Premium Essay

Male vs. Female Leaders

In: Business and Management

Submitted By username1111
Words 1640
Pages 7
What substantive differences exist between the performance of male and female leaders? What perceived differences exist between the performance of male and female leaders? What do the answers to these questions mean for females that aspire to leadership positions?

Substantive Differences

A fair amount of research has explored sex differences in business leadership. Although mostly survey research, a number of themes appear consistently, suggesting that there are some substantive differences between men and women with regard to leadership performance. For example, with regard to global leadership, research by Javidan et al. (2016) suggest that women demonstrate stronger leadership self-efficacy (the importance of which is iterated by Locke & Latham, 2002; Hannah et al., 2008; Lester et al., 2011; Luthans & Peterson, 2002; Paglis & Green, 2002) profiles in regard to passion for diversity, intercultural diversity and diplomacy, while men tend to show strong leadership self-efficacies regarding global business savvy, cosmopolitan outlook and interpersonal impact.

Women tend to behave more ethically than do men, and also tend to be more personable (Anonymous, 2013; Stedham et al., 2007). An article by Gannon (2012) discusses research showing that women leaders are judged as more supportive and rewarding, whereas men are judged to be better at such behaviors as delegating and managing up. Other research is described in the Gannon (2012) article,* suggesting that women leaders demonstrate higher levels of compassion and team-building skills. In addition, women leaders are also rated to be more persuasive and assertive. Still other research has shown that more women than men asked their bosses for new challenges at work. Women may also be willing to work longer hours than their male counterparts.

Men may be more willing to “wing it” and convey confidence even...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Male vs Female Leader

...“Female vs. Male Leaders” What makes a good leader? Toughness, authority, drive, and determination? A lot of people would naturally serve up these attributes as being those of a good leader. Think about from where our habits and ideas on leadership originated. Most likely in the military, perhaps from Roman times, or even further back, Greek orators, European royalty. With the exception of some Queens at the helm, for the most part leadership through the ages has been male driven, top down hierarchical and authoritarian. More advanced military systems require discipline, control and following orders without questions. In the battle of the sexes, I observed and believe that women are better leaders than men. For recent studies show that women have certain characteristics that make them better leaders--though men still hold the majority of these positions. In the world of small business, there are more men than women bosses. However, two recent studies show that women may make for better leaders. According to a survey conducted by Chris Bart, professor of strategic management at the DeGroote School of Business at McMaster University, and Gregory McQueen, a McMaster graduate and senior executive associate dean at Still University’s School of Osteopathic Medicine, women actually run better performing businesses than men. Zeneger Folkman, a company that studies leadership, found that women rated higher than men on 12 out of 16 attributes tested. After analyzing 7,280 of their...

Words: 648 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Difference Between Male and Female Leadership Styles

...Difference between Male and Female Leadership Styles Abstract Leadership styles differences in men and women have been attributed to upbringing, gender, environment, and development. Women were determined to have faster brain development than men. Societal norms suggested being raised differently because of gender caused differences in leadership styles. Some studies concluded innate traits cause males to be more aggressive versus a female’s nurturing nature. Still, others claim environmental factors, more specifically a male dominated workplace, are responsible for the difference in how male and females’ leader. The issue is many women are not reaching the upper levels of management based on the perceived notions mentioned above. Is there one specific reason that causes the difference between male and female leadership styles? Is there one determining (controlled) factor to bring the two leadership styles to conformity? During the research process the causes of leadership style differences were explored in detail by the use of questionnaires, surveys, and interviews to ascertain what workers, at all levels, in the business community perceived to be the determining factor. Overall, these findings propose psychological or physiological differences in males and females as the cause of different styles when using uncontrolled factors. My choice of a methodological perspective as a qualitative research method, to include the use of surveys, questionnaires, and a......

Words: 3699 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Deciphering Leadership Styles Based on Gender

...roles that are placed on us by society affect our leadership styles and how we view the leaders in our lives. How many times have you stereotyped a person as a natural leader, or decided a certain individual didn’t know anything about leadership? Most of us do this naturally, without even considering the reasons behind it. The focus of this paper is to explain how gender affects our leadership styles and the variety of pieces that make this topic a complicated puzzle. It is obvious that in our society men are viewed as more equipped and capable leaders. This is mostly because men are perceived as the dominant sex in America. Male leaders are expected to be autocratic. Many people view this as a baseline when considering leadership styles. After all, who wants a leader who can’t make decisions? Male leaders are often defined as strong, arrogant, intelligent, ego-driven, bravado, powerful, dominant, assertive, focused, competitive, stubborn, physical, self-righteous, and direct (Cummings, 2005). Because of these adjectives that are stereotypically placed on male leaders, many tend to veer toward men when choosing an appropriate leader. Men have been viewed in the same manner for centuries, and the societal norms tend to be much less judgmental on male leaders. Even though many may perceive men as having a distinct leadership style, there is no denying that the number of women leaders has grown by leaps and bounds in the 21st century. Due to the third wave of the......

