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Table of Contents

List of Acronyms 1

SDPI Management Structure 2

SDPI Board of Governors 3

SDPI Mandate 4

About SDPI 5

1996-97: An Overview 6

Research Programme 8

Collaborative Research Projects 13

Reaching Out 15

Advocacy and Networking 20

Capacity Building 24

Management and Support Services 28


I. SDPI Seminar Series 30

II. SDPI Staff 32

III. List of Project/Research Partners 33

IV. SDPI Members 34

V. Linkages and Networks 35

VI. Auditor’s Report 36
|List of Acronyms |
| |
| |
| |
|ASDCs Annual Sustainable Development Conferences |
|CBO Community Based Organisation |
|CBR Central Board of Revenue |
|CIDA Canadian International Development Assistance |
|EPAs Environmental Protection Agencies |
|ESC Environmental Standards Committee |
|EUAFW Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife |
|FPCCI Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce and Industry |
|GATT General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs |
|GEF Global Environmental Facility |
|GOP Government of Pakistan |
|HRCP Human Rights Commission of Pakistan |
|ICIMOD International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development |
|ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics |
|IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature |
|IUCN-P International Union for Conservation of Nature - Pakistan |
|NADLIN National Documentation, Library and Information Network |
|NCS National Conservation Strategy |
|NEQS National Environmental Quality Standards |
|NGO Non-Government Organisation |
|NSC NGO Standing Committee |
|NWFP North Western Frontier Province |
|OECD Organisation of Economic Co-operation for Development |
|PCSIR Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research |
|PEP Pakistan Environment Program |
|PEPA Pakistan Environment Protection Agency |
|PEPC Pakistan Environmental Protection Council |
|PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal |
|RRA Rapid Rural Appraisal |
|SDPI Sustainable Development Policy Institute |
|SPSC Sarhad Provincial Conservation Strategy |
|TOR Terms of Reference |
|TTSID Technology Transfer for Sustainable Industrial Development |
|UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development |
|UNDP United Nations Development Program |
|UNESCO United Nations Educational, Social and Cultural Organisation |
|UNICEF United Nations |
|WID Women in Development |
|WTO World Trade Organisation |
|WWF World Wildlife Fund |

Structure of SDPI


|SDPI Board of Governors |
| |
| |
| |
|Mr V. A. Jafarey |
|Chairman of the Board |
|Mr Syed Babar Ali |
|Packages Limited |
|Dr Tariq Banuri |
|Executive Director, SDPI |
|Mr Hameed Haroon |
|Pakistan Herald Publications Private Limited |
|Mr Javed Jabbar |
|Baanhn Beli |
|Ms Asma Jehangir |
|Human Rights Commission of Pakistan |
|Ms Aban Marker Kabraji |
|IUCN Pakistan |
|Dr G. M. Khattak |
|Mr Abdur Rahim Mahsud |
|Nippon Geiken Inc. |
|Dr Amir Muhammad |
|Mr Imtiaz Ahmad Sahibzada |
|Former Secretary, Government of Pakistan |
|Dr Arshad Zaman |
|Consultant |
| |
| |
| |
|Auditors |
|Anjum Asim Shahid (Grant Thornton Associates) |
| |
| |
|Honorary Legal Advisors |
|Hassan and Hassan Advocates, Lahore |

|The SDPI Mandate |
| |
| |
| |
|To serve as a source of expertise and advisory services for the government, private sector, and non-government initiatives in support|
|of the implementation of national conservation strategies of Pakistan. |
|To catalyse the transition toward sustainable and just development, which seeks to meet the needs of the present generation without |
|jeopardising the needs of future generations. |
|To conduct policy oriented research from a broad multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary perspective on sustainable development, with|
|special emphasis on the following areas: |
|Pakistani development experience and policies; |
|Causes of emerging social problems; |
|Social, legal, organisational and institutional aspects of development; and |
|The analytical foundations of positions adopted by Pakistan and other developing countries in international fora and negotiations. |
|To provide policy advice under its auspices or through its faculty, with or without the payment of fees as appropriate, on matters |
|relating to the objectives of the Institute. |
|To propagate, promote and coordinate nationally and internationally the inclusion of sustainable development issues in environmental |
|policies, programmes, and projects. |
|To induce and assist in the promulgation and implementation of national and provincial laws, policies, rules and regulations on |
|environmental matters. |
|To participate in the activities of other national and international organisations for the promotion and development of environment |
|and other social issues. |
|To contribute to the effort to strengthen the social and physical infrastructure for research in the country, including the |
|construction and dissemination of databases and research indexes, the improvement of library systems, and the introduction of library|
|networks and interlibrary loan systems. |
|To serve as a centre for promoting cooperative endeavour and interaction between Pakistani scholars and institutions as well as |
|between Pakistani and foreign scholars and institutions. |
|To disseminate research findings through appropriate media on the issues and opportunities in sustainable development. |
|To publish journals, reports, pamphlets, books, and to prepare and exhibit video films in furtherance of the objectives of the |
|Institute. |

About SDPI

The Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) was created in August 1992 on the recommendation of the National Conservation Strategy, to fill an institutional void of an independent think tank in Pakistan. SDPI is dedicated to provide catalytic leadership for a sustainable future for Pakistan, one that meets the needs of the present generation without jeopardising the needs of future generations. To address this issue, SDPI has devoted its energies to providing advisory services and policy advice, to conducting policy-oriented research, and to publicising sustainable development concerns.

SDPI is a public interest think tank with the purpose of presenting broad sustainable development alternatives to the government and civil society. The Institute works to strengthen the move toward greater professionalism and social relevance in Pakistan's research community. SDPI defines sustainable development as development that is environmentally sustainable as well as socially just. Within this broad definition, the specific focus of the Institute is the implementation of Pakistan's National Conservation Strategy. As shown by the following box, it is clear that besides giving the Institute its name, the National Conservation Strategy has also defined some of SDPI’s functions.

|An Independent Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) needs to be established in Islamabad to serve as source of expertise |
|and advisory services on government, private sector, and non-government initiatives in support of the National Conservation Strategy.|
|The role of the institute should include policy analysis and development, policy intervention, and policy and programme advisory |
|services in support of NCS implementation. It is proposed that the institute should become a 'Centre of Excellence' on sustainable |
|development in Pakistan. It should be supported by multiple donors and registered with the Government. (National Conservation |
|Strategy of Pakistan, pp. 353) |

Therefore, the mission of SDPI is manifold: to provide expertise and advice; to catalyse the transition toward sustainable development; to propagate the inclusion of sustainable development issues in environmental policies; to assist in making laws on environmental matters; to support other environmental NGOs; to act as a networking and information agency; and to conduct policy and problem-oriented research on development issues in Pakistan as well as on the causes of emerging social problems and on the analytical foundations of the positions adopted by Pakistan and other developing countries in international fora and negotiations. Since SDPI is oriented toward examining problems in their entirety, it focuses considerable energy on the development of projects, taking a multidisciplinary, multiperson and multi-institutional approach.

1996-1997: An Overview

During the year 1996-97, the Sustainable Development Policy Institute had a dual focus. One has been the advisory function of undertaking research, providing advice, and engaging in advocacy. The other was the enabling function of inducing other individuals and organisations to undertake research and action projects on issues related to sustainable development. Most of the projects the Institute has undertaken during 1996-97 fit into the programme areas recommended by the NCS. These projects have a policy component as an integral part of the research. During this year, the CIDA funded Pakistan Environment Programme (PEP) has helped a great deal to create an effective framework to work closely with the government. Under the PEP programme, the Institute has drawn on existing knowledge, as well as on project generated knowledge, to influence government policy on environmental issues.

Some of the most significant achievements for the year 1996-97 include: (a) the development of an implementation plan for controlling and abating industrial pollution (framework for introducing a pollution charge to enforce compliance with national environmental quality standards); (b) banning of advertisements in the electronic media of ineffective pesticides; (c) identification of and acceptance by policy makers of the growing scarcity of fresh water and its implications; (d) promotion of the critical role of strong judicial institutions in environmental protection as well as decentralization of authority; and (e) highlighting the role of governance, management, and institutional development in pursuing social goals.

These achievements have been brought about by a culmination of sound research, persistent lobbying with government officials, active networking with concerned organizations, and public debate in the national print and electronic media. Seminars and conferences organized by SDPI, particularly the Annual Sustainable Development Conference in August 1996, have played a critical role in advocating sustainable development in the country. The Institute continued to document its research work and conference proceedings as publications that are available to the public through subscriptions and also through the Resource Center.

Further progress in the field of environment could not be attained, however, because of political instability in the country during the latter part of 1996, following which the government was subsequently dissolved in November 1996. This was a significant setback for the environmental movement in Pakistan. Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (PEPC), of which SDPI was a member, did not have any meetings during this period. PEPC had provided considerable momentum during the early part of 1996 to environmental initiatives and programs for the implementation of the NCS.

Nevertheless, SDPI remained active in rendering policy advice during the tenure of the caretaker government through a number of means. The process of policy advice was started afresh with the Nawaz Sharif government, particularly on the Environment Protection Bill. SDPI has been actively involved in the Prime Minister's 2010 Program. The Institute also provided comments on various chapters of the Ninth Five Year Plan. Many recommendations have been delivered on issues of information and communications, governance and economic policy.

During this year, research work continued and resulted in various papers, reports and monographs. A significant achievement of this year was the initiation of the Urdu news bulletin Dharti. New staff was hired to clear the backlog in publications.

Many initiatives were taken for capacity building. Our advocacy efforts bore fruit in some fields including sustainable agriculture, public property rights and freedom of education. The media highlighted the pro-active role of the Institute in different fields. SDPI’s information and communication unit recorded 388 items on SDPI activities appearing in different national dailies.

Decisions at SDPI are taken collectively. In order to keep decision making participatory and yet not cumbersome for the staff, the council and committee system was reorganized. Some of the councils were merged together to make more time for research, policy advice and advocacy work.

Overall, the year 1996-97 was a year full of success. It provided a strong base to face the challenges ahead. We believe that the Institute has matured as an institution and can, therefore, carry on its journey without the able leadership of its founding member, Dr Tariq Banuri.

Research Programme

One of the objectives of the Institute is to provide support for informed decision making in order to catalyse the transition to sustainable human development and to propagate the inclusion of sustainable development issues in environmental policies. The research programme has always served this objective. This year, again, our researchers made tremendous efforts, through writings, discussions and meetings, to advocate and strengthen development that is sustainable and just. Research focused on the issues pertaining to development, causes of emerging social problems, and analytical foundations of the positions adopted by Pakistan and other developing countries at international fora.

Since SDPI has always been oriented toward examining problems in their entirety, it focused considerable energy on the development of projects in a multidisciplinary, multiperson and multi-institutional approach. Research was conducted in many critical areas, including the 14 core programme areas of the National Conservation Strategy. Apart from producing research papers, research findings were also shared and disseminated via seminars and weekly lecture series, through newspaper articles and as joint research and publication efforts with like-minded institutions.

Research Areas
During the year 1996-97, research continued in the following core areas, also identified in the National Conservation Strategy:

A. Governance
Governance is considered a crosscutting issue in most of the research programmes. However, it was also considered a separate area of research. SDPI was intensely involved in giving recommendations for good governance. In this connection, many proposals and suggestions were put forward most of which were accepted by the caretaker government (see section on policy advice for details).

B. Environment
This year the Institute has undertaken research on a number of environmental issues related to: National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS); clean fuels; technology transfer for sustainable industrial development; improvement and development of industrial and environmental policies; climate change; trade and sustainable development; urban management; sustainable agriculture and forestry; and sustainable development indicators.

