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Management

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CHINHOYI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

NAME: CHIGUMBU PRAISE
REG NUMBER: C15125079X
LEVEL: 1:1
PROGRAMME: BSCAC
ASSIGNMENT 1: PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT-(CUEB 104)
DUE DATE: April 21 2015
QUESTION: Zimbabwe is immune from the focus of globalization. Discuss
A

Introduction
Globalization although not a new phenomenon, has increased rapidly in recent years. It has been driven by technological advances, and the reduced cost of making transactions (exchange) across borders and distances, as well as increased mobility of capital. These forces mean that globalization not only consist of economic activity but also extends to political, cultural, environmental and security issues and relates to the increasing interconnectivity of countries and communities. Since Zimbabwe is not surviving in isolation it is therefore to a greater extent not immune from the focus of globalization. Zimbabwe is affected by globalization in the following areas which include economic, sociocultural, information and communication technology, tourism, sports and education .However partially Zimbabwe is immune from the focus of globalization due to indigenization, empowerment and the Zim Asset law.
Definition of terms Globalization
Al-Rodhan et al (2006) defines globalization as the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture.
Economic globalization
Joshi et al (2009) defines economic globalization as the increasing economic interdependence of economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross- border movement of goods, services, technology and capital.
Sociocultural globalization
James, Paul (2006) defines sociocultural globalization as the transmission of ideas, means and values around the world in such a way as to extent and intensify social relations.
Economic globalization comprises of globalization of production, markets, technology and corporation and industries. It also includes international trade as well as the growth of multinational companies. The establishment of free trade areas has become an essential feature of modern governments to handle preferential trading thus promoting international trade. International trade which is the exchange of capital, goods and services across the international borders or territories represents a significant share of GDP in Zimbabwe. In Zimbabwe we import goods like cars from Japan, clothes as well as services like electricity from South Africa. We also export goods such as tobacco and other minerals to our neighbouring countries.
Economic globalization has led to the development of multinational companies in Zimbabwe. These companies include Nestle Zimbabwe (Pvt) ltd which originates from Switzerland, Zimbabwean Bata shoe company ltd which originates from Netherlands and Olivine Industries (Pvt) ltd from United States of America only to mention a few. The ECONET wireless company is also in the process of becoming a multinational company.
Another aspect that shows us that Zimbabwe is not immune from the focus of globalization is the sociocultural globalization. This process is marked by the consumption of cultures that have been diffused by internet, popular cultural media and international travel. This is added to processes of commodity exchange and colonization which have a longer history of carrying cultural meaning around the globe. Due to colonization in Zimbabwe, many things changed and these include our language that is we are now focusing more on foreign languages than our own mother language, dressing whereby we are no longer wearing the animal skin made clothes which we used to wear before we were colonized. Also many people left their traditional religions to join Christianity, now almost 90 percent of the Zimbabweans are now Christians.
Rapid developments in information and communications technology (ICT) in recent years have given rise to the current wave of globalization. The rapid and free uncontrollable information flow particularly in the last decade of the twentieth century has ushered in new forces of change that have not only impacted on social and economic lives but also influenced political systems. In Zimbabwe the government has turned to computers in its attempt to modernize and strengthen its economy and to build more efficient public services. Technology has offered opportunities in all sectors of the economy that include agriculture, industry and commerce, health, education, defense, local government, transport, energy and water.
Information and communication technology has been further revolutionized by the introduction of electronic mail (e-mail), the internet and intranet. The rapid advances in ICT have resulted in a phenomenal expansion in cross border movement of goods and services, deepening of capital and financial links and cross-border movement of people. In the education sector of Zimbabwe, the internet or the web has brought about new possibilities in school curricula and expand the information base for both staff and students to unprecedented levels.
Globalization has made tourism a popular global leisure activity. Tourism is one of Zimbabwe’s fastest growing industry. The country offers a large variety of scenery, one of the African continent’s finest and largest concentrations of wildlife perfect climate (an average of 7 hours of sunshine daily throughout the year). Places of interest include the Victoria Falls (one of the seven wonders), Hwange National Park, Eastern Highlands, the Great Zimbabwe Monument, and Chinhoyi caves. These attraction sites have led to a number of tourists from different countries with different cultures and languages to come to Zimbabwe. This led to an increase in foreign currency as well as diluting our culture and languages.
In addition international sports can also show that Zimbabwe is not immune from the focus of globalization. Modern international sports events can big business for as well as influencing the political, economical and other cultural aspects of countries around the world. The most popular sporting events are the FIFA world cup and the Olympics. Kirsty Coventry is one of the talented Zimbabwean who represents us at the Olympics as a swimmer.
Due to the removal of some migration barriers the number of students going outside the country to study is now increasing thus showing us that Zimbabwe is not immune from the focus of globalization. Most Zimbabwean students especially those who are in the tertiary category are going outside the country to countries like South Africa, United States of America and Australia to study there. All due to globalization.
However to a smaller extent Zimbabwe is immune from the focus of globalization and this is shown by the Zim Asset law and indigenization. In pursuit of a new trajectory of accelerated economic growth and wealth creation, the Zimbabwean government has formulated a new plan known as the Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation (ZIM ASSET), October 2013 Dec 2018. Zim Asset was crafted to achieve sustainable development and social equity anchored on indigenization, empowerment and employment creation which will be largely propelled by the judicious explanation of the country’s abundant human and natural resources.