Words: 1172 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Annontated Bibliography

...Female Leaders vs Male Leaders Female Leaders versus Male Leaders in Executive Administration- Annotated Bibliography University of Phoenix Annotated Bibliography Birch, E.S. (2013). The Underrepresentation of Women Executive in the United States Defense Industry: A Phenomenological Study. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertation & Theses database. (UMI No. 3572921) The study examines the theory that women in the United States are underrepresented at senior levels in organizations despite their qualifying education and experience. Women are better educated, better qualified, and have more work skills for senior positions. In the late 20th century, women experienced more problems in being advanced than men. Women progressing in their career remain a struggle for upper administration as a result of male-dominated industries, according to Birch. Schulz, D. (2014). The Female Executive’s Perspective on Experience with Career Planning and Advancing in Organizations. The Exchange, 3(1), 57-67. In the study, Schulz details that gender roles continue to play a role in the discrepancy at executive levels. Schulz designed a study to investigate the independence of female executives with career planning and advancement in organizations. Schulz recommendation was to create and maintain a level playing field for men and women who desire advancement to executive level organizations. Brown, S.M. (1979). Male Versus Female......

Words: 366 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Workplace Change and the Impact That Transformational Leaders Have on Their Employees

...Executive Summary This assignment seeks to present, analyse, discuss and critically evaluate the prevalence and the degree of the relationship between transformational leadership and its effect on the employee’s positive self-esteem and organisational commitment. The presentation of the most important observations and insights in this report are based on the information gathered from a questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered and completed by the chosen work group of employees constituting a sample of ninety three individuals. As prior research and analysis in this field was limited to a generic employee group it was decided to further contribute to this field by investigating the differences in responses between male and female respondents. A literature review was conducted to assess and present the relationship between transformational leadership and the effect on employee’s self-esteem and organisational commitment. The impact of transformational leadership on the sample group has been assessed through statistical analyses of the extracted data (from the survey). The interaction between the following constructs were investigated: * Transformational leadership on positive self-esteem Results determined a poor correlation * Transformational leadership on organisational commitment Results found a marginal impact * Positive self-esteem on organisational commitment Results found a medium correlation * Transformational leadership on......

Words: 5768 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Gender in Busisness

...| Final Paper | BMGT 312 Gender in Business | | Antoinette | 12/14/2012 | | A friend of mine was promoted to a managerial position. He assumed the position from a woman of foreign background that allowed her representatives(both male and female) to skip pass their immediate supervisors and come directly to her with any office or personal problems, from office grievances to attendance issues. Instead of “six degrees of separation” she also would invite these employees over for dinner and drinks. This relationship has continued on to her new position, whereas, whenever the representatives are in disagreement with his style of management they tend to confront her with it to insure that their wants/needs are addressed accordingly. Although he and the former manager are on amicable terms, he had to assert himself to his subordinates to make them understand his position and his policies. Communication Hearing Robert talk about the issues he was having with the staff, I reminded him to remember when he encountered a new boss who was trying to make a name for himself and how their initial reactions were - probably don’t bother me with trivial issues - and you felt that you were not getting anywhere, so you revert back to what/who you know. Communicating to your staff with what your expectations are and what’s acceptable and what’s not is one step to correcting the problem. He needed to communicate to his assistant manager’s to what their roles are and how to...

Words: 2002 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Geneeral Management

...organization. Symbols /logos these include power distance index refers to the differences in the work culture as per the power delegated to the employees. There are some organizations which believe in appointing team leaders or team managers who are responsible for their respective teams and have the challenge of extracting the best out of the members. The team members also have to respect their team leaders and work as per their orders and advice. However in some organizations; every employee is accountable for his own performance. No special person is assigned to take charge of the employees. The individuals are answerable to none except for themselves. Every employee gets an equal treatment from the management and has to take ownership of his /her own work. Masculinity vs. Feminity This refers to the effect of differences in male and female values on the culture of the organization. Organizations where male employees dominate their female counterparts will follow different policies as compared to organizations where females have a major say in the decision making process of the organization. Male employees would be more aggressive as compared to the females who would be more caring and softhearted. The responsibilities also vary as per the sex of the employees. The female employees are never assigned something which requires late sittings or frequent travelling. Individualism There are some organizations which strongly rely on team work. Here individuals with a......