C. Human Development
This section of the research programme entailed research on issues such as: gender; environmental health; population and community development; sustainable livelihoods; basic education; language teaching, world view and sectarianism; rural water supply; community and collective action; disaster mitigation; poverty inequality and well-being; and North-South issues.

D. Economy
The research in this area concentrated on testing the hypotheses and assessing the impact of structural adjustment policies. In addition, SDPI managed a collective effort at investigating fifty years of Pakistan's economy.

During 1996-97, research work on the above mentioned areas resulted in thirty-five working papers and research reports and one monograph. Six publications appeared in various national and international journals (see box).

|Research Appearning in External Publications (1996 - 97) |
| |
| |
|Devaluation and the Balance of Trade: A Policy Analysis for Pakistan, Economia Internationale, Vol. 50. No. 1, February 1997 |
|Poisoning by Pesticides, Pakistan Journal of Medical Research, Vol. 35, No. 2, 1996 |
|Adverse Effects of Development, ARENA, 1997 |
|Iodine Deficiency Disorders, 3 Chapters, The National Report, UNICEF/Government of Pakistan, 1997 |
|Gender and Structural Adjustment, Lahore Journal of Economics, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1996 |
|Comparative Privatisation Experience in Pakistan, Canadian Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1996 |

SDPI's research work is carried out by a staff of research fellows, research advisors, research assistants and consultants. Two additional research fellows joined SDPI in 1996-97. They are:

Dr Shahid Zia replaced Dr Chaudhry Inayat in the area of sustainable agriculture and forestry. He has a PhD. in agricultural economics from Oklahoma State University, Stillwater. Dr. Zia has worked for the Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) for more than eleven years. His areas of expertise include diagnosis of systems constraints and opportunities using informal and formal surveys, and PRA and RRA techniques, organisation of multidisciplinary research, monitoring and evaluation of development projects, and identification and development of sustainable farming systems for target domains. His current areas of research include the growth and instability in Pakistan agriculture, energy use in agriculture, agricultural biodiversity, and issues and policies for sustainable agriculture. Dr Zia's work has been published in both national and international journals. He is also serving as Associate Editor of the Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Social Sciences.

Dr Mozaffar Qizilbash acquired his D. Phil. in economics from the University of Oxford. He was a lecturer at the University of Southampton (UK) prior to joining SDPI. He has also taught economics at St. Edmund Hall, Oxford and at the Lahore University of Management Sciences. Dr. Qizilbash has been an advisor to the Ministry of Planning and Development, Government of Pakistan. He is a member of the Development Studies Association, and the International Development Ethics Association. His current research interests include poverty, inequality and well-being and sustainable development and corruption.

The following research papers and reports were the result of research carried out in 1996-97:

|Research Papers/Reports (1996 - 97) |
| |
| |
|Population and Health |
|Population and Development |
|Pollen Allergies in the Villages of Islamabad |
|Child Mortality in Pakistan: A Hazards Model Analysis |
|Child Morbidity and Its Co-Variates: A Case Study in Pakistan |
|Sustainable Livelihoods Alternatives: Rethinking Employment and Income Generation |
| |
|Gender |
|Women’s Movement and the State in Pakistan |
|Afghan Women Refugees’ Perception of Security |
|Security Discourses and the State in Pakistan, Alternatives, Sept. 1996 |
|Women and Local Government |
|Refugees and Environmental Conflict in NWFP |
| |
|Sustainable Agriculture |
|Integrated Pest Management |
|Sustainable Agriculture for Food Security and Environmental Conservation |
|Cotton White Fly and Leaf Curl Virus |
|Efficacy of Some Synthetic Chemicals and Neem Extracts Against Cotton Pests |
|Urban Agriculture: For Green and Sustainable Cities |
|Reforming Land Revenue System in Pakistan |
|Effects of Industrial Effluents on Soil, Ground Water and Bio-diversity in Hattar Industrial Area |
|Pesticide Consumption in Urban Environments |
|Study on the Toxic Effects of Industrial Effluents on Bio-diversity (in progress) |
|Urban Agriculture for Green and Sustainable Cities |
|Alternative Strategies for Tackling Soil Salinity Problem in Pakistan |
|Neem aur Maholiyat (book in Urdu, in progress) |
| |
|Macroeconomic Policy and Structural Adjustment |
|Money, Income, Prices and Causality: The Case of Pakistan |
|Structural Adjustment, Industrialisation and Export Promotion |
|Depreciation, Currency Tax and Debt Relief |
|Structural Adjustment and Food Security in Pakistan |
|The Concept of Well-being, Economics and Philosophy |
|Pluralism and Well-being Indices |
|Structural Adjustment and Health |
|Do IMF and World Bank’s Policies Work? |
| |
|Trade and Environment |
|Trade and Environment: Some Issues |
|Green Cotton: Implications for Trade and Environment |
|Education |
|Past Performance and Admissions Test as Admission Criteria in Higher Education |
| |
|Information and Communication |
|Information, Telecommunications and Dominance |
|Trends in Development of Information and Telecommunications |

Research findings were published frequently in national newspapers. Various newspaper articles, which were an outcome of research, were printed in different national dailies (see following box). SDPI research faculty delivered lectures on different issues including devaluation and sustainable development; women's rights; role of NGOs; and population and development.

|Newspaper Articles (1996 - 97) |
| |
| |
|Pest Resistant Varieties Not Well Tested: Bumper Cotton Crop Projections Premature, Financial Post, 28 August 1996 |
|Cotton Precipitates Biological Ethnic Cleansing in Pakistan, Friday Times, 29 August-4 September 1996 |
|Major Brands Ineffective Against Cotton Pests, Financial Post, 7 September 1996 |
|Neem Based Solution Gain Popularity, The News, 30 November 1996 |
|The Deadly Spiral, Herald, November 1996 |
|Development of Satellite Communications in Pakistan, The Muslim, 30 June 1996 |
|Inviolability of Privacy in Emerging Telecommunication Networks, The Muslim, 1 July 1996; The Nation, 11 September 1996 |
|Improving Local Environment, The Muslim, 12 October 1996 |
|Freedom of Information, The News, 23 November 1996 |
|Neem aur Maholiyat (Urdu), Jang, 29 November 1996 |
|Shehron Mein Zarraat (Urdu) Daily Jehan Numa, Lahore, 6 Dec. 1996 |
|Desertification in Pakistan, The News, (submitted for publication) |
|Legislation to Develop Information and Telecommunications, Letter to the Editor, Computer World, Pakistan, 15 June 1997 |
|Rethinking the Cotton Pesticide Link: Ban Ineffective Pesticides, The News, 4 January 1996 |
|From Governance to Service, The News, 26 June 1996 |
|Is Pakistan's Debt Sustainable? The News, 11 October 1996 |
|Trade Liberalisation, Export Promotion and Industrialisation, The News, 17 January 1997 |
|Structural Adjustment and Food Security in Pakistan, The News, 24 January 1997 |
|Has There Been De-industrialisation? The News, February 1997 |
|Political Economy of the New Economic Measures, The News, 6 April 1997 |
|Wheat Stocks, Wheat Scarcity and Wheat Policy, The News, 13 April 1997 |
|What Caretakers Can Do? The Muslim, 11 January 1997 |
|Legislation to Develop Information and Telecommunications, Pakistan, 15 June 1997 |
|Save the Lapsing Ordinances, The News, 18 June 1997 |

Collaborative Research Projects

During 1996-97, SDPI engaged in a number of collaborative research projects with like-minded regional and international institutions. Research was continued on collaborative projects initiated in the previous year. New collaborative work was also undertaken with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Asia Foundation, and the World Bank. Collaborative research included the following projects:

A. Basic Education Research Project, Asia Foundation
The aim of this project is to contribute to an understanding of the causes of Pakistan's slow progress, and to draw positive lessons from various NGO/CBO interventions. A two-year study was commenced at the beginning of 1997. Initial fieldwork in Punjab, Sindh and NWFP has been completed. Work on several deliverables is at an advanced stage.

B. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Assessments in Pakistan, UNEP
Having received favourable reviews for the initial work done on the climate change study, SDPI has been asked to coauthor a chapter on the socioeconomic sector in the UNEP handbook for climate change impact and adaptation assessment strategies. The study aims to generate socioeconomic baseline scenarios as a common framework for sectoral climate change assessment and adaptation studies. The socioeconomic study is one of the five sectoral studies being conducted by the Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, for the United Nations Environment Programme.

C. Disaster Mitigation, Overseas Development Agency, UK
The Institute's work with the Disaster Mitigation Network and South Asia's Duryog Nivaran has resulted in effective collaborative research effort in this field. Two project proposals on "Integrating Disaster Mitigation in Coastal Zone Management" and on "Disaster Inventory in South Asia" are underway. SDPI also helped in preparing two directories of donors and institutions working for Coastal Zone Management (CZM). Terms of reference (TORs) have been developed regarding the country paper on CZM. In collaboration with the Disaster Mitigation Network, organisation of a council of CBOs and NGOs is underway to launch a campaign against the Federal Flood Commission for transparency in selection of areas for flood preparation measures. The national policies for disaster preparedness and mitigation are very likely to be adopted by disaster related agencies.

D. Intermediate Cities, University of Geneva, Switzerland
This study aims to identify key factors in urban environmental management in intermediate cities. Phase I was completed in October 1996. Phase II has been started. An urban planning and management support unit has been established in Mingora. Staff hiring is underway.

E. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD), UNICEF
An appraisal was done to identify major bottlenecks hampering the progress of the programme. A study was also undertaken to identify the major causes of iodine deficiency disorders. SDPI authored and submitted three chapters of the document.

F. Pakistan Environment Programme (PEP), CIDA
PEP is a collaborative programme designed to build the capacity of four institutions for implementation of the National Conservation Strategy (SDPI, IUCN, the NCS unit of the Ministry of Environment, and the Environment Section of the Planning and Development Division). PEP offers SDPI a platform to build relations with the government. It also helps to access and influence key environmental policy makers in Pakistan.

G. Relationship Between Industrial Policy and Environment, UNIDO/UNDP
This is a seven-month UNIDO study initially planned to commence in the first quarter of 1997. It could not start on time due to bureaucratic delays in finalising contracts.

H. Rural Water Supply Schemes, MSU/World Bank
The objective of the study was to compare the importance of demand and social mobilisation on water supply scheme sustainability. NGO schemes were compared with government schemes to draw policy lessons. SDPI submitted the report to the World Bank.

I. Sustainable Livelihoods and People's Everyday Economics, Society for International Development (SID)
This study, with its macro- and micro analyses, identifies alternative approaches through which ordinary people and communities shall be able to sustain their livelihoods. Fieldwork was carried out. A conference on Sustainable Livelihoods - Rethinking Employment and Income Generation was organised in May 1997. A report on the Pakistan chapter on sustainable livelihoods was submitted to the Society for International Development, Rome.

J. Technology Transfer for Sustainable Industrial Development (TTSID), Swiss Government
TTSID is a unique study which aims to combat industrial pollution by introducing cleaner production technologies, in addition to raising awareness, training, capacity building, identification of green financial instruments, and monitoring. The second phase of the project has been launched. The impact of the work of TTSID is beginning to be felt as a number of requests from various industries and other NGOs are coming in for assistance in setting up the environmental control measures recommended by the project. Environmental audits of 5 industrial units in textiles, pulp and paper, sugar and food and beverages industries have been completed. Workshops on pollution control methodologies were held in Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad, and Sheikhupura. Training manuals have been prepared and distributed amongst the technical staff of industries. Work in the industrial estate, Jamrud Road Peshawar, has started. Discussions with the government and industry on NEQS implementation continued.

