Premium Essay

Malaria Issue Report Exemplar

In: Science

Submitted By momomanutd
Words 4639
Pages 19
Why is malaria such a problem and how close are we to an effective vaccine for this deadly disease?
The problem.
It was well over 100 years ago that scientists discovered the cause of malaria as a single-cell parasite called plasmodium but, even today, this life-threatening parasitic disease represents one of the international community’s most pressing public health problems.
Malaria is endemic throughout the tropical regions of the world, causing more than 300 million acute illnesses and at least one million deaths each year1
. Children under the age of 5 are particularly prone to infection, and, as a direct result of their immature immunity to disease, make up a dramatic proportion of the deaths each year. In Africa alone (where 90% of all malariaattributed deaths occur) this disease is responsible for the death of one child in 20 before the age of 52. In fact, malaria is the world’s leading cause of childhood mortality, killing one child every 30 seconds3 . Pregnant women and their unborn children are also particularly vulnerable to the disease which contributes to anaemia, premature birth and low birth weight whilst foreign travellers, who have often not developed immunity, represent another high-risk group.4
Malaria is caused by a protozoan parasite,
Plasmodium. Four species of Plasmodium can cause the disease in humans: P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malarinae and P.falciparum, which is by far the most deadly. The disease is vector-borne and is transmitted from one person to another by the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito.
The Plasmodium parasite has a complex life cycle. Malaria infection begins when an infected female Anopheles mosquito bites a person, injecting Plasmodium parasites, in the form of sporozoites, into the bloodstream. The sporozoites pass quickly into the human liver where they reproduce rapidly, each producing tens...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Ib Case

...Master TEW International Business cases - Van Hoof Q 186 uickprinter Koningstraat 13 2000 Antwerpen www.quickprinter.be 2.90 EUR International Business: Cases Case 1: Whirlpool Whirlpool’s Dramatic Turnaround through Internationalization Whirlpool exemplifies how internationalization can rejuvenate declining sales and optimize cost structures. Background Headquartered in Benton Harbor, Michigan, Whirlpool Corporation makes washers, dryers, refrigerators, dishwashers, freezers, and microwave ovens in 13 countries and sells them in 170 others, under brands names such as Whirlpool, Maytag, Magic Chef, Jenn Air, Amana, KitchenAid, Kenmore, Brastemp, and Bauknecht. In 2006, Whirlpool acquired competitor Maytag (horizontal integration) and its brands (Amana, Jenn Air, Magic Chef, and Maytag). Whirlpool generated over $19 billion in 2006 annual sales: 60 percent from North America, 25 percent from Europe, 15 percent from Latin America, and 2 percent from Asia. Operate with 60 manufacturing and technology centers worldwide and 80,000 employees. International Expansion Domestically: (1) The U.S. appliance market matured in the 1990s, and Whirlpool faced low profit margins, intense competition, and more demanding buyers, pressuring management to consider international markets. Internationally: (1) Trade barriers fell, consumer affluence grew, and capitalism flourished. (2) A “global” approach would yield economies of scale in manufacturing, assembly, appliance......

Words: 7306 - Pages: 30

Free Essay

Religious Education

...lo io yB io g oCSEC B Biologyy og Bi ol gy lo yB io g lo io og B ol Bi y Caribbean Examinations Council ® SYLLABUS SPECIMEN PAPER MARK SCHEME SUBJECT REPORTS Macmillan Education 4 Crinan Street, London, N1 9XW A division of Macmillan Publishers Limited Companies and representatives throughout the world www.macmillan-caribbean.com ISBN 978-0-230-48203-6 © Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC ®) 2015 AER www.cxc.org www.cxc-store.com The author has asserted their right to be identified as the author of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988. First published 2014 This revised version published 2015 Permission to copy The material in this book is copyright. However, the publisher grants permission for copies to be made without fee. Individuals may make copies for their own use or for use by classes of which they are in charge; institutions may make copies for use within and by the staff and students of that institution. For copying in any other circumstances, prior permission in writing must be obtained from Macmillan Publishers Limited. Under no circumstances may the material in this book be used, in part or in its entirety, for commercial gain. It must not be sold in any format. Designed by Macmillan Publishers Limited Cover design by Macmillan Publishers Limited and Red Giraffe CSEC Biology Free Resources LIST OF CONTENTS CSEC Biology Syllabus Extract 3 CSEC Biology......

