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Management Theories

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Chapter 3 the Molecules of Life 1. Describe the causes and consequences of lactose intolerance. Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest lactose the main sugar found in milk. For people with lactose intolerance, the problem starts when lactose enters the small intestine. To absorb this sugar, digestive cells must produce a molecule called lactase. Lactase is an enzyme, a protein that helps drive chemical reactions. People with lactose intolerance produce insufficient amounts or a defective version of the enzyme. Lactose that is not broken down in the small intestine passes into the large intestine, where bacteria feed on it and belch out gaseous by-products, producing uncomfortable symptoms. 2. Explain why lactose intolerance has evolved differently in humans spread throughout the world.
The enzyme lactase, like all proteins, is encoded by a DNA gene. Lactose-intolerant people have a defect in their lactase gene. A small change in a DNA nucleotide sequence can have a major effect on the production of a protein and the well-being of an organism.

3. Define macromolecules and list the three categories of macromolecules discussed in this chapter.

Macromolecules are any very large complex molecule
Three categories of macromolecules: 1) Carbohydrates 2) Proteins 3) Nucleric acids

4. Compare a dehydration reaction to hydrolysis.

Dehydration reaction is a chemical reaction that removes a molecule of water. Cells link monomers together to form polymers. Hydrolysis means to break with water. Cells break bonds between monomers by adding water to the, a process that is essentially the reverse of a dehydration reaction.

5. Compare the roles of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides in living organisms, give an example of each.
Monosaccharides are the monomers of carbohydrates; they cannot be broken down...

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