Reaching Out

SDPI was established to fill the institutional void of a policy research institute in Pakistan. Therefore, providing policy advice is one of its most significant objectives. SDPI receives requests from various quarters, including the government, private sector, NGOs and international funding agencies to advise on issues related to the sustainability of the environment and human development. Policy advice is a distillation of recommendations, emerging from research conducted at SDPI, focused primarily on environmental conservation. Advice has been rendered particularly to the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (PEPC) and to the Ministry of Environment, Local Government and Rural Development, on policy related issues. The advice may be disseminated through a variety of channels (papers, briefs, press articles, participation at meetings, conferences, etc.) with the intention of improving existing policies and practice.

Policy Papers
Three policy papers were written during 1996-97. SDPI is no longer converting publications into policy papers, since this function is now served by the news bulletins. However, SDPI researchers are actively writing policy briefs.

|Policy Papers (1996 - 97) |
| |
| |
|Women and Local Government |
|Policy Reforms to Restore Cotton Ecosystem Degradation Due to Ineffective Pesticides |
|Environmental Auditing |

Policy Briefs
Eighteen briefs were prepared for the government and private sector. As it is a responsive activity, the number of briefs varies with the number of requests every year.

|Policy Briefs (1996 - 97) |
| |
| |
|Women and Local Government |
|Brief for the Pakistani Delegation to the Third Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, |
|Buenos Aires |
|Alternative Strategies for Tackling Soil Salinity and Water Logging |
|Social and Environmental Effects of Large Dams |
|Structural Adjustment and Aid |
|Structural Adjustment and Gender |
|Handing Over Rural Community Water Supply Schemes to Communities |
|Recommendations and Charter of Demands of the Small Farmers of Pakistan for the Food Security Summit |
|Trade and Sustainable Development |
|Cotton and Pesticides Policies - Foul Play |
|Development of Satellite Communications in Pakistan |
|Sustainable Cotton Production, Trade and Environment |
|Integrated Pest Management |
|Structural Adjustment, Debt, Aid and Growth in Pakistan |
|Women and Structural Adjustment |
|Incentives for Industries to Meet NEQS |
|Debt, Aid and Growth in Pakistan |
|Refugee Policy |

Comments were provided to meet 13 requests for input on government, NGO and private sector documents and policies.

|Commentaries (1996 - 97) |
| |
| |
|Country Report for the World Food Summit to GOP |
|Stabilisation Policies and Economic Activities, Journal of Applied Economics |
|Environmental Procedures, Legislation, Auditing and Technical Support to PEPA, EUAFW, CBR, and FPCCI |
|NEQS to PEPC, ESC, EUAFW and the Private Sector |
|Mid-term plan of ICRISAT |
|Community Based Solid Waste Management, Environment Section, P&D Division, GOP |
|On two projects: Climate Change and Economic Impacts of Different Power Supply Technologies |
|Comments for preparing a brief for the Third Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, |
|Buenos Aires, November 1996, for the Ministry of Environment, GOP |
|Background documents for preparing a brief for the 16th Session of the UN Commission on Human Settlements, in Nairobi, for the |
|Ministry of Environment, GOP |
|Report on the issues regarding the ministerial segment of the Third Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on |
|Biological Diversity, Buenos Aires, for the Ministry of Environment, GOP |
|Comments on draft Handbook for WID in Pakistan |
|Technology policy |
|Environmental lab certification |


Speaking notes, speeches and presentations for various occasions were prepared for the government. One of the most important speeches was prepared for the then Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto, for her address at the Habitat II Conference in Turkey.

The Annual Sustainable Development Conference (ASDC) was organised in August 1996 with the participation of policy makers, academics, scholars, NGOs, and the media. Emphasis was placed on emerging sustainable development issues in Pakistan, including industrial pollution abatement, integrated pest management, biodiversity, trade and environment linkages, green accounting, habitat related concerns, food security, poverty eradication, environmental security, social capital and human development. Papers were presented on issues covering local, national and international aspects of these issues. The following immediate outcomes were achieved at the ASDC:

1. The Pakistan Poverty Network was launched 2. A core group on propagating environmental auditing was formed 3. An international core group was formed to prepare an Agenda 21 for Central Asian States 4. Pakistan’s chapter of International Network on Environmental Management was launched

Other conferences organised during 1996-97 included:

5. Symposium on Community Development 6. Conference on Sustainable Livelihoods Alternatives 7. Workshop on Women's Empowerment Through Local Bodies

During 1996-97, SDPI received requests from various organisations for policy advice. Advice was provided on the following issues:

|Advice (1996 - 97) |
| |
| |
|Human Resource Development in Telecommunications |
|Implementation of NEQS |
|Women's Reserved Seats |
|Women's Empowerment through Local Bodies |
|Pakistan's 2010 Programme with Regard to Thai and Chinese Five Year Plans |
|Poverty Alleviation |
|Economic Issues |
|Environment and Trade |
|Global Environmental Issues |

SDPI's contribution to other environmental programmes was somewhat limited due to the inactivity of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (a result of the unstable political conditions in the country). However, SDPI remained in touch with the caretaker government and organised seminars (on accountability and energy policy) and press conferences to share its concerns. The process of policy advice started afresh with the Nawaz Sharif government on different issues, mainly on the Environmental Protection Act (SDPI acts as the secretariat for the Environment Standards Committee of PEPC), NGO Bill, economic issues and issues of governance.

A Steering Committee was formed on Environmental Auditing in Pakistan. It consists of 8 members, from public and private sectors. SDPI acts as the secretariat. Draft terms of reference were received from ECOLOGISTICS, Canada, to develop environmental auditing capacity in Pakistan.

Examples of Policy Advice for the Public Sector
There have been changes and improvements in existing government policy and practice due to SDPI efforts in different areas. A few examples are given below:

A. Governance
In this area SDPI advice and ideas have made a significant impact. The critical role of strong judicial institutions in environmental protection as well as decentralisation of authority is now widely accepted as is the need to strengthen institutions at all levels of the polity. SDPI's recommendations regarding the strengthening of the Election Commission, electoral laws, and restrictions on electoral campaign, sale of public property by executive, tenure protection of statutory offices, Electronic Media Regulatory Authority, Freedom of Information Act, and Environmental Protection Act were accepted by the caretaker government, and ordinances were passed on these. However, thereafter, most of the ordinances lapsed, since these were not enacted by the new Parliament.

B. Sustainable Agriculture
A brief on issues related to pesticide use in cotton production, their advertisement on electronic media and banning the use and sale of ineffective pesticide was delivered to Mr Sartaj Aziz, Minister of Finance and Economic Affairs. Considerable impact has already been made through SDPI policy advice and advocacy on the use and misuse of pesticides. Public advertisements of ineffective pesticides have been banned.

C. Trade and Environment
Work related to trade and environment continued this year. A case study on cotton was prepared for presentation at the United Nations Environment Programme meeting in July 1997 at SDPI. The Minister for Finance and Economic Affairs consented to chair the meeting.

D. Gender
A workshop was organised on Women's Empowerment Through Local Bodies in collaboration with HRCP and Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. The modalities to increase women's numeric strength in local bodies and strategies to enable women to play an effective role in local bodies were discussed. Participants were invited both from government and NGO sectors. Recommendations were prepared for the government to incorporate in the Local Bodies elections. SDPI views the acknowledgement by government officials of the importance of women's political representation at all levels as an achievement of its policy advice efforts in this area. Female councillors all over Pakistan started meeting regularly to restructure local government and to press for more seats for women in local bodies and in both houses of the Parliament of Pakistan.

E. Sustainable Livelihoods
SDPI efforts increased awareness of policy makers, NGOs and the general public regarding the issue of sustainable livelihoods. A conference on Sustainable Livelihoods Alternatives - Rethinking Employment and Income Generation was organised by the Institute, in collaboration with the Society for International Development, in May 1997. The conference advocated that macroeconomic policies should promote pro-poor initiatives by taking into account sustainable livelihoods, in order to make it easy for the people to manage their everyday economics. The speakers of the conference also argued that rather than solely focusing on the structural employment policies, various aspects of sustainable livelihoods should be promoted. Considerable interaction and dialogue took place between government and NGO representatives who elaborated the nature and scope of sustainable livelihoods. Mr Mushahid Hussain, Advisor to the Prime Minister on Cultural Affairs, presided over the conference.

F. Water and Agriculture
The growing scarcity of fresh water and its implications for agriculture as well as environmental security is another area, flagged by SDPI that has now acquired acceptance in policy discussions.

G. Information and Communication
The work of the study group on information and communication has contributed in part to reductions in tariffs and import/export duties on info-technologies and inclusion of information and communications as a core area in the Prime Minister's 2010 Programme. A meeting was held with Mr Shahid Khaqan Abbasi, Member of Parliament and Member of the Privatisation Commission, in April 1997. Many recommendations were given for liberalisation and privatisation of the telecommunication sector, as well as for human resource development in this sector. The present government policy regarding these issues reflects the impact of SDPI recommendations in this area.

H. Social Sector
SDPI has also tried to influence the national debate on social sector development, and has been successful in pushing the role of governance, management, institutional development and collective action in pursuing social goals.

Example of Policy Advice for the Private Sector: Industrial Pollution
Notable success has been achieved in the area of controlling and abating industrial pollution. SDPI was almost single-handedly responsible for derailing an initiative by the industrial lobby to postpone the introduction of environmental laws by three years. In its place, SDPI proposed an alternative programme framework for implementing and monitoring compliance with National Environment Quality Standards. This plan has been agreed to (with a few minor issues to be resolved) through an extensive and participatory dialogue between government, industry representatives and NGOs. The programme has provisions for awareness, training, and capacity building in both private and public sectors, provision of financial instruments and incentives, and monitoring. Final agreement on the implementation proposal was postponed due to the disruption of the work of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (see advocacy section for details). However, SDPI continued its policy advice through a training component and meetings with the private sector. Environmental audits and training workshops have been organised for a number of industries. As a result, the private sector has expressed a greater interest in acquiring knowledge and expertise in environmental protection measures.

Advocacy and Networking

One of SDPI's goals is raising awareness of environmental issues as well as issues of social relevance. This is achieved through advocacy, networking, public interest litigation, and education. Advocacy refers to active championship of issues, through media and judicial system, in concert with other partners.

In 1996-97, advocacy done by SDPI was of two types. The first was of a reactive nature and was mainly undertaken on issues of human rights, religious tolerance, academic freedom and other such rights and responsibilities. The second was of an educating and informing nature and was based on research findings such as injudicious use of pesticides. Another way of lobbying was participation in conferences and workshops, as well as writing in journals and newspapers. Given the lack of active advocacy in Pakistan, the purpose of advocacy was not only to fight for particular causes but also to set an example and precedent of active lobbying and advocacy on social issues. SDPI has successfully advocated a number of environmental and public interest issues in the past years. Details of the major issues taken up, lobbying done and the results achieved during 1996-97 are as follows:

Examples of Major Issues, Lobbying Efforts and Results A. Environmental Protection Act
SDPI has fought long and hard, along with other advocacy partners, for the Environmental Protection Act. Our advocacy efforts first bore fruit when the caretaker government promulgated the Environmental Protection Ordinance 1997. However, despite continued efforts, the Nawaz Sharif government allowed the Ordinance to lapse four months later in June 1997. A coalition of NGOs was formed by SDPI to lobby for the legislation. The act was finally approved by the National Assembly in September 1997 and is yet to be passed by the Senate (at the time of writing this report). Presently, SDPI acts as the secretariat for the Environment Standards Committee of PEPC and, in this capacity, is continuing its efforts to move the environment agenda forward, in collaboration with government, NGOs and business.