Words: 528 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Role of Gender in Conflict Resolution

...Leadership The value of effective conflict resolution and leadership skills cannot be understated. As more and more women are moving into decision-making positions, the issue of whether there are gender differences in the ability to manage conflict and to lead effectively has become an important concern. This literature review examines 14 studies that address the role of gender in conflict resolution and leadership. Studies from areas of conflict resolution, negotiation, and leadership are included. Evidence is provided that while women and men are, in fact different from one another, neither outperforms the other in all situations. In fact, while some researchers claim a male advantage in a male-oriented world, others assert a feminine advantage for 21st century leaders. Implications for women leaders are included. Conventional wisdom says that conflict management skills are important if individuals are to function effectively at any level within an organization. They are a particularly important part of effective leadership. As more and more women are moving into decision-making positions, the issue of whether there are gender differences in the ability to use conflict management skills to lead effectively has become an important concern. In fact, some researchers have expressed skepticism about women’s abilities to fit in to the masculine managerial world. As far back as 1979, Powell and Butterfield found that the “good manager” was described in masculine terms......

Words: 4709 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Psychology Design

...Research Design Coursework Hypothesis It is hypothesised that solitary males or females within a group comprising members of the opposite sex will develop stronger gender self-categorisations than will majority males or females, following a co-operative gender-neutral group task. When groups comprise unequal proportions of socially-salient categories (e.g., gender and race), group processes are affected, with the behaviour and self-identities of minority members shifting towards their expected stereotype via a process of role entrapment (Johnson & Schulman, 1989). These behavioural changes become more pronounced with decreasing numerical status and where the token/minority member is normally disadvantaged or subordinated (Saenz, 1994). One explanation suggests that individuals who participate in activities where their social-group membership is made explicit are likely to depersonalise and thereafter self-categorise at the group-stereotype level (Turner et al., 1987). However, existing research on group composition has typically used quasi-competitive activities. This may account for the shift in self-categorisation, especially when there are current, historical or perceived inequalities in the status of group-members, resulting, for example, from race or gender. The current study, then, uses a co-operative group task to investigate the impact of being a single or majority-member of a group on gender self-categorisation. Experimental Design A......

Words: 1699 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Gender Stereotyping

...1. Sean Lang 2. MKT 115 –Sec 770 3. April 27, 2014 4. Gender Stereotyping in Advertisements 5. 1550 6. I am highly motivated, and I am committed to excellence. Advertising Gender Stereotypes Gender Stereotyping in advertisements happen all around us. Whether it is a commercial, billboard or a magazine, advertisements are everywhere. Gender stereotypes happen at an early age that includes children. Children’s advertisements implant the very gender roles that are portrayed in today’s society. Creating specific gender products is also creating large profits for companies. When first thinking of gender stereotyping in advertisements one might think of the negative aspect first and not realize that there are positive ways to advertise to specific genders for purchasing products. By using these gender specific advertisements, companies can sell products more efficiently. Advertising to children at an early age can play a significant role in shaping the expected role for him/her in today’s society. There are many examples that can clearly outline gender stereotyping. In many instances someone might not catch it because it is so normal in today’s culture. Monica Brasted is a psychologist and observed her child when the two of them went to McDonalds one day. Monica’s little girl was upset because she didn’t get the toy she wanted. “When I asked her what was wrong she asked why the woman had given her a care bear when she wanted a transformer” (Brasted). This then brought...

Words: 1642 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Decoy Effect

...2014   Teun Roks (360676) Jessica Pfeiffer (416452) Florine Van Den Biggelaar (333587) Babette Oostveen (333036)           [RESEARCH REPORT] Can the decoy effect influence consumers to make healthier decisions? Research Report 2014 Table of Contents Abstract ................................................................................................... 3 Introduction .............................................................................................. 4 Theoretical framework ................................................................................ 6 The decoy effect ..................................................................................... 6 Practical example .................................................................................... 7 The decoy effect in health decisions........................................................... 8 Methodology ............................................................................................10 Description and design experiment ...........................................................10 Procedure of the experiment and the survey ..............................................11 Results ....................................................................................................13 General information ...............................................................................13 Effect of manipulation ...........................................