Words: 29406 - Pages: 118

Free Essay

A Business Essay

...WIDERhelsinki Chapters 1, 2 and 12 of August 2003 New Sources for Development Finance edited by A B Atkinson, Nuffield College, OXFORD Contents Chapter 1 Innovative Sources for Development Finance by A B Atkinson Over-Arching Issues By A B Atkinson Global Public Economics by J A Mirrlees National Taxation, Fiscal Federalism and Global Taxation by R Boadway* Environmental Taxation and Revenue for Development by A Sandmo* Revenue Potential of the Tobin Tax for Development Finance: A Critical Appraisal by M Nissanke* A Development-Focused Allocation of the Special Drawing Rights by E Aryeetey* The International Finance Facility Proposal by G Mavrotas* Private Donations for International Development by J Micklewright and A Wright* A Global Lottery and a Global Premium Bond by T Addison and A Chowdhury* Remittances by Emigrants: Issues and Evidence by A Solimano* The Way Forward by A B Atkinson Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 * These chapters are available on the WIDER website. Chapter 1 Innovative Sources for Development Finance 1 A B Atkinson, Nuffield College, Oxford Introduction 1 Innovative Sources to Meet a Global Challenge 2 New Development Finance: Innovative Sources 3 Origins of the Proposals 4 Political Economy 5 Criteria for Evaluation 6 Guide to the Contents of the Book Box 1 The Millennium Development Goals Box 2 Innovative Sources of Development Funding Considered Here...

Words: 20039 - Pages: 81

Premium Essay

Marketing to the Bottom of Pyramid

...Journal of Business Research 63 (2010) 559–569 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Business Research Marketing to subsistence consumers: Lessons from practice Kelly L. Weidner a,⁎, José Antonio Rosa b, Madhu Viswanathan c a b c University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Managerial Studies, 601 S. Morgan Street (MC 243), Chicago, IL 60607, United States University of Wyoming, Department of Management and Marketing, Dept. 3275, 1000 E. University Ave., Laramie, WY 82071, United States University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 61 Wohlers Hall, 1206 South Sixth Street, Champaign, IL 61820, United States article info Article history: Accepted 1 February 2009 Keywords: Subsistence marketplaces Subsistence consumers Bottom of the pyramid abstract Over 4 billion people live in what is commonly referred to as the “bottom of the pyramid” or as subsistence marketplaces. These individuals and families live in substandard housing, with limited or no access to sanitation, potable water, and health care, have low levels of literacy, and earn very low incomes. Scholars and practitioners alike suggest that the problems existing in subsistence marketplaces demand the attention and involvement of responsible businesses and that doing business with consumers in such marketplaces can be both socially responsible and profitable. This research explores the strategies and tactics currently being used across commercial and social......

Words: 10813 - Pages: 44

Premium Essay

Ib Biology Guide

...Biology guide First assessment 2016 Biology guide First assessment 2016 Diploma Programme Biology guide Published February 2014 Published on behalf of the International Baccalaureate Organization, a not-for-profit educational foundation of 15 Route des Morillons, 1218 Le Grand-Saconnex, Geneva, Switzerland by the International Baccalaureate Organization (UK) Ltd Peterson House, Malthouse Avenue, Cardiff Gate Cardiff, Wales CF23 8GL United Kingdom Website: www.ibo.org © International Baccalaureate Organization 2014 The International Baccalaureate Organization (known as the IB) offers four high-quality and challenging educational programmes for a worldwide community of schools, aiming to create a better, more peaceful world. This publication is one of a range of materials produced to support these programmes. The IB may use a variety of sources in its work and checks information to verify accuracy and authenticity, particularly when using community-based knowledge sources such as Wikipedia. The IB respects the principles of intellectual property and makes strenuous efforts to identify and obtain permission before publication from rights holders of all copyright material used. The IB is grateful for permissions received for material used in this publication and will be pleased to correct any errors or omissions at the earliest opportunity. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or......