B. Banning of Electronic Advertisements of Ineffective Pesticides
Several varieties of pesticides have been promoted in the print and electronic media which are completely ineffective and even have harmful effects on human life. An active campaign against their advertisement and use was launched (also see section on policy advice). Specifically, in this respect, SDPI held several meetings with the government and NGOs, organised two lectures, wrote seven articles and two letters to the editor in the major national newspapers. With this campaign SDPI contributed to the banning of electronic advertisements of ineffective pesticides.

C. Academic Freedom
Academic freedom was the underlying principle behind two advocacy cases SDPI took up in 1996-97. News reports of Dr Sathananthan’s harassment by the Sri Lankan government were reported to SDPI. Dr Sathanathan was a Tamil researcher based in Colombo. SDPI responded by disseminating this news through email and writing to the Sri Lankan government. Similarly, Dr Moonis Ahmar of Karachi University was suspended on the basis of a newspaper article that he had written. SDPI lobbied for a reversal of this decision with the governor of Sindh and the Education Ministry. Subsequently, the university administration stopped harassing Dr Moonis Ahmar and reinstated him. SDPI shares credit with other advocacy partners for Dr Ahmar’s reinstatement.

D. Shifting of Industrial Zone Site
Baltistan Health and Education Foundation informed SDPI of the notification of Mokpondas Gilgit as one of twelve industrial zones. This area had a spectacular view and was ideal for tourism. We brought this to the attention of the Environment Ministry, lobbied for shifting this site, and eventually received a letter saying that the environmentally unsound site had been shifted.

E. Safety Standards: Transportation of Hazardous Gas
On 8 January 1997, extremely poisonous chlorine gas was being transported from an industrial unit, Greenwood Crescent, to the recently privatised Ittehtad Chemicals. Due to negligence on the part of the two industrial units and the driver of the vehicle, the cylinders carrying the gas leaked in the congested Baja Lines locality of Ghari Shahu, Lahore. This led to the loss of more than 20 lives and a great number of livestock, depriving a large number of people of their livelihood. To raise awareness of this issue in Islamabad and to facilitate policy making, a panel discussion was arranged on 7 April 1997. Vaqar Zakaria of Haggler Bailly spoke on safety standards in the transportation of hazardous gases, Naila Hussain of Shirkat Gah spoke on the actual incident and its adverse impact and N. A. Qureshi of British Oxygen Company spoke on safety standards. A representative of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Dr S. S. Tahir, informed the audience about the governmental policy framework regarding such accidents. The Secretary, Environment Ministry, presided over this discussion.

F. Religious Intolerance
On 5-6 February 1997, in a village called Shantinagar (50 miles from Multan), the Christian community was the victim of religious intolerance. Some pages of the Holy Quran were found near a mosque and in retaliation a mob attacked the Christian colony destroying between seven hundred and fourteen hundred houses and four churches. Initially, two demonstrations were held to condemn this violence. SDPI participated in the first demonstration and invited fifteen NGOs to the next one. In March 1997, a panel discussion was held on the issue of religious intolerance with a specific focus on Shantinagar. The panel discussion was followed by a trip to Shantinagar as a gesture of good will. Three of SDPI's employees (Nadeem Omar, Kaiser Bengali, and Ahmed Saleem) visited the area. To raise awareness of this issue in Islamabad, one of Shantinagar's numberdars was invited to speak about the incident in the SDPI seminar series.

G. Quaid-e-Azam University Land Sale Scheme
The announcement of the sale of three hundred acres of Quaid-e-Azam University land to its employees in March 1996 prompted some of its faculty members to bring out the issue of management and disposal of public assets. SDPI strongly supported them. Lobbying for a reversal of this decision was done by holding three press conferences, writing several letters to editors of different newspapers, and raising awareness among journalists and NGOs by circulating a fact sheet on the scheme. The possibility of public interest litigation was also explored. In December 1996, a writ petition was filed and a stay order obtained. After several months, the decision was finally reversed. The government conclusively shelved the QAU land scheme. The employees of the university were granted land at subsidised rates by the Capital Development Authority in another sector.

H. The NGO Bill
The NGO Bill is a controversial piece of legislation being introduced by the government in an attempt to control the activities of NGOs in the country. Several NGO networks have come together to try and make the bill less focused on command and control and more inclusive of the views of national NGOs. In this connection, during 1996-97, SDPI attended more than sixteen meetings with different NGOs. Two meetings were held with the Senate standing committee. SDPI's position, that the government has the right to information about funding sources and that NGO accounts should be audited and reporting requirements fulfilled, has been accepted. The standing committee has reassured NGO delegates that their written concerns will be taken into account as the new legislation is drafted by the Ministry of Law.

I. Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project
Since May 1995, SDPI has been actively disseminating information on the environmental impact of the proposed Ghazi Barotha Hydropower project. It has focused attention on the important implications of the diversion of water, such as the accumulation of waste in the riverbed and the risk to fauna, flora and the ecosystem. In response to this, WAPDA invited SDPI to suggest ways of dealing with these problems. The assurances sought by SDPI from WAPDA included the maintenance of the quality of water and setting up of waste treatment facilities in the area before it proceeds with the project. SDPI was invited to join the NGO Standing Committee on Ghazi Barotha (NSC), a coalition of nine NGOs. For the past two years, SDPI has been attending their monthly meetings and lobbying for the rights of those affected. SDPI acted as NSC’s secretariat. The campaign has led to the modification of several features of the project. This year TORs were finalised for a Supplemental Environmental and Social Study for Management of Floodplain and Water Releases and Right Bank Pollution Sources. On SDPI's and other NGO's request, monitoring reports of GBHP consultants were being regularly circulated.

J. Citizen’s Forum for Women’s Rights
In January 1997, SDPI, with seven other NGOs, founded a network called Citizen's Forum for Women's Rights. The aim of this network was to draw the attention of the caretaker government and leaders of political parties toward issues regarding women's right to vote. Lobbying was done by writing to the Chief Election Commissioner, holding a meeting with him, holding a press conference, and interviewing candidates on their views on women's rights, environment and development.

K. National and International NGO and Research Institution Networks
SDPI is a member of several networks of national and international NGOs and research institutions. SDPI provided information, advice and comments to national and international NGOs on different policy matters. Most of SDPI’s advocacy work, conferences, symposiums and seminars were arranged in concert with other NGOs. SDPI's advocacy efforts have been instrumental in rallying support of NGOs, particularly for environmental legislation, the NGO Bill, industrial pollution control, social justice and citizens rights. SDPI is a member of the following international networks:

8. The IUCN Network 9. Duryog Nivaran (the disaster mitigation network of South Asia) 10. The Ring (a network of policy research institutes) 11. The South Asian Perspective Network Association (SAPNA) 12. The Sustainable Livelihoods Network of the Society for International Development (SID) 13. Informing and Mobilising Partners for Action (IMPACT)

Within Pakistan, SDPI cooperates regularly with public interest NGOs and is a member of the Coalition of Rawalpindi and Islamabad NGOs, which is part of Pakistan NGO Forum. The Institute also has close links with the Advocacy Development Network, Participatory Rural Appraisal Network, Disaster Mitigation Network of Pakistan, NGO Standing Committee on Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project, and Citizens’ Forum for Women's Rights.

SDPI Seminar Series
SDPI has a regular seminar series under which seminars are conducted on various issues related to the public interest. Approximately one-quarter of the weekly seminars have an advocacy function. The Seminar Committee has the responsibility of organising the weekly seminar series. In 1996-97, fifty-six seminars were conducted. Nine special seminars, panel discussions, and video shows were held on other occasions. Two lectures were held under the Fifty Years of Pakistan Lecture Series: these were Fifty Years of Dance in Pakistan and Fifty Years of English in Pakistan. In addition, the caretaker government's advisors on accountability, Mr Najam Sethi, and the Minister for Petroleum and Natural Resources, Mr Javaid Jabbar were invited to deliver seminars on accountability and on energy policy respectively.

Capacity Building

Since the inception of SDPI, there has been a keen effort to develop the research infrastructure at the Institute. Simultaneously, there has also been an effort to translate the infrastructure development into capacity building and institutional development in the country. The infrastructure development also enables the Institute not only to disseminate the results and impact of its work to a wider audience, but also to keep track of and support the research work on sustainable development in the world. For this purpose, the Information and Communication Section and the Resource Centre played pivotal roles in 1996-97.

This year, SDPI addressed interests of a much wider audience. As a result, more people became aware of SDPI activities. There has been more attendance at SDPI seminars both from government and other concerned citizens (sometimes over a 100 people). More coverage has been given to sustainable development issues in the print and electronic media than previous years. There were at least 4-8 requests daily from different quarters to acquire information and publications from SDPI. More people (at least 8-12) have been visiting the SDPI library daily. Many libraries have been requesting publication exchange programs. Therefore, it was decided to establish a Resource Centre at SDPI in order to cater to the information needs of the multidisciplinary research carried out by the Institute, as well as by the academic community and the general public. The Resource Centre coordinates different units including the Library, Publications, Basic Research Assistance Programme, and Computing. The library is the focal point of the Resource Centre.

Resource Centre and Library
The main functions of the Resource Centre are:

14. Selecting appropriate resource material for researchers 15. Organising material for easy access and retrieval 16. Advising, locating and retrieving resource material from outside 17. Selective dissemination of information 18. Networking with libraries and information resources 19. Assisting sister libraries in library practices, procedures and systems

The Resource Centre is fully computerised. The following databases have been installed on a Local Area Network (LAN).

20. Library Database 21. Document Database 22. WHO Database 23. Email Database.

In addition, the Resource Centre has 21 CD-ROM databases and more than 40 videos.

The library has around 10,000 monographs: the special strengths of the collection are in the areas of development, environment and agriculture. SDPI added 2,321 books and 1,384 documents to the collection in 1996-97. In addition, 1,002 journals were received during the same period. A brochure file has been maintained since 1996.

In order to expand the resources available to researchers, an Interlibrary Loan Program (ILL) and a Publication Exchange Program were arranged in 1996-97. During this year the RC initiated ILL arrangements with The Network: Association for Rational Use of Medication in Pakistan and National Documentation Library and Information Network (NADLIN). A Publication Exchange Programme was arranged with a number of organisations. These organisations included Gujrat Institute of Development Research, India; ICIMOD, Nepal; Regional Centre for Strategic Studies, Colombo; and Shirkat Gah, Lahore.

Publications Unit
SDPI publications form an important output of the Institute. These are mainly based on the research undertaken by the Institute. In addition to periodic publications, such as the bimonthly English and Urdu newsletters and Environment Digest, SDPI publishes working papers, research reports, policy papers, conference anthologies, monographs and books on public interest issues.

Six issues of the News and Research Bulletin were published in 1996-97. There was an increase in readership of this English news bulletin (readership increased to 250, compared to 150 of the previous years). Publications appearing in 1996-97 included: two research reports, Pollen Allergies in Islamabad and Women and Local Government; a monograph on structural adjustment, entitled Do IMF and World Bank Policies Work?; conference anthologies related to the Green Economics Conference (1995) and Habitat II Conference (1996). The Publication Council decided to publish the report of the Green Economics Conference, 1995, as a book (initially it was planned to be published as a Citizens’ Report). Editing is in progress on many other research papers and books. Some of the most recent English and Urdu publications are reported in the box below. All publications are available from the Institute.

The Publication Unit was understaffed during 1996. However, new staff, appointed in 1996-97, has been working to finish the backlog. Mr D. Shah Khan, a well-known and experienced journalist, was hired as the Senior Editor. Mr Ahmed Saleem, a poet, creative writer, and author of many books was hired as Editor for the Urdu section. Dr Tariq Rahman, a Visiting Research Fellow, agreed to work as the Chief Editor of the publications unit on an honorary basis.