Words: 6061 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Theo

...Or a deacon? In light of the debate of egalitarianism vs. complementarianism, we will take a look at what the bible says biblically. Equalitarianism is the right of all men and women to have the same rights and responsibilities and complementarianism holds the view that only men should have such pristine positions. What does the bible say? The Old Testament law makes it very clear that women have no place in authority. The men served as the master of their household. The topic of women serving in ministry is of much debate – even in today’s culture. My belief as a reborn again Christian is that Jesus came to break the barrier between men and women and that we are all equal in the body of Christ. Galatians 3:28 backs up my belief by stating, “There is no longer Jew or Gentile, slave or free, male and female. For you are all one in Christ Jesus.” Also, the church I am part of, Assemblies of God teaches that women can have a role in ministry. The term “deacon” and “elder” are New Testament terms and came forth after the church established in Antioch. The definition of an elder is someone who is highly esteemed within the church. An elder is a spiritual leader. A pastor, church leader or overseer. The position of elder should not be taken lightly. James 3:1 says, “Dear brothers and sisters, not many of you should become teachers on the church, for we who teach will be judge more strictly.” (NLT) Leaders need to be careful of how they are living and how they...

Words: 790 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Money Talks … to Online Opinion Leaders: What Motivates Opinion Leaders to Make Social-Network Referrals?

...Money Talks … to Online Opinion Leaders What Motivates Opinion Leaders To Make Social-Network Referrals? MENGZE SHI Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto mshi@rotman.utoronto.ca ANDREA C. WOJNICKI Independent marketing consultant Andrea.Wojnicki@ gmail.com This study investigated the effectiveness of intrinsic versus extrinsic motivations for consumers’ online social-network referrals, specifically across “opinion leaders” and “non–opinion leaders.” The authors utilized a unique dataset that matched a survey with an online field experiment. The empirical results indicated “money talks”—that is, online referral rates were higher when extrinsic rewards were conferred. Notably, the effect of an extrinsic reward was significantly stronger among opinion leaders. In this paper, the authors highlight the significance of reputational concerns and referral motivations in this context. Opinion leaders may have developed a reputation of intrinsically motivated referrals across their social networks, shielding them from potential loss of social capital associated with extrinsic rewards. INTRODUCTION Given the commercially and academically documented impact of social networks in the marketplace, many marketers seek to harness the power of consumer referrals or word of mouth (WOM), whether it be online through social media (Kaiser, Kröckel, and Bodendorf, 2013) or offline. In the quest to inspire consumers to talk, some marketers offer rewards (i.e., discounts or gift......

Words: 6938 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Cultural Competency

...diversity in business our classroom was comprised of eight students that resembled just that. The differences were visibly apparent to everyone immediately. We represented more than 5 countries and spanned multiple continents. The three Americans in the classroom were cross sections of American culture; an African American female working in the private sector, a Caucasian American female working in the government sector, and a Caucasian American male working in the non-profit sector. The next seven weeks showed promise for revealing and stimulating conversation that centered on our individual perspectives and approaches in life and business each one of us equally contributing our narrow perspective of the world. All sharing our ideas, our ideals, and our idiosyncrasies. The first day immediately revealed how much I did not know about other cultures. I was very unaware of the breadth of differences across the globe. This paper will focus on several concepts and theories discussed in class, our textbook, and additional readings. The paper will closely look at theories and ideas that I was able to draw from as an African American female working in a white male dominated workforce. I will closely look at subject matter that specifically defines culture amidst stereotypes,...

Words: 2981 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Attitudes Towards Gender and Leadership Effectiveness

...sex differences in leadership behavior is still mixed, yet it is clear that these sex differences have not vanished.  Although we are in the 21st century, women face hardship every day in the workplace as leaders.   It is argued that sex differences in leadership styles is one of the main reasons in which male and female leaders work with different styles. Organizational factors like sex-composition of the immediate working context and hierarchical level are important moderators of leadership styles.  For example, women are more likely than men to lead in a style that is effective under contemporary conditions (Eagly, Carli, 2003).  To contrast these claims, Veccho claims that "women have some disadvantages in typical leadership style but suffer some disadvantages from prejudicial evaluations of their competence as leaders, especially in masculine organizational contexts" (Veccho, 2002).  All in all women are rising into leadership roles at all levels. Problem Statement The society has always been in a need of effective management and efficient leaders on top. The roles of leaders determine the course and successfulness of the processes in all walks of life. In times of booming globalization and diversity at the workplace, female leaders are as effective as males and are capable to lead staff and manage complex processes. The rapid development of the contemporary business environment is shifted by the booming globalization and unprecedented changes caused......

Words: 3105 - Pages: 13