Words: 43724 - Pages: 175

Free Essay

Fallacies of Development

...AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT: THE IMPERATIVES OF INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND VALUES by MARTIN ODEI AJEI submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in the subject PHILOSOPHY at the UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA PROMOTER: PROFESSOR M. B. RAMOSE AUGUST 2007 Contents Declaration Acknowledgement List of Acronyms Key terms Summary vi vii viii x xi INTRODUCTION: DEVELOPMENT AND PHILOSOPHY i. Statement of the Problem ii. Against Economism iii. Critique of Competition iv. Poverty is Unnatural v. Thesis Statement vi. Methodology vii. Structure of Dissertation 1 1 1 5 6 9 10 15 CHAPTER ONE: DIMENSIONS OF DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON AFRICA 1.1. What is Development 1.2. Development and Economic Growth 1.3. Schools of Development Thought and their Influence in Africa 1.3.1. The Modernization School and its Essential Claims 1.3.1.1. Growth Theory under Economic Liberalism 1.3.1.2. Evolutionary Theory 1.3.1.3. Functionalist Theory 1.3.1.4. Common Assumptions and Methodology 1.3.1.5 The Influence of Modernization on Development Practice in Africa 1.3.1.6. Critique of Modernization 1.3.2 Dependency Theory and its Essential Claims 21 21 25 27 27 28 29 30 32 34 36 39 i 1.3.3. The Theoretical Heritage of Dependency Theory 1.3.3.1. Structuralist Economics and the ‘Prebisch Thesis’ 1.3.3.2. Marxism 1.3.4. Common Assumptions of Dependency Theory 1.3.5. Criticisms of Dependency Theory 1.3.6. The Influence of Dependency Theory on African Development......

Words: 90729 - Pages: 363

Premium Essay

Internet and Business

...issued without formal editing. ii PREFACE The role of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in national competitiveness and development, as well as in generating jobs and revenues for countless citizens, is well documented. Their meaningful and useful access to Information and Communications Technologies (ICT), particularly the Internet, will significantly enhance this critical role and will drive demand for and innovation in the ICT sector even more. This set of training modules was therefore developed to serve as a policymaking reference on Internet Use for Business Development, principally for middle- to senior-level Internet policy makers and implementers of public policy issues of Internet governance. More particularly, it is intended as an introductory guide to the various issues and legislative/policy options that developing countries should consider as they put into place the policies and...

Words: 27227 - Pages: 109

Free Essay

Ombusman

...Based in Manila, ADB is owned by 67 members, including 48 from the region. Its main instruments for helping its developing member countries are policy dialogue, loans, equity investments, guarantees, grants, and technical assistance. Strengthening the Ombudsman Institution in Asia Accountability is essential for good governance, and in many Asian countries the ombudsman is the key accountability institution. Originating in the West, the concept of the ombudsman arrived relatively late in Asia. Yet more and more ombudsman offices are being established in Asia, and they play a critical role in the fight against incompetence and injustice on the part of government officials. This report presents in-depth research on Asian ombudsmen, with a focus on best practices and emerging issues, especially in the context of the new public management, and includes recommendations to policy makers. It will be a valuable resource for scholars, ombudsmen, and anyone else interested in this vital institution. Strengthening the Ombudsman Institution in Asia Improving Accountability in Public Service Delivery through the Ombudsman PUBLIC MANAGEMENT, FINANCIAL SECTOR, AND TRADE / 2011 Asian...

Words: 148083 - Pages: 593

Premium Essay

Student

...This page intentionally left blank Lut12575_fm_i-xxvi.indd Page i 2/10/11 2:28 PM user-f494 /203/MHBR222/Lut12575_disk1of1/0078112575/Lut12575_pagefiles International Management Culture, Strategy, and Behavior Eighth Edition Fred Luthans University of Nebraska–Lincoln Jonathan P. Doh Villanova University Lut12575_fm_i-xxvi.indd Page ii 2/11/11 2:35 PM user-f494 /203/MHBR222/Lut12575_disk1of1/0078112575/Lut12575_pagefiles INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT: CULTURE, STRATEGY, AND BEHAVIOR, EIGHTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Previous editions © 2009, 2006, and 2003. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. This book is printed on recycled, acid-free paper containing 10% postconsumer waste. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 QDB/QDB 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 978-0-07-811257-7 MHID 0-07-811257-5 Vice President & Editor-in-Chief: Brent Gordon Vice President, EDP/Central......