There is a considerable readership of SDPI publications within the government, NGOs, and academic institutions. However, the mission of SDPI, to take the message of sustainable development to the rural and underdeveloped areas of Pakistan, was not accomplished until the launching of an Urdu news bulletin in December 1996. In that regard, the launching of Dharti was a significant breakthrough for SDPI. In addition to other outcomes, the publication of the Urdu news bulletin, Dharti, helped to extend readership to 350 individuals and organisations in far-flung rural and urban areas that could only be approached through Urdu publications. In addition to bimonthly issues of Dharti, some books have also been published in Urdu.

|Publications in 1996 - 97 |
| |
| |
|In English |
|A Survey of Pollen Allergies in Six Villages of Islamabad |
|Do IMF and World Bank Policies Work? |
|Green Economics |
|Handing Over of Water Supply Schemes to Communities in Northern Punjab |
|Just Development |
|Rethinking Security, Rethinking Development |
|Slums, Security and Shelter (The Second Citizens' Report on Sustainable Development) |
|Water and Community: An Assessment of the On-Farm Water Management Programme |
|Women and Local Government |
| |
|In Urdu |
|Paidar Taraqqi (The ASDC Report) |
|Zameen kay Jagnay kay Din Hain (An Anthology of Poems on Sustainable Development) |
|Paidar Insani Taraqqi |

Computing Unit (Management Information System)
The computing unit is responsible for the upkeep of the computers in use on the Local Area Network (LAN), as well as for the smooth and efficient working of the various software in use at the Institute. In addition to routine technical support, improvements to the computer network were continuously made. During 1996-97, the LAN was upgraded from 20 to 100 users. The LAN also provides access to email and the internet.

Information and Communication Unit
Information and communication played a vital role in SDPI’s efforts toward capacity building and are an important part of SDPI's programme of work. The basic objective of the information and communication unit is the acquisition, processing and dissemination of information. During this year, the unit also contributed to basic research assistance and improvements in information and telecommunications infrastructure at the national level. Some of the accomplishments of different components of the programme during 1996-97 are presented below.

A. Development Monitor
SDPI prepares an index of current economic and development news on a daily basis. The computer readable database contains titles of news, comments, analysis and announcements appearing in the daily newspapers. At present it is distributed weekly via email newsletters on five subjects. Initially planned to cover four subjects, one subject on information and communication was added due to increased demand by users. The number of users increased to 758. During 1996-97, the entries to the database reached 323,010. The database is backed up by physical maintenance of the newspaper clippings.

B. Development Database
Development databases are abstracts of reports and publications, focusing on macroeconomic issues, acquired from national and international institutions and organisations (e.g., Federal Bureau of Statistics, Population Census, State Bank, Ministry of Finance and the World Bank). These databases were also used to develop electronic newsletters. Different files have been prepared on issues relating to sustainable development. During this year new entries were included in the file of clippings on Structural Adjustment in Pakistan, which SDPI has been maintaining since 1993. A Cotton File, covering the period 1995-96, and a Telecommunications File, covering the year 1996, was also completed.

C. Pakistan Environment Digest (PED)
To keep researchers abreast of emerging issues or to inform them about the work done by others, SDPI undertook to compile a monthly digest of environmental news. PED has been published since January 1996. It is a methodical compilation of selected news, comments, articles and announcements appearing in the print media on the 14 programme areas of the National Conservation Strategy (NCS). The selection of material for PED is made from SDPI's Development Monitor Database.

Asia Foundation is currently covering the cost of 100 subscriptions of the Pakistan Environment Digest to NGOs and other organisations. PED has completed one year of publication with 12 issues printed and distributed. The target audience includes NGOs, government, professionals, and academics. Circulation has increased due to subsidised subscriptions. There have been difficulties, however, in increasing paid subscriptions

D. Study Group on Information and Communication
This group is comprised of consultants, scientists, academicians and economists who meet quarterly to discuss and evaluate current developments in the rapidly evolving fields of telecommunications, computers, data processing, networking, mass media and other issues related to the generation, processing, management and use of information. The group also undertakes the preparation of policy and planning recommendations that could subsequently be pursued by the relevant agencies. In this connection, this group was in close contact with the Coordinator of the 2010 Programme and also provided input for the Ninth Five Year Plan.

During 1996-97, the study group held four meetings. The following points were discussed:

24. Discussions on privatisation of PTCL, current status and future programme; a critique of the approach taken by the government; discussions on Pakistan's software industry and the challenges ahead, software export and process management. 25. Discussion on Pakistan Telecommunication (reorganisation) Act 1996. Suggested improvements in the act for the Ninth Five Year Plan. 26. Discussions on Electronic Media Regulatory Authority, National Telecommunication Policy, WTO agreements on IT and Telecommunications.

Management and Support Services

The administration and finance services are central to providing smooth operations for all SDPI activities. SDPI continues to practice a highly transparent and open management style, whereby policy-related management decisions are made through consensus of most professional staff members. SDPI outgrew its previous office capacity in mid-1996. Administration organised a smooth shift to a new office building in August 1996. Routine administrative procedures have been continually improved and necessary amendments made in management procedures. Streamlining systems and procedures will have to be an ongoing activity in a growing organisation like SDPI. Nevertheless, a good operating structure has been developed to support the catalytic activities of the Institute. A good logistical and resource base has allowed SDPI to concentrate its activities in its main research and advice functions. Expertise is being rapidly developed in a number of fields with the recruitment of new senior staff, making SDPI more readily responsive to requests for assistance.

Financial Management
Internal and external audits were undertaken. A new financial computer package was purchased in order to automate routine accounting functions.

Personnel Management
The new post of Personnel Officer was created. The incumbent manages applications, interviews, appointments and orientation of new staff in addition to taking care of contract extensions, medical insurance, leave records, training and staff development for existing colleagues.

Marketing (Donor Liaison, Fund Raising, Membership)
Project funding picked up in 1996-97. Extensive time and effort was put into meeting CIDA reporting and monitoring requirements. The terms of reference for the new Director of Administration/Finance (joining in August 1997) have focused on her role in fund raising. Donor liaison will primarily be led by one person to ensure consistency, regular follow-up, and the development of a good fund raising strategy. A Research Assistant took up the work of membership development on a part-time basis.

Management Review
A comprehensive management review was undertaken with the assistance of four consultants. The Faculty Council and Board began work on consideration and the implementation of the recommendations.

Institutional Development
1. The new Personnel Officer and Training Committee undertook training needs assessment. As a result, staff obtained training in a number of areas including computers, internet and organisational development. The SDPI Resource Centre provided training in the use of library software to the representatives of NGOs, government and private sector. Training needs identified by Canadian Partner Organisation for the Pakistan Environment Programme will also be met by a Training Unit to be developed by SDPI.
2. Recruitment of senior research staff was initiated to strengthen the Institute's capacity. Research Fellows in sustainable agriculture and human development (economics) were appointed
3. SDPI entered into a period of transition as the Executive Director, Tariq Banuri, announced his imminent departure by 31 July 1997. Interim management arrangements were initiated with the appointment of Joint Director, Dr Shahrukh Rafi Khan, as interim Executive Director

|Annex I |
| |
|SDPI Seminar Series |
| |
| |
|No. Speaker Topic |
| |
|1. Dr Ch. Inayatullah Pesticides and Integrated Pest Management* |
|2. Dr Hameed A. Khan Indoor Radio Active Pollution |
|3. Ms Sabina Alkire Incorporating Cultural Values into Economic Policies |
|4. Ms Indu Mitha Trends and Trend-setters: 50 Years of Dance in Pakistan |
|5. Dr Samina Yasmeen Australian Policy Towards South Asia |
|6. Dr Aqdas Kazmi GATT/ WTO and its Implications For Pakistan's Private and Financial Institutions |
|7. Dr Tariq Rahman Sindhi Language Movement and the Politics of Sindh* |
|8. Dr Tariq Banuri Corruption* |
|9. Dr Tariq Rahman Fifty Years of English in Pakistan* |
|10. Ms Anusheh Hussain Incidence of Child Sexual Abuse in Pakistan |
|11. Mr Omar Asghar Khan Activities of Sungi Development Foundation |
|12. Dr Tariq Banuri A Citizen's Charter for Good Governance* |
|13. Dr Kaiser Bengali Political Economy of Decentralisation* |
|14. Dr Tariq Banuri Ethnic Violence and Political Nationalism* |
|15. Mr Arif Jabbar Flood Mitigation Measures |
|16. Mr Haroon Ayub Khan National Environment Quality Standards* |
|17. Dr Ch. Inayatullah Pesticides Conspiracy* |
|18. Dr Shahrukh Rafi Khan Do Devaluations Work?* |
|19. Mr Tahir Mehdi Drug Pricing Policy in Pakistan |
|20. Mr Intizar Husain Aspects of Wheat Policy |
|21. Dr Kaneez Fatima Importance of Writing the History of Pakistan |
|22. Dr Tariq Banuri An Agenda for the Caretakers* |
|23. Dr Saba Khattak Women and Local Government* |
|24. Dr Chaudhry Inayatullah Foul Play in Cotton and Pesticides Policy* |
|25. Mr Ahsan Wagah Language Policy in Pakistan |
|26. Dr Tariq Rahman, Panel Discussion on Creation of Bangladesh |
|Dr Saba Khattak, |
|Mr Ahmed Saleem, |
|Mr Hasan Zaheer, and |
|Dr Raunak Jahan |
|27. Mr Ahmad Saleem Identity Crisis in Punjabi Literature* |
|28. Ms Shehla Zia Activities of Aurat Foundation |
|29. Dr Noor M. Malik Methodology of Price Index |
|30. Dr Fritz G Wallner Dynamics of Constructive Realism |
|31. Mr Adnan Hasan Knowledge Workers in a Networked World |
|32. Mr Shahab Alam Energy Conservation Policies |
|33. Mr Najam Aziz Sethi Accountability |
|34. Mr Abdul Rahman Pollution Control for Textile Industry* |
|35. Mr Javed Jabbar Sustainable Development of Petroleum and Natural Resources in Pakistan |
|36. Mr Hiderahu Morishta Application of Geographic Information System in Environmental and Urban Development |
|37. Mr Ahmed Saleem, Group Discussion on Experiences of Pak-India Forum Meeting |
|Mr Mubarik Ahmed, Calcutta |
|Ms Farida Ahmed, |
|Mr Shakil Ahmed and |
|Mr Khadim Hussain |
|38. Dr Eqbal Ahmed Video Showing of Documentary Film Stories My Country Told Me from BBC series |
|39. Dr Tariq Rahman Philosophy of Conflict* |
|40. Dr Tariq Banuri, Panel Discussion on the Incident of Shantinagar |
|Dr Khalid Masud, |
|Mr Sarwar Bari, |
|Mr Kamran Ahmed, |
|Dr Inayatullah and |
|Mr Ahmed Saleem |
|41. Mr Omar Asghar Khan Public Show of the Video Film Narmada Diary |
|42. Dr Eqbal Ahmed Video Showing of Eqbal Ahmed's Segment Journey on the G. T. Road |
|43. Dr Tariq Banuri The Philosophy of War* |
|44. Dr Tariq Banuri, Panel Discussion on Incident of Chlorine Gas Leakage at Baja |
|Ms Naila Hussain, Lines Ghari Shahu, Lahore |
|Mr N. A. Qureshi and |
|Mr Vaqar Zakaria |
|45. Dr Ijaz Gilani Elections: An Analysis* |
|46. Dr Muzaffar Qazilbash Ethics and Development |
|47. Mr Kamran Ahmed Psycho-Sociological Factors Behind Religious Intolerance |
|48. Dr Kaiser Bengali Economic and Political Dimensions of Ethnicity in Karachi* |
|49. Zafarullah Khan The State of Media in Pakistan |
|50. Dr Zaheer Mirza Quality-based Selection of Consultants |
|51. Mr Robert Chambers, Special Seminar on Alternative Strategies for Empowerment |
|Mr Shoaib Sultan Khan |
|Mr Javed Jabbar, |
|Mr Omar Asghar Khan |
|Mr Sarwar Bari and |
|Mr Qazi Azmat Isa |
|52. Dr M Aslam Saeed Sustainability of Cultural Legacy |
|53. Mr Nathaniel Arif Eyewitness Account of the Shantinagar Tragedy |
|54. Dr Anwar Naseem Biological Issues and Recent Developments in Genetic Engineering |
|55. Mr Sikandar Jamali, Entering into the Future: Clean Environment Makes Business |
|Mr Vaqar Zakaria, Sense |
|Mr Michael Zuyderduyn, |
|Mr Zafar A Khan, |
|Dr Junaid Ahmad, |
|Robert Guam and |
|Dr Tariq Banuri |
|56. Mr Abdul Matin Presentation on the Activities of the Technology Transfer for Sustainable Industrial Development (TTSID) Unit* |
|57. Dr A. H. Nayyar Frozen in Time: the Madrassa Education |
|58. Ms Nasreen Azhar Women and Politics in Pakistan |
|59. Dr Shahrukh Rafi Khan Budget Issues* |
| |
|Note: Seminars marked with a * refer to those delivered by SDPI staff |

