey Hang Seng Bank (China) Limited 99% HSBC France 99% 99% HSBC Seguros S.A. HSBC Trinkaus & Burkhardt AG HSBC Insurance (AsiaPacific) Holdings Limited Hang Seng Insurance Company Limited HSBC Seguros (Brasil) S.A. Mexico HK HSBC Vida e Previdência (Brasil) S.A. HSBC Life Insurance Company Limited HSBC Insurance (Singapore) Pte. Limited HSBC Life (UK) Limited HSBC Assurances Vie (France) HSBC Amanah Takaful (Malaysia) Sendirian Berhad Regency Assets Limited Mazarin Funding Limited Barion Funding Limited Malachite Funding Limited HK 50% 49% PRC HSBC Life (International) Limited HSBC Seguros de Retiro (Argentina) S.A. 99% HSBC Seguros...

Words: 323 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Hello

...states multiple descriptive facts about the island. The writer has no strong connection to the islands he is simply there to make scientific observations of the landscape and animal life. Some of the words choices to describe the island, such as “leafless”, “rugged”, and “sun-burnt”, can be perceived to have a negative connotation to them. This helps to contribute to the theory that the writer has no personal relation and love for the Galapagos Islands. Where as, the second has more of a poetic style and tone to it. The author of this piece seems to writing a story about the islands, not a journal entry. The writer personifies the Galapagos Islands by phrases and words he uses to describe them. For example, “ice shows beautifully as malachite” and “still the magic of the their changeable tides” are two phrases that normally wouldn’t be used to describe piece of land. I think the author uses personification in order to show the love he has for the island. Even though, these two passages where written about the same topic and written around the same time they ended up very different. They told stories in different ways and shared different views, but both managed to give similar imagery for the reader. Therefore it is important that as readers we now the style of writing the author has in order to properly understand and...

Words: 325 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Unit 5 Assignment 1

...Problems in the World Today Many things can be classified as problems. Individual problems, if significant enough, can be labeled by those who have them as the biggest problem in the world. In truth, most problems in the world are national problems or something that is non tangible and made into a problem because someone thought it needed to be. The only world problem we have, in my opinion, is the expansion of human territory and constant state of war. Many have tried to justify it and many have tried to lessen the blow of its attritions nature but the fact remains that this problem will never go away. Many have hope and promise of a better future without the nations constantly warring but it always gets worse. Why is that? Let’s take a look at the base problems. Too many religions, and when I say too many, I mean thousands upon thousands of beliefs that make as much sense to one another as me believing in some big magic man in the sky who will send me to a hot burning place for all of eternity because I did some semi-bad things once or twice in my 60-80 years of existence. Religion is worse than any sickness and will tear nations apart and spark hatred in the hearts of generations to come. Its easily identifiable and will rally people for the wrong reasons. Should I kill these men of this other country because they wage war on lesser nations for natural resources? Yes, but I’ll tell everyone were doing it for a “holy crusade” and they will feel obligated to join......

Words: 667 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Meeting Outcomes Report

...their time frame. However, general discussion ran over time nearly half an hour. Beauty therapists were in disagreement on what was a high performance facial and what was an organic facial. As a result this is what we achieved. To clear up the disagreement beauty therapists had, I have provided a list below as discussed at the meeting. You will notice that some facials fall into both categories, this is because they require the use of endota organic ingredients. High performance facials are: hydro-microdermabrasion, hydro peptide, endota ceuticals and glycolic facials. Organic facials are: endota organic facials, glycolic facials and hydro-microdermabrasion. If you are still confused about this please talk to your manager or login to malachite online. Our newest treatment is the Hydro-Microdermabrasion facial. For therapists who are unsure as to what a hydro-microdermabrasion facial is I have included an explanation for you....

Words: 476 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Huma205

...org/Collections/search-the-collections/553907?rpp=20&pg=1&rndkey=20140223&ao=on&ft=*&when=2000-1000+B.C.&pos=7 http://museum.unl.edu/research/entomology/Egyptian_Sacred_Scarab/egs-text.htm http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/gold-band-sphinxes-and-stylized-tree?selection=44892 The metropolitan museum of art Scarab * new kingdom * dynasty 18 * ca. 1150-1295 B.C. * country of origin Egypt * faience * 3-dimensional work of art * Made from limestone * They were made like pots back then as they were molded after being melted down and carved with a symbol of a dead noble * The color is based on what material they used. They used carnuelian, lapis lazuli, basalt, limestone, malachite, schist, serpentine, turquoise, colored glass, and alabaster. * The scarab is used as a charm mostly used for the dead for luck * The...

Words: 394 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Diagnosing an Microorganisms Using Stains

...the specimen to be viewed under a microscope. Knowing that it would be Bacillus, Escherichia or Mycoplama, I would start ruling them out one by one. I would start with Bacillus. They are rod shaped bacterium which form endospores. Their movement is propelled by flagella. Bacilli are gram positive, but because if forms endospores, I would do the Endospore staining. Endospores are resistant to stain and relatively uncommon in bacterial cells. You start with a heat fixed smear. Fixing a slide kills the microorganism. A thin film of the microorganism is put on the slid and allowed to dry. Once dried, it is then fixed by either being passed through the flame of a Bunson burner several times or covered with methyl alcohol for 1 minute. Malachite green is applied and the smear is heated to steaming for 5 minutes, helping the stain penetrate the endospore wall. It is then washed with water for 30 seconds. This removes the stain from the cell except for the endospore wall. Safranin is applied as a counterstain to stain portions of the cell other than the endospore. In the smear, the endospores appear green with the rest of the cell red or pink. If there no endospores in the smear, it would eliminate bacillus as a contributing factor. Escherichia, commonly called E-coli, are also rod shaped microorganisms, and are gram negative. A gram stain is a differential stain developed Danish bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram. You start with a heat fixed smear using the procedure......

Words: 677 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Strain

...strain technique, taken together, will eliminate two of the possibilities and leave one. Mycoplasma can be distinguished from other genera using the acid-fast test. In this process, sputum is applied to a slide and an initial bright red dye is applied to the sample via heat or through a solvent. The dye is then rinsed off with an acid-alcohol solution; Mycoplasma cells retain the red dye after being washed, while Escherichia and Bacillus cells would take on a blue stain. If Mycoplasma is ruled out, a spore test can be carried out. The presence of spores found with this test would indicate the presence of Bacillus, while no spores would indicate that the final option, Escherichia, is the culprit. The spore test is carried out by applying malachite green along with the application of heat to the sputum, which kills the cells and forces them to accept the dye. Safranin is applied to color...

Words: 581 - Pages: 3