This results based agenda is built around four strategic clusters that will enable Zimbabwe to achieve economic growth and reposition the country as one of the strongest economies in the region of Africa. The four strategic clusters identified are; food security and nutrition, social services and poverty eradication, infrastructure and utilities and value addition and beneficiation. No doubt this cluster approach will enable government to prioritize its programmes and projects for implementation with a view to realizing broad results that seek to address the country’s socio-economic challenges. Given the resource constraints, government will come up with robust and prudent fiscal and monetary policy measures to buttress and boost the implementation of Zim Asset.
Indigenization is a policy were the local people of a state take part in ownership of companies or industries in their state; the local residents are given part of the profits and are used to develop their area. On March 9 2008, Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe signed the indigenization and economic empowerment bill into law. The law will give Zimbabweans the right to take over and control many foreign owned companies in Zimbabwe. Specifically 51 percent of the businesses in the country will be transferred into the hands of the local Zimbabweans hands.
Having looked at all the components of globalization in Zimbabwe we now looking at the advantages and disadvantages of globalization. The advantages include education, employment, cheaper product prices, quality products and communication. The disadvantages include loss of culture, health problems, environmental degradation, and economically associated problems.
Due to globalization, the rate of education is getting even higher. Here in Zimbabwe a greater number of people have finished their studies and are now in the process of looking for better jobs. Globalization has made educational life very easy since now due to internet one can now do some researches on the internet using search engines like Google or yahoo.
Globalization has generated employment opportunities for most of the unemployed people in Zimbabwe. This is because of the foreign companies that are coming in here to invest; such companies include Coca Cola and Nestle Zimbabwe. These companies have developed in Zimbabwe in order to create employment to the unemployed people who have the ability and expertise to do the jobs.
The increase in the investment of multinational companies in Zimbabwe has led to an increase in competition. There for all the other local companies to survive in such a competitive market are now providing their goods at cheaper prices. Especially with the introduction of China made products, many companies are now reducing their prices so as to continue surviving in the market.
Through the machines that were introduced in Zimbabwe due to globalization, more quality products are now being produced. Also due to the increase in competition, companies are now improving their quality in order to retain their customers.
Communication nowadays has been made easier due to globalization which brought about technology. The introductions of social sites such as facebook, whatsapp, twitter and many others have allowed people to have clear, continuous and cheaper communication with their families.
However globalization is also associated with some disadvantages and these include loss of culture. The effect of globalization on culture is very immense; it has affected cultural behaviors in so many ways. Most Zimbabweans have chosen to abandon their own culture and live the well advanced world. The sale of clothes made outside Zimbabwe is now certain than a locally manufactured one. Ladies who wear perfume from Paris and shoes from Italy tend to receive more respect than those wearing the locally made brands. Children in rich families are too busy involved in video games, international schools that offer English and other international languages, television and movies whose content is 90 percent from outside the country. Songs and dances that had been characterized with themes of AIDS, orphans, suffering, drought and war are now being substituted with the western beats of singers like Michael Jackson et al. The youths now prefer the western music to local artists and hairstyles, shoes and clothing keep to the trends on the western fashion scene.
There are many health problems illnesses that were developed when globalization existed. Due to migration a lot of diseases have been brought to Zimbabwe and one of those diseases is HIV and AIDS. Also due to globalization most Zimbabweans have changed their diet thus leading to the development of cancer. These diseases are now a major concern in Zimbabwe since they have no cure. Also diseases are arising due to pollution from the industries caused by the multinational companies.
Most multinational companies have altered the outlook and level of economy in Zimbabwe. This is because most of them are utilizing the natural resources thus leading to deforestation. They often destroy the land which often contains lots of minerals and resources thus destroying the natural beauty of the land.
Globalization’s major disadvantage and in the economic sector is that it has made the rich richer and the poor poorer. The increased opportunities have benefited the managers and the top investors only but the hardships have fallen on workers and labor class. Since the labor is now easily available now because of the disappearance of the boundaries and people migrate from one country to another in the search of work, workers are paid very low wages since they are in abundance. Even if the jobs are outsource and developing countries such as Zimbabwe are benefited because of the increase in job opportunities, the power still remains in the hands of the developed countries. This means that the profits are not equally distributed and remains with the film.
In addition globalization has had a negative impact on the labor market in Zimbabwe. It has increased the level of de-industrialization which has led to an increase in retrenchments of a great number of workers. While general unemployment is worsening, the situation of school – leaver unemployment is particularly critical. This has led to brain drain which refers to the emigration of intelligent, well educated Zimbabweans to other countries for better pay, or working conditions causing the country to be left with the less skilled ones. Many Zimbabweans are leaving the country to settle in countries like South Africa, the United States of America and the United Kingdom which have better economies compared to Zimbabwe.
Conclusion
In conclusion Zimbabwe is to a greater extent not immune from the focus of globalization and this is shown in the following aspects that include economic, technology, cultural and religion, tourism, sports and education. If we look at these aspects we will see that Zimbabwe cannot live in isolation and sustain without the effect of globalization. However to a smaller extent we would say that Zimbabwe is immune from the focus of globalization this is because of the Zim Asset law and the indigenization policy.

References
AL – Rodhan, R.F Nayef and Gerard Stoudmann, (2006), Definitions of Globalization: A comprehensive Overview and a proposed definition.
Joshi, Rakesh, Mohan, (2009), International Business, Oxford University Press, New Delhi and New York ISBN 0-19-5689-7.
James, Paul, (2006), Globalism, Nationalism, Tribalism, London: Sage Publications.
Chitauro, F, (1999) ‘Globalization and its impact on Zimbabwe’ in United Nation Development Program, Zimbabwe Human Development Report, (1999), Harare Institute of Development studies, University of Zimbabwe.
Kanyeze, G, (1999), The implication of Globalization on the Zimbabwean Economy: background paper to the Human Development Report (1999), Harare, unpublished. http://www.herald.co.zw/wp -content/uploads/2014/01/Zim Asset.pdf

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