|Annex II |
| |
|SDPI Staff |
| |
| |
|Mr Ali Aamir, Project Assistant |
|Mr Ikhlaq Ahmad, Computer Typist |
|Ms Kiran Nazir Ahmed, Advocacy Officer |
|Mr Tahir Ahmed, Accounts Officer |
|Mr Hafiz Wasim Anwar, Typist |
|Mr Arshad Aziz, Secretary |
|Ms Aneela Zeb Babar, Research Assistant |
|Dr Tariq Banuri, Executive Director |
|Ms Musarrat Bashir, Research Assistant |
|Mr Kaiser Bengali, Research Fellow |
|Dr Jennifer Bennett, Research Fellow |
|Mr Douglas David, Personnel Officer |
|Mr Shah Farrukh, Coordinator, Resource Centre |
|Mr Haris Gazdar, Visiting Fellow |
|Dr Ijaz Gilani, Research Advisor |
|Mr Tahir Hasnain, Research Assistant |
|Mr Masood Hussain, Systems Manager |
|Mr Mohammad Hussain, Clipping Clerk |
|Mr Mohammad Irfan, Paste-up Artist |
|Mr Mozzam Iqbal, Intern Accounts |
|Mr Ansar Janjua, Despatch Clerk |
|Ms Fauzia Javaid, Office Manager |
|Ms Dounia Tahiri Joutei, Research Associate |
|Mr Sajid Kazmi, Research Assistant |
|Mr Abdul Matin Khan, Senior Research Analyst |
|Mr Haroon Ayub Khan, NCS Coordinator |
|Mr Gulshan Khan, Driver |
|Dr Shahrukh Rafi Khan, Senior Fellow/Joint Director |
|Dr Saba Khattak, Research Fellow |
|Ms Foqia Sadiq Khan, Assistant Editor |
|Mr Arshad Khurshid, Publication Secretary |
|Mr D Shah Khan, Senior Editor |
|Mr Mohammad Din Malik, Executive Secretary |
|Mr Latif Maseeh, Janitor |
|Mr Tanvir Ahmed Mir, Computer Operator |
|Mr Ali Mumtaz, Research Assistant |
|Mr Zubair Murshed, Research Assistant |
|Mr Ghulam Mustafa, Office Assistant |
|Mr Nadeem Omar, Research Assistant |
|Ms Masooma Qazilbash, Research Assistant |
|Mr Mozaffar Qizilbash, Research Fellow |
|Mr Abdur Rahman, Senior Research Advisor |
|Mr Atiq ur Rahman, Research Assistant |
|Mr Muttaqeen ur Rahman, Systems Analyst |
|Dr Tariq Rahman, Research Advisor/Chief Editor |
|Mr Mohammad Rasheed, Driver |
|Mr Shahid Rasul, Computer Typist |
|Mr Ahmed Saleem, Editor (Urdu) |
|Mr Suhail Sardar, Information Secretary |
|Mr Jehangir Shah, Research Assistant |
|Mr Arif Shaheen, Network Assistant |
|Ms Irshad Tabassum, Secretary |
|Brig (Retd) M. Yasin, Project Coordinator |
|Mr Sher Zaman, Gardener |
|Dr Shahid Zia, Research Fellow |

|Annex III |
| |
|List of Projects/Research Partners |
| |
| |
|Ministry of Environment, Local Government and Rural Development, Government of Pakistan |
|Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) |
|The World Bank |
|The Asian Development Bank (ADB) |
|The Asia Foundation |
|Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) |
|Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries (SARC) |
|Federal Office for Foreign Economic Affairs, Switzerland (FOFEA) |
|United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) |
|United Nations Children's' Fund (UNICEF) |
|United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) |
|International Labour Organisation (ILO) |
|World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) |
|Graduate Institute for Development Studies, Geneva University (IUED) |
|The Society for International Development (SID) |
|The Institute for Social-Ecological Research, Frankfurt, Germany |
|Conservation Development Forum, University of Florida, USA |
|Heinrich Boll Foundation (HBF) |
|South Asian Perspective Network Association (SAPNA) |
|Duryog Nivaran ADPC-LA RED Steering Committee, Sri Lanka |
|The Goethe Institute, Karachi |
|Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australia |

|Annex IV |
| |
|SDPI Members |
| |
| |
|Honorary Members |
| |
|Dr Atta-ur-Rehman |
|HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, Karachi |
|Mr Khalid Ahmed |
|Friday Times, Lahore |
|Dr Parvez Hassan |
|Hassan & Hassan Advocates, Lahore |
|Mr Shoaib Sultan Khan |
|UNDP, Islamabad |
| |
|Individual Members |
| |
|Mr Qazi Ebadullah Khan |
|Adamjee Engineering (Pvt) Ltd. Karachi |
|Mr Shafiq Ahmed Siddiqi |
|Adamjee Engineering (Pvt) Ltd. Karachi |
|Mr Mikko Pyhala |
|The Embassy of Finland, Islamabad |
|Ms Najma Sadeque |
|Karachi |
|Mr Rufus Kamran |
|Muzaffar Garh |
|Mr M. Yaseen Chohan |
|Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad |
|Dr Saqib Shahab |
|Health Services Academy, Islamabad |
|Mr Tanveer Arif |
|SCOPE, Karachi |
|Brig. Retd. Muhammad Ashraf |
|Rawalpindi Cantt. |
|Dr J. J. Edward |
|Rawalpindi |
|Dr Anwar Nasim |
|COMSTECH, Islamabad |
|Mr Rehmat Ali Mujahid |
|Islamabad |
|Mr Asif J. Khawaja |
|Asif & Co. Islamabad |

|SDPI Linkages and Networks |
| |
| |
|The following are examples of various groups and networks SDPI was a member of in 1996-97: |
| |
|Advocacy Development Network (ADN) |
|Alternative Regional Exchange Network |
|Charter 95 Coalition |
|Clean Fuels Committee |
|Coalition of Rawalpindi-Islamabad NGOs (CORIN) of Pakistan NGO Forum |
|Duryog Nivaran |
|Earth Council |
|Environmental Auditing Committee |
|Environmental Standards Committee |
|NGO Standing Committee on Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project |
|Ghazi Barotha Taraqiati Idara |
|Global Environment Facility (GEF) |
|Human Rights Committee of Pakistan General Body |
|Informing and Mobilising Partners for Action (IMPACT) |
|Information Study Group |
|International Panel on Climate Change |
|Ninth Five Year Plan Task Force |
|Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (PEPC) |
|Society for International Development (SID) |
|South Asian Perspective Network |

Balance Sheet as at June 30, 1997

| | | | |1997 | |1996 |
| | | |Note |Rupees | |Rupees |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
|Fixed Assets | |3 |4,122,397 | |3,687,124 |
| | | | | | | |
|Current Assets | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| |Project grants receivable |7 |945,580 | |85,505 |
| |Advances, deposits & prepayments |4 |1,367,268 | |1,002,522 |
| |Receivable from donors | |1,388,147 | |756,847 |
| |Cash and bank balances |5 |1,731,556 | |8,387,583 |
| | | | |5,432,551 | |10,232,457 |
| | | | | | | |
|Current Liabilities | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| |Creditors, accrued and other liabilities |6 |2,465,884 | |423,457 |
| |Unutilized Grants |7 |3,668,206 | |7,521,947 |
| |Payable to donors | | - | |869,103 |
| | | | |6,134,090 | |8,814,507 |
|Net Capital Employed | |3,420,858 | |5,105,074 |
| | | | | | | |
|Represented By:- | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| |Deferred Revenue |8 |4,122,397 | |3,687,124 |
| | | | | | | |
| |General Fund | |(701,539) | |1,417,950 |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | |3,420,858 | |5,105,074 |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| |The annexed notes form an integral part of these accounts. | | |
| | | | | |
|[pic] | | | |[pic] |
|Executive Director | | |Director |

Income and Expenditure Account For the Year Ended June 30, 1997

| | | | |1997 | |1996 |
| | | |Note |Rupees | |Rupees |
| | | | | | | |
|Support & Revenue |9 |14,110,874 | |11,921,854 |
| | | | | | | |
|Restricted Grants |7 |13,318,231 | |5,165,886 |
| | | | | | | |
|Deferred Revenue Recognised |8 |1,201,948 | |1,045,451 |
| | | | |28,631,053 | |18,133,191 |
|Expenses | | | | | |
| |Salaries wages & benefits | |9,815,431 | |6,829,628 |
| |Traveling | | |335,835 | |468,456 |
| |Newspapers & periodicals | |49,833 | |146,448 |
| |Fee & subscriptions | |514,539 | |21,314 |
| |Auditors' Remuneration | |55,000 | |90,000 |
| |Rent Rates & Taxes | |1,883,169 | |643,387 |
| |Telephone charges | |677,080 | |823,869 |
| |Electricity, gas and water charges | |451,881 | |403,129 |
| |Medical charges | |293,545 | |147,779 |
| |Insurance | | |182,488 | |38,403 |
| |Bank charges | | |6,376 | |8,145 |
| |Printing & stationery | |634,411 | |522,706 |
| |Entertainment | | |63,860 | |77,991 |
| |Advertisement | |29,028 | |38,290 |
| |Postage | | |170,365 | |78,729 |
| |Office repair & maintenance | |863,987 | |201,559 |
| |Vehicle running expenses | |161,759 | |185,958 |
| |Depreciation | | |1,106,870 | |927,305 |
| |Debts written off | |58,607 | |- |
| |Expenses on Restricted Projects | |13,318,231 | |5,165,886 |
| |Loss on sale of fixed assets | |39,066 | |- |
| |Miscellaneous | |39,181 | |143,490 |
| | | | |30,750,542 | |16,962,472 |
| | | | | | | |
| |(Deficit) / Surplus for the year | |(2,119,489) | |1,170,719 |
| | | | | | | |
| |Opening Surplus brought forward | |1,417,950 | |247,231 |
| |Balance transferred to general fund | |(701,539) | |1,417,950 |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
|[pic] | | |[pic] |
|Executive Director | | | |Director |

Notes to the Accounts For the Year Ended June 30, 1997

1. Status and Operation
Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) is an independent, Non-profit, Non -Government Research Institute incorporated in August 4, 1992 under the Societies Registration Act 1860. The principle activity of the Institute is to advice Government, Non-Government, Private Sector, Civic and Political organizations and the mass media regarding the social and environmental issues.