Words: 69321 - Pages: 278

Free Essay

Globalisation

...Critical Theories of Globalization Chamsy el-Ojeili and Patrick Hayden Critical Theories of Globalization Also by Chamsy el-Ojeili CONFRONTING GLOBALIZATION: Humanity, Justice and the Renewal of Politics FROM LEFT COMMUNISM TO POSTMODERNISM: Reconsidering Emancipatory Discourse Also by Patrick Hayden AMERICA’S WAR ON TERROR CONFRONTING GLOBALIZATION: Humanity, Justice and the Renewal of Politics COSMOPOLITAN GLOBAL POLITICS JOHN RAWLS: Towards a Just World Order THE PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN RIGHTS Critical Theories of Globalization Chamsy el-Ojeili Department of Sociology, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand Patrick Hayden School of International Relations, University of St Andrews, UK © Patrick Hayden and Chamsy el-Ojeili 2006 All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP. Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The authors have asserted their rights to be identified as the authors of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents...

Words: 100030 - Pages: 401

Premium Essay

Integrated Marketing Communications

...Advertising, Promotion, and other aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications Terence A. Shimp University of South Carolina Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States Advertising, Promotion, & Other Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications, 8e Terence A. Shimp Vice President of Editorial, Business: Jack W. Calhoun Vice President/Editor-in-Chief: Melissa S. Acuna Acquisitions Editor: Mike Roche Sr. Developmental Editor: Susanna C. Smart Marketing Manager: Mike Aliscad Content Project Manager: Corey Geissler Media Editor: John Rich Production Technology Analyst: Emily Gross Frontlist Buyer, Manufacturing: Diane Gibbons Production Service: PrePressPMG Sr. Art Director: Stacy Shirley Internal Designer: Chris Miller/cmiller design Cover Designer: Chris Miller/cmiller design Cover Image: Getty Images/The Image Bank Permission Aquistion Manager/Photo: Deanna Ettinger Permission Aquistion Manager/Text: Mardell Glinski Schultz © 2010, 2007 South-Western, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution, information storage and retrieval systems, or in any other manner—except as may be permitted by the license terms herein. For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer......

Words: 219845 - Pages: 880

Free Essay

Spa & Wellness Industry

...http://www.nckvietnam.com Understanding the Global Spa Industry http://www.nckvietnam.com This page intentionally left blank http://www.nckvietnam.com Understanding the Global Spa Industry: Spa Management Marc Cohen and Gerard Bodeker AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON • NEWYORK • OXFORD • PARIS • SAN DIEGO • SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier http://www.nckvietnam.com Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA01803, USA First edition 2008 Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone ( 44) (0) 1865 843830; fax ( 44) (0) 1865 853333; email: permissions@elsevier.com. Alternatively you can submit your request online by visiting the Elsevier web site at http:/ /elsevier.com/locate/permissions, and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material Notice No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any...

