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Malay Ethnic

In: Historical Events

Submitted By hafiz7
Words 951
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Malaysia ialah sebuah negara berbilang kaum yang hidup dalam keadaan aman dan damai. Tiga kaum yang utama di Malaysia ialah Melayu, Cina dan India. Melayu merupakan kaum terbesar dengan membentuk 54% daripada populasi Malaysia. Melayu adalah satu kaum yang beragama Islam, berbahasa Melayu dan mengamalkan budaya Melayu. Kaum Melayu mempunyai pengaruh yang penting dalam arena politik di Malaysia. Cina pula mewakili 25% daripada penduduk Malaysia dan tinggal di bandar-bandar besar di pantai barat semenanjung. Kebanyakan kaum Cina beragama Buddha, Taoisme atau Kristian, berbahasa Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Kantonis atau Teochew dan lebih dominan dalam bidang ekonomi. India pula membentuk 7.5% daripada populasi. Kebanyakannya beragama Hindu, bertutur Tamil, Malayalam, dan Hindi. Selain itu, terdapat juga kaum Sikh, Serani atau Eurasian dan kaum bumiputera lain. Bahasa Melayu ialah bahasa rasmi Malaysia, tetapi Bahasa Inggeris digunakan secara meluas.
Kaum Bumiputera yang terbesar di Sarawak ialah Iban dengan 600,000 orang. Mereka tinggal di rumah panjang, dan menetap di sepanjang Sungai Rajang dan Sungai Lupar. Orang Bidayuh pula seramai 170,000 oarng tinggal di barat daya Sarawak. Orang Asli (140,000) tinggal di Semenanjung Malaysia. Dahulunya mereka merupakan pengumpul hasil hutan, hidup berpindah-randah, dan bercucuk tanam, tetapi kini sudah diserap ke dalam kehidupan moden Malaysia. Walaubagaimanapun, mereka kekal sebagai kumpulan etnik yang mempunyai pendapatan terendah berbanding kumpulan etnik yang lain. Kemungkinannya ini disebabkan sistem ekonomi mereka yang tidak bergantung kepada wang tunai, contohnya makanan dan rumah sebahagiannya dihasilkan dari keluaran hutan tanpa perlu dibeli. Bagaimanapun pihak kerajaan menawarkan peluang pelajaran yang samarata dan ada di antara mereka kini menjawat jawatan profesional seperti doktor.
Muzik Malaysia merangkumi muzik tradisional dan kontemporari yang dimainkan oleh rakyat Malaysia. Muzik tradisional banyak dipengaruhi oleh budaya Cina, Islam, India dan Indonesia. Kebanyakan alat muzik terdiri daripada gendang, seruling, gong dan sebagainya. Negara ini mempunyai tradisi yang kuat dalam tarian, sesetengahnya berasal daripada Thai, India, dan Portugis. Selain itu, ada juga wayang kulit, silat, dan barangan kraf seperti batik, sulaman, dan barangan perak dan tembaga.

Malaysia juga terdiri dari 13 buah negeri dan tiga Wilayah Persekutuan; sembilan dari negeri-negeri di Semenanjung Malaysia adalah dibawah pemerintahan Raja-Raja Melayu (Sultan). Pemerintahan Raja Berperlembagaan diketuai oleh Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong yang dilantik di antara sembilan orang Raja-Raja Melayu mengikut susunan setiap lima tahun.
Malaysia mengamalkan Sistem Demokrasi Berparlimen yang diselenggarakan oleh Jemaah Menteri diketuai oleh Perdana Menteri. Pilihan raya Umum diadakan setiap lima tahun sekali. Parti yang memerintah sekarang, Parti Barisan Nasional (National Front) merupakan parti campuran terdiri dari beberapa parti politik yang mewakili berbagai kumpulan etnik.

Ibu Negara
Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur adalah ibu negara Malaysia. la ditubuhkan pada 1857 sebagai penempatan pedagang bijih timah Cina di muara Sungai Gombak dan Sungai Kelang. Kuala Lumpur sebuah Bandar Raya Bercahaya mempunyai penduduk anggaran 1.5 juta. Pembangunan bandar raya ini terus berkembang pesat dengan bangunan pencakar langit dan salah sebuah bangunan tertinggi di dunia ialah Menara Berkembar Petronas. Terletak 25 km ke selatan Kuala Lumpur ialah Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya yang merupakan Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan. Manakala, mata wang Malaysia dikenali sebagai Ringgit Malaysia (RM). RM1 mengandungi 100 sen.