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies.
Following significant accounting policies and conventions have been used in the preparation of these accounts

2.1 Accounting Convention These accounts have been prepared under the historical cost convention, without any adjustment for the effects of inflation or current values.

2.2 Taxation Provision for taxation has not been provided since it is a non-profit organization.

2.3 Fixed Assets Fixed assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is provided on straight-line method to write off the cost of an asset over its estimated useful life. Full year's depreciation is charged on additions, while no depreciation is charged on items deleted during the year. Normal repair is charged to income whereas major renewals and repairs are capitalized.

2.4 Deferred Revenue Grants related to depreciable assets are allocated to income over the periods and in the same proportions in which the depreciation over those assets is charged. The unrecognized balance of such grants is shown as deferred revenue.

2.5 Support Recognition Operating funds restricted by the donors or grantors for specific purposes are deemed to be earned and reported as support when the organization has incurred expenditures in compliance with the specific restrictions. Amount received but not yet expended are reported as payable to the donors.

2.6 Revenue Recognition Revenue in general is recognized on the basis of actual receipt.

Notes to the Accounts – (Continued)

|Fixed Assets |
| | | | | | | | | | |
| |Cost As at |Additions/ |Cost as on |Depreciation |Accumulated |Depreciation | |Accumulated |Written |
| | | | | | | | | |down |
| | | | | | | | | | |
|Office |3,416,939 |1,175,831 |4,456,945 |10% |1,274,290 |445,695 |(40,747) |1,679,238 |2,777,707 |
|equipment | | | | | | | | | |
| | |(135,825) | | | | | | | |
|Furniture & |912,614 |167,154 |1,079,768 |10% |340,087 |107,977 | |448,064 |631,704 |
|Fixture | | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | |
|Books |1,295,919 |294,236 |1,590,155 |20% |864,541 |318,031 | |1,182,572 |407,583 |
| | | | | | | | | | |
|Crockery |7,192 | |7,192 |10% |2,718 |719 | |3,437 |3,755 |
| | | | | | | | | | |
|Electric & |585,685 | |585,685 |10% |225,469 |58,569 | |284,037 |301,648 |
|Gas | | | | | | | | | |
|Appliances. | | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | |
|Total Rupees |7,097,741 |1,637,221 |8,599,137 | |3,410,617 |1,106,870 |(40,747) |4,476,740 |4,122,397 |
|1997 | | | | | | | | | |
| | |(135,825) | | | | | | | |
|Total Rupees |6,797,815 |299,926 |7,097,741 | |2,512,849 |927,305 |(29,537) |3,410,617 |3,687,124 |
|1996 | | | | | | | | | |

Notes to the Accounts – (Continued)

| | | | |1997 | |1996 |
| | | | |Rupees | |Rupees |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
|4. |Advances Deposits and Prepayments | | |
| | | | | | | |
| |Staff Advance | |887,140 | |600,917 |
| |Advance rent | | |310,000 | |219,569 |
| |Tax deducted at source | |24,720 | |4,320 |
| |Prepaid expenses | |59,602 | |111,530 |
| |Other receivable | |75,806 | |56,186 |
| |Security Deposits | |10,000 | |10,000 |
| | | | |1,367,268 | |1,002,522 |
| | | | | | | |
|5. |Cash & BALANCES | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| |Cash at bank | | | | | |
| |PLS account | |7,010 | |6,459 |
| |Current account | |740,625 | |192,087 |
| |Term Deposit account | |414,195 | |8,029,112 |
| |Endowment account | |1,755 | |1,755 |
| |Foreign Currency Account | |545,299 | |155,312 |
| | | | |1,708,884 | |8,384,725 |
| |Cash in hand | | |22,672 | |2,858 |
| | | | |1,731,556 | |8,387,583 |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
|6. |Creditors, Accrued and Other Liabilities |
| | | | | | | |
| |Accrued expenses | |1,017,569 | |313,328 |
| |Other liabilities | |1,405,713 | |110,129 |
| |Withholding tax | |42,602 | |- |
| | | | |2,465,884 | |423,457 |

Notes to the Accounts – Continued

|Project Grants 97 | | | | | | | |
|# | |Donor’s Name |Opening |Received |Expenses |Inst. |Project |Projects |
| |Name of Projects | |Balance |During the |Incurred |Cost |Payables |Receivables |
| | | |01-07-96 |Year | | |30-06-97 |30-06-97 |
|1 |ON FORM WTAER MANAGEMENT. |WORLD BANK | (26,898) |- | 101,800 | |- |(128,698) |
|2 | NGO SUMMIT. |EUROPIAN COMM |2,500 |- |- | 2,500 |- |- |
|3 | TECHN TRANSFER OF |S.D.C |6,173,933 |- | 4,385,597 | 876,864 | 911,472 |- |
| |INDUSTRIES. ( I & II) | | | | | | | |
|4 | GREEN COTTON. |W.W.F |83,680 |- | 22,363 | 4,473 | 56,844 |- |
|5 | ASIA EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMME. |I.L.O |144,840 |- |- |- | 144,840 |- |
|6 | MUNICIPAL CONSERVATIVE |ASIA FOUNDATION |271,276 | (271,276) |- |- |- |- |
| |STRATEGIES. | | | | | | | |
|7 | GREEN ECONOMICS CONFERENCE. |ASIA FOUNDATION |319,867 | (18,724) |- |- | 301,143 | |
|8 | INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS | | | | | | | |
| |CONFERENCE. | | | | | | | |
| |(HABITAT II, II-A & II-B) |ASIA FOUNDATION |41,293 |- |1,278 |- | 40,015 |- |
|9 | EXPLORING ENDOWMENT FUNDING.| ASIA FOUNDATION |216,000 |- |- |- | 216,000 |- |
|10| INTERMEDIATE CITIES. |I.U.E.D |36,873 | 576,694 | 127,935 | 25,586 | 460,046 |- |
|11| DURYOG NIVARAN STEERING |SRI LANKA |50,322 |- |- |- | 50,322 |- |
| |COMMITTEE. | | | | | | | |
|12| INDIAN OCEAN. |AUST UNIVERSITY |112,112 |- |- |- | 112,112 |- |
|13|ANNUAL SUSTAINABLE DEV. CONF |M/O ENVIRONMENT |- | 3,654,286 | 3,401,219 | 680,227 |- | (427,160) |
| |(AUG-96) | | | | | | | |
|14| PAKISTAN ENVIRONMENTAL | ASIA FOUNDATION |- | 294,500 | 159,298 | 21,472 | 113,730 |- |
| |DIGEST | | | | | | | |
|15| BASIC EDUCATION | ASIA FOUNDATION |- | 2,735,820 | 1,578,081 | 315,616 | 842,124 |- |
|16|SWISS DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION|PAK SWISS |- | 91,043 | 141,998 | 7,274 |- | (58,229) |
|17|CLIMATE CHANGE |M/O ENVIRONMENT |- | 227,900 | 322,265 | 32,245 |- | (126,609) |
|18|CANADIAN PARTNER ORGANIZATION|CIDA |- |- | 172,259 |- |- | (172,259) |
|19|COMMUNITY FOR WATER SUPPLY |WORLD BANK |- | 241,360 | 2,350 | 239,010 |- |- |
| |SCHEME. | | | | | | | |
|20|REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY SCHEME |WORLD BANK |- | 693,600 | 498,469 |- | 195,131 |- |
| |PR | | | | | | | |
|21|SOCIETY FOR INTERNATIONAL |ROME UNIVERSITY |69,251 | 266,605 | 160,428 |- | 175,428 |- |
| |DEV. | | | | | | | |
|22|UNICEF |UNO |- | 54,000 | 5,000 |- |49,000 |- |
|23|SAPNA | |- |- | 32,625 |- |- | (32,625) |
| | | | | | | | | |
| |Total Rupees April 30,1997 | |7,495,0489 | 8,545,808 |11,112,965 |2,205,266 | 3,668,206 |(945,580) |
| |Total Rupees June 30,1996 | |602,881 | 11,999,445 |3,416,331 | 1,749,555 | 7,521,946 |(85,505) |

Notes to the Accounts – Continued

| | | | |1997 | |1996 |
| | | | |Rupees | |Rupees |
| | | | | | | |
|8. |Deferred Revenue | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| |This represents the total value of the grants received for | | | | |
| |acquisition of fixed assets. | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| |Opening Balance | |3,687,124 | |4,284,966 |
| |Adjustment of depreciation on the assets Sold during the | | | | |
| |year | |(95,078) | |(118,146) |
| |Total of such grants received during the year | |1,637,221 | |447,609 |
| |Less: Recognized during the year | |(1,106,870) | |(927,305) |
| | | | |4,122,397 | |3,687,124 |
| | | | | | | |
|9. |Support & Revenue | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| |Support: | | | | | |
| |- |International union for Conservation of | | | |
| | |Nature & Natural Resources (IUCN) |6,635,511 | |9,229,875 |
| |- |SAREC | |2,183,430 | |- |
| | | | |8,818,941 | |9,229,875 |
| | | | | | | |
| |Other Revenue | | | | |
| | |Income on short term investment |78,329 | |91,581 |
| | |Management Fee | |3,439,113 | |1,749,555 |
| | |Income from lecture/publications |94,840 | |55,171 |
| | |Exchange gain / (Loss) | |1,510,367 | |757,853 |
| | |Miscellaneous | |109,517 | |8,994 |
| | |Gain/(loss) on sale of fixed assets |- | |17,715 |
| | |SDPI Membership fee | |59,767 | |5,000 |
| | | | |5,291,933 | |2,685,869 |
| | | | |14,110,874 | |11,921,854 |
|10. |General | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
|- |Figures have been rounded off to the nearest Rupee. | | | |
|- |Figures of the previous year have been rearranged wherever necessary for the purpose of comparison. |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
|[pic] | | |[pic] |
|Executive Director | | | |Director |

Cash Flow Statement For the Year Ended June 30, 1997

| | | | |1997 | |1996 |
| | | | |Rupees | |Rupees |
| | | | | | | |
|Funds from Operating Activities: | | | | |
|Support & Revenue | | |14,110,874 | |12,040,000 |
|Restricted Grants | | |9,464,489 | |11,805,150 |
| | | | |23,575,363 | |23,845,150 |
| | | | | | | |
|Add: Depreciation | | |1,106,869 | |927,305 |
|Loss on sale of fixed assets | |39,066 | |- |
|Cash receipt on sale of fixed assets | |56,011 | |- |
|Less: Operating expenses | |(30,750,539) | |(16,962,472) |
| | | | |(29,548,593) | |(16,035,167) |
| | | | |(5,973,230) | |7,809,983 |
|Working capital changes | | | | |
|Increase/(Decrease) in current assets: | | | | |
| |Accounts receivable | |(860,076) | |194,296 |
| |Advances, deposits & pre-payments | |(364,745) | |(531,759) |
| |Receivable from donor | |(631,300) | |(756,847) |
| | | | |(1,856,121) | |(1,094,310) |
|Increase/(Decrease) in current liabilities: | | | | |
| |Creditors, accrued and other liabilities | |2,042,427 | |(1,561,562) |
| |Payable to donors | |(869,103) | |861,616 |
| | | | |1,173,324 | |(699,946) |
|Cash generated from operating activities |(1) |(6,656,027) | |6,015,727 |
| | | | | | | |
|Funds from investing activities | | | | |
| |Total grants received during the year | |1,637,221 | |447,609 |
| |Fixed Assets acquired during the year | |(1,637,221) | |(447,609) |
|Cash generated from investing activities |(2) |0 | |0 |
|Net cash generated during the year (1+2) | |(6,656,027) | |6,015,727 |
| | | | | | | |
|Opening balance of cash and bank balances | |8,387,583 | |2,371,856 |
| | | | | | | |
|Cash & cash equivalents generated during the year | |(6,656,027) | |6,015,727 |
| | | | | | | |
|Closing balance of cash and bank balances | |1,731,556 | |8,387,583 |
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
|[pic] | | |[pic] |

Executive Director Director

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...What is Management? Definitions According to Harold Koontz, "Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organised groups." Harold Koontz gave this definition of management in his book "The Management Theory Jungle". According to Henri Fayol, "To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control." Henri Fayol gave this definition of management in his book "Industrial and General Administration". Image Credits © Michael Heiss. According to Peter Drucker, "Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages business and manages managers and manages workers and work." This definition of management was given by Peter Drucker in his book "The Principles of Management". According to Mary Parker Follet, "Management is the art of getting things done through people." Meaning of Management According to Theo Heimann, management has three different meanings, viz., 1. Management as a Noun : refers to a Group of Managers. 2. Management as a Process : refers to the Functions of Management i.e. Planning, Organising, Directing, Controlling, etc. 3. Management as a Discipline : refers to the Subject of Management. Management is an individual or a group of individuals that accept responsibilities to run an organisation. They Plan, Organise, Direct and Control all the essential activities of the organisation. Management does not do the work themselves. They motivate others to do the work......

