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2.4 The Environmental Management System (EMS) application in the related industries. How it can improve the environmental performance of business? Example.

2.4.1 THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EMS) Definition: the environmental management system (EMS) refer to one part of the comprehensive management system that relate to organizational structure, planning activities and documented manner, it includes planning, implementation, checking, management review and environmental policy.

An environmental management system (EMS) 1. It is environmental performance improving tool. 2. It is effective way to manage organizational companies. 3. Manage organizations to solve environmental problems, like allocation of resources, assignment of responsibility and ongoing evaluation of practices, procedures and processes. 4. Manage the long-term or short-term environmental impact of products service and processes for organizations. 5. Continual improvement is emphasis.

EMS Model

Plan

Act

Do

Check

Step 1: plan (planning) Definition: planning is a way of establish objectives and processes requirement. In order to implement ISO 14001, the first step is suggestion, to help to classify all the current or future operation elements.

It includes environmental aspects, compliance, objectives and targets, environmental management programs (EMP). Business firms should plan for environmental protection. They need to plan their current operation or even future operation. The plans should contain different environmental aspects, such as energy, raw material, and source of supplies. In Brazil, many firms are planning deforestation reduction policy and environmental protection strategies. Base on the planning of environmental protection, many companies make strategies and action to protect nature and original forest, such as cattle ranching companies, logging companies and agricultural farmers. Business firms in Brazil need to make their commitment to the environmental protection and make effective environmental protection and