Sosio-Budaya
Penduduk Malaysia terdiri dari pelbagai bangsa. Jumlah penduduk anggaran tahun 2003 ialah 25.04 juta, yang terdiri dari kaum Melayu 61%, kaum Cina 30%, kaum India 8% dan yang lain-lain 1%. Terdapat juga orang Asli, Eropah dan Serani. Malaysia sebuah negara yang penduduknya terdiri dari pelbagai kebudayaan. Kebudayaan Kebangsaan Malaysia adalah berasaskan kebudayaan orang-orang Melayu sebagai rakyat asal rantau ini. Kebudayaan Melayu itu sendiri berteraskan ajaran agama Islam. Kebudayaan orang Melayu mengutamakan nilai-nilai sopan-santun, kesederhanaan, keindahan dan keharmonian hidup antara ahli-ahli keluarga, jiran tetangga dan masyarakat. Sikap tolak ansur antara kaum juga menjadi pegangan. Semua bentuk kebudayaan serta agama-agama lain adalah sentiasa dihormati. Sambutan hari-hari perayaan seperti Hari Raya, Tahun Baru Cina, Thaipusam, Krismas, Gawai dan lain-lain dianggap sebagai perayaan penting.

Agama
Malaysia terdiri dari penduduknya yang berbagai keturunan dan menganuti berbagai agama, khususnya agama Islam, Buddha, Hindu, Tao dan Nasrani (Kristian), di samping lain-lain sistem kepercayaan yang diamalkan oleh berbagai kumpulan etnik yang terdapat di negara ini. Di bawah Perlembagaan Persekutuan, Islam adalah agama rasmi di Malaysia, sementara agama-agama lain boleh diamalkan dengan aman dan bebas.

Bahasa Rasmi
Bahasa rasmi yang digunakan di negara ini ialah Bahasa Malaysia (Bahasa Melayu) namun, bahasa-bahasa berbagai kaum dan suku kaum yang lain adalah bebas digunakan seperti bahasa Cina dan Tamil. Bahasa Inggeris merupakan bahasa kedua dan digunakan dengan meluasnya di bidang-bidang perdagangan dan perindustrian. Kerajaan juga telah menggalakkan pekerja hotel dan ahli-ahli perniagaan yang berkaitan dengan sektor pelancongan dan perhotelan supaya mempelajari lain-lain bahasa antarabangsa.

Festival Dan Perayaan
Masyarakat majmuk menjadikan kebudayaan negara ini lebih berwarna-warni. Penduduknya yang berbilang kaum menyambut pelbagai perayaan sepanjang tahun. Di negara ini, musim perayaan adalah masa untuk bergembira dan menjalin persahabatan serta muhibah antara kaum. Setiap kali perayaan, semua rakyat tanpa mengira keturunan, turut serta memeriahkan suasana dengan kunjung-mengunjungi antara satu sama lain. Oleh itu, upacara 'rumah terbuka' adalah satu suasana yang tidak asing lagi di hari-hari perayaan.

Islam
Bagi umat Islam, tiga perayaan utama diraikan, iaitu Hari Raya Puasa (Aidilfitri), Hari Raya Haji (Aidiladha) dan Maulidul Rasul. Hari Raya Puasa diraikan bagi menandakan berakhirnya sebulan berpuasa pada bulan Ramadan. Hari Raya Haji (Aidiladha) dirayakan pada hari ke-10 bulan Zulhijjah (bulan Islam) ketika umat Islam yang mengerjakan ibadat Haji di Mekah berada di peringkat akhir ibadah mereka. Pada pagi hari tersebut umat Islam menunaikan sembahyang Hari Raya Aidiladha di masjid-masjid. Mereka yang berkemampuan akan mengerjakan ibadat korban. Perayaan Maulidur Rasul pada bulan Rabiulawal, dirayakan bagi memperingati perjuangan Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. Acara-acara seperti perhimpunan, syarahan dan bacaan berzanji biasanya diadakan.

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