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...One of the first schools of management, the classical management theory, developed during the Industrial Revolution when new problems related to the factory system began to appear. Managers were unsure of how to train employees. A large amount of the non-English speaking immigrants or dealing with increased labor dissatisfaction caused managers to test solutions. According to Plunkett, Attner & Allen (2008) “The classical management focused on finding the “one best way” to perform and manage tasks” (p.38). This school of thought is made up of two branches: classical scientific and classical administrative. The scientific branch arose because of the need to increase efficiency and productivity. The emphasis was on trying to find the best way to get the most work done by examining how the work process was actually accomplished and by paying close attention to the skills of the workforce. The classical scientific school got its roots to several contributors, including Frederick Taylor, Henry Gantt, and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. Whereas scientific management focused on the productivity of the certain individuals, the classical administrative approach emphasizes on the total organization. The emphasis is on the development of managerial principles rather than work methods. Contributors to this school of thought include: Henri Fayol, Max Weber, Mary Parker Follett, and Chester I. Barnard. During World War II, mathematicians, physicists, and others joined together to......

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...2.4 The Environmental Management System (EMS) application in the related industries. How it can improve the environmental performance of business? Example. 2.4.1 THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EMS) Definition: the environmental management system (EMS) refer to one part of the comprehensive management system that relate to organizational structure, planning activities and documented manner, it includes planning, implementation, checking, management review and environmental policy. An environmental management system (EMS) 1. It is environmental performance improving tool. 2. It is effective way to manage organizational companies. 3. Manage organizations to solve environmental problems, like allocation of resources, assignment of responsibility and ongoing evaluation of practices, procedures and processes. 4. Manage the long-term or short-term environmental impact of products service and processes for organizations. 5. Continual improvement is emphasis. EMS Model Plan Act Do Check Step 1: plan (planning) Definition: planning is a way of establish objectives and processes requirement. In order to implement ISO 14001, the first step is suggestion, to help to classify all the current or future operation elements. It includes environmental aspects, compliance, objectives and targets, environmental management programs (EMP). Business firms should plan for environmental protection. They need to plan their current operation or even future operation.......

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...Introduction to Management and Organizations True/False Questions A MANAGER’S DILEMMA 1. Today’s managers are just as likely to be women as they are men. (True; moderate; p. 4) 2. Management affects employee morale but not a company’s financial performance. (False; easy; p. 4) WHO ARE MANAGERS? 3. In order to be considered a manager, an individual must coordinate the work of others. (True; moderate; p. 5) 4. Supervisors and foremen may both be considered first-line managers. (True; moderate; p. 6) WHAT IS MANAGEMENT? 5. Effectiveness refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. (False; moderate; p. 8) 6. Effectiveness is concerned with the means of getting things done, while efficiency is concerned with the attainment of organizational goals. (False; moderate; p. 8) 7. A goal of efficiency is to minimize resource costs. (True; moderate; p. 8) 8. Efficiency is often referred to as “doing things right.” (True; moderate; p. 8) 9. Managers who are effective at meeting organizational goals always act efficiently. (False; difficult; p. 8) WHAT DO MANAGERS DO? 10. The four contemporary functions of management are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. (True; easy; p. 9) 11. Determining who reports to whom is part of the controlling function of management. (False; easy; p. 9) 12. Directing and motivating are part of the controlling function of management. (False; moderate; p. 9) 13. Fayol’s......

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...Restaurant Managers are responsible for controlling profitability, optimising restaurant management and overseeing sales, human resources and team management in their respective stores. Profile • Displays managerial and leadership qualities • Autonomous employees who enjoy taking an initiative • Well organised individual • Self-controlled, disciplined and highly driven Operations management (OM) can be defined as "Managing the available resources by designing, planning, controlling, improvising and scheduling the firms systems & functions and thereby deliver the firm's primary product & services. " It has been an integral part of manufacturing and service organisation and is aimed at timely delivery of finished goods & services to the customers and also achieving it in a cost effective manner. It consist of an amalgamation of different functions including quality management, design & industrial engineering, facility and channel management, production management, operational research, work force management, enhancing product design, improvising productivity, and improve customer services. The traditional McDonald's philosophy that acts as the guiding force behind it's operational make-up is "Quality, Service, Cleanliness and Value". The importance of operation management can be divided into three broad categories:- Assistance in Strategic Decisions (Long term):- Operation management decision at the strategic level affect McDonald's effectiveness to......

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...Management is universal in the modern industrial world. Every industrial organization requires the making of decisions, the coordinating of activities, the handling of people, and the evaluation of performance directed toward group objectives. In addition, our society simply could not exist as we know it today or improve its present status without a steady stream of managers to guide its organization. Peter Drucker makes this same point in stating that effective management is quickly becoming the main resource of developed counties and the most needed resource of developing ones (Certo, 1986). In short, management is very important to our world. Then, what is management? This essay will discuss this topic as following. It has to be recognized that the definitions of management are extremely broad. Harbison and Myers (1959) offered a concept for emphasizing a broader scope for the viewpoint of management. They observe management as an economic resource, a system of authority, and a class or elite from the view of the economist, a specialist in administration and organization, and sociologist respectively. Henri Fayol, “the father of modern management theory,” formulated fourteen principles of management. Hugo Munsterberg applied psychology to industry and management. Max Weber is known for his theory of bureaucracy. Vilfredo Pareto is considered “the father of the social systems approach.” Elton Mayo and F.J. Roethlisberger became famous through their studies of the impact...

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...Past Influence of Management Today Abstract The past influence of management was done with bureaucracy and Administrative ways that gives management today to achieve their goals for the organization. Bureaucratic management may be described as "a formal system of organization based on clearly defined hierarchical levels and roles in order to maintain efficiency and effectiveness." Administrative has to foresee and make preparation s to meet the financial commercial and technical condition s under which the concerns must be started. How Bureaucratic and Administrative Management Affects Overall Management Bureaucracy Bureaucratic management focuses on the ideal form of organization. Max Weber was the major contributor to bureaucratic management. Based on observation, Weber concluded that many early organizations were inefficiently managed, with decisions based on personal relationships and loyalty. Also, bureaucracy formed the need for organizations to operate rationally rather than relying on owners’ and managers. (Williams’s pg. 31) this brings Jobs are divided into simple, routine and fixed category based on competence and functional specialization. Officers are organized in a n hierarchy in which higher officer controls lower position holders i.e. superior controls subordinates and their performance of subordinates and lower staff could be controlled. All......

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...Management Practice and Theory Student’s name: Instructor’s Name: Class Name and Code: University: Date of Submission: TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary …………………………………………………………………… iii Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………. 4 Organisation Effectiveness ……………………………………………………………. 5 Team Effectiveness …………………………………………………………………… 6 Management Theories ……………………………………………………………….... 8 Command and Control ………………………………………………………………… 9 Scientific Management ……………………………………………………………….. 10 Bureaucratic Organisation ……………………………………………………………. 11 Subordination to Community ………………………………………………………… 11 Management as a discipline ………………………………………………………….. 12 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………… 12 References …………………………………………………………………………... 13 Executive summary A professional manager will acknowledge the contribution of team effectiveness to overall organizational success. Teams will often require leaders to ensure delegation and coordination of group activities for a team to attain the desirable results. This paper seeks to establish influence of management theories on a professional manager both at team and organisation level. The management theory adopted by a leader will determine their style of leadership thus their relationship with employees and other key stakeholders. Introduction A team is a small group of workers with complimentary expertise who share common goals whereby group interests precede over individual interest. Teamwork is essential in......

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...conceptual skills, interpersonal skills, and technical skills. These three managerial skills are used by different managers in different degrees. Successful managers usually display more conceptual than technical skills. They have to continuously think about the company's goals and objectives and how they can be effectively communicated to employees. Middle Level Management Middle management is the intermediate management level accountable to top management and responsible for leading lower level managers. Image of Middle managers fig. 1 Middle managers Middle management is the intermediate management of a hierarchical organization, being subordinate to the senior management but above the lowest levels of operational staff. Key Points Middle management is the intermediate management of a hierarchical organization, subordinate to the senior management but above the lowest levels of operational staff. They are accountable to the top management for their department's function. They provide guidance to lower level managers and inspire them towards better performance. Middle management may be reduced in organizations as a result of reorganization. Such changes include downsizing,...

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Management In general, management is the activity of resolving a disorderly situation into an intentionally orderly situation, to achieve pre-determined (i.e., purposeful) outcomes. Since disorder continuously arises from creativity, destruction, decay, variance, versioning, chaos, and other natural and intentional changes, resolving that disorder into an intended order requires continuous tracking and adjustments in the "architecture" of the intended order's parts, part relationships, and part and relationship attributes. The classic approach to management Classical approach to management is dated back to the Industrial Revolution. the classical approach was an approach that places reliance on such management principals as unity of command, a balance between authority and responsibility, division of labor, and delegation to establish relationships between managers and subordinates. This approach constitutes the core of the discipline of management and the process of management. The classic approach to management – Classical approach - consists of two separate branches: the scientific and administrative management. The achievements of the classical school - the school has created a basis for further development of management theory, identified key processes, functions and leadership skills, which today are considered significant. Limitations of the classical school - more suitable for stable and simple organization of the modern and dynamic. Often......

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...Modelling for Change: An Information Systems Perspective on Change Management Models Robert D. Macredie, Carl Sandom and Ray J. Paul Department of Information Systems and Computing, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH Tel: +44 1895 203374; Fax: +44 1895 203391 E-mail:; Abstract This paper will focus on the topic of organisational change and its management from an information systems perspective. The paper will examine the issues raised during a review of the change management literature – looking at the major approaches to change management, namely, the planned, emergent and contingency approaches – as background to the issues raised in other papers in this theme of the book. As in the Management In The 90s (MIT90s) study, a very broad definition of the term IT is used to include: computers of all types, hardware, software, communications networks and the integration of computing and communications technologies. The paper will then examine change management within the context of Information Systems (IS) theory and practice. This will lead to a discussion of an emerging model by Orlikowski and Hofman which will be briefly reviewed to provide insight into the types of models which are likely to provide a focus for research in the area in the near future. The model also provides a strong and interesting framework against which to view some of the papers that follow in this theme of the book. 1. Introduction......

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