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Chapter 8 Strategic Planning and Ten–Ten Planning
To be strategic is to have plans of action that provide directions for operating in an uncertain world. In this section, our focus is on developing strategic plans to compete in a world characterized by monopolistic competition. Notice that the emphasis is on plans of action and not on a single plan. There is no single plan or single planning approach that can deal with the complexity of contemporary markets. What is needed is a continuous process for churning out new plans, for differentiated products and services, in order to compete in a dynamic environment. This chapter presents a brief overview of the various approaches to strategic planning and provides an overview of the planning literature. There is a lot of material to slog through, but each approach to planning has something to offer. This overview will set the stage for presenting the Ten–Ten planning process in the next chapter. The next chapter will integrate the various planning approaches and present a simplified, yet robust approach to planning called the Ten–Ten planning process. The key benefit of the Ten–Ten planning process is that it can be used for developing business plans in a very short time span.
8.1 Planning Concepts
There are two generic planning strategies that a business can pursue.Michael Porter originally identified three generic strategies. He noted that a business can also focus on a market that is not very competitive. Most people consider this to be a special case of the other two strategies. See Porter (1980). It can strive to be efficient, it can differentiate, or both. In other words, a firm can focus on delivering Midas versions of products, Hermes versions of products, or both. A firm that employs a strategy of efficiency strives to be the low-cost producer and compete on the basis of charging less than the other...

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