Words: 153860 - Pages: 616

Premium Essay

The Social

...animal Books by Elliot Aronson Theories of Cognitive Consistency (with R. Abelson et al.), 1968 Voices of Modern Psychology, 1969 The Social Animal, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1995, 1999, 2004; (with J. Aronson), 2008 Readings About the Social Animal, 1973, 1977, 1981, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1995, 1999, 2004; (with J. Aronson), 2008 Social Psychology (with R. Helmreich), 1973 Research Methods in Social Psychology (with J. M. Carlsmith & P. Ellsworth), 1976 The Jigsaw Classroom (with C. Stephan et al.), 1978 Burnout: From Tedium to Personal Growth (with A. Pines & D. Kafry), 1981 Energy Use: The Human Dimension (with P. C. Stern), 1984 The Handbook of Social Psychology (with G. Lindzey), 3rd ed., 1985 Career Burnout (with A. Pines), 1988 Methods of Research in Social Psychology (with P. Ellsworth, J. M. Carlsmith, & M. H. Gonzales), 1990 Age of Propaganda (with A. R. Pratkanis), 1992, 2000 Social Psychology, Vols. 1–3 (with A. R. Pratkanis), 1992 Social Psychology: The Heart and the Mind (with T. D. Wilson & R. M. Akert), 1994 Cooperation in the Classroom: The Jigsaw Method (with S. Patnoe), 1997 Nobody Left to Hate: Teaching Compassion After Columbine, 2000 Social Psychology: An Introduction (with T. D. Wilson & R. M. Akert), 2002, 2005, 2007 The Adventures of Ruthie and a Little Boy Named Grandpa (with R. Aronson), 2006 Mistakes Were Made (But Not By Me) (with C. Tavris), 2007 Books by Joshua Aronson Improving Academic Achievement, 2002 The Social Animal To...

Words: 208005 - Pages: 833

Free Essay

Gre Vocabulary 3000

...Made By Jason & Franklin. This Document Is Strictly Prohibited For Commercial Purposes Without Authorization. List 1 GRE Verbal 750 Quantitative 800, AW 5.5 2008 10 Princeton, MIT, M. Fin Unit 1 ABANDON A B D I C AT E ABASE ABERRANT ABASH ABET A B AT E A B E YA N C E A B B R E V I AT E ABHOR abandon [ 1 n. ] carefree, freedom from constraint added spices to the stew with complete abandon unconstraint, uninhibitedness, unrestraint 2 v. to give (oneself) over unrestrainedly abandon herself to a life of complete idleness abandon oneself to emotion indulge, surrender, give up 3 v. to withdraw from often in the face of danger or encroachment abandon the ship/homes salvage 4 v. to put an end to (something planned or previously agreed to) NASA the bad weather forced NASA to abandon the launch abort, drop, repeal, rescind, revoke, call off keep, continue, maintain, carry on abase [ 1 v. ] to lower in rank, office, prestige, or esteem was unwilling to abase himself by pleading guilty to a crime that he did not commit debauch, degrade, profane, vitiate, discredit, foul, smirch, take down elevate, ennoble, uplift, aggrandize, canonize, deify, exalt abash [ 1 vt. ] to destroy the self-possession or self-confidence of ,disconcert, embarrass Nothing could abash him. discomfit, disconcert, discountenance, faze, fluster, nonplus, mortify embolden abate [ 1 v. ] to reduce in degree or intensity / abate his rage/pain taper off intensify 2......

Words: 139628 - Pages: 559

Premium Essay

Gre Book Words

...Download GRE Big Book Word List GRE Big Book Word List abase v. To lower in position, estimation, or the like; degrade. abbess n. The lady superior of a nunnery. abbey n. The group of buildings which collectively form the dwelling-place of a society of monks or nuns. abbot n. The superior of a community of monks. abdicate v. To give up (royal power or the like). abdomen n. In mammals, the visceral cavity between the diaphragm and the pelvic floor; the belly. abdominal n. Of, pertaining to, or situated on the abdomen. abduction n. A carrying away of a person against his will, or illegally. abed adv. In bed; on a bed. aberration n. Deviation from a right, customary, or prescribed course. abet v. To aid, promote, or encourage the commission of (an offense). abeyance n. A state of suspension or temporary inaction. abhorrence n. The act of detesting extremely. abhorrent adj. Very repugnant; hateful. abidance n. An abiding. abject adj. Sunk to a low condition. abjure v. To recant, renounce, repudiate under oath. able-bodied adj. Competent for physical service. ablution n. A washing or cleansing, especially of the body. abnegate v. To renounce (a right or privilege). abnormal adj. Not conformed to the ordinary rule or standard. abominable adj. Very hateful. abominate v. To hate violently. abomination n. A very detestable act or practice. aboriginal adj. Primitive; unsophisticated. aborigines n. The original of earliest known inhabitants of a......

Words: 46293 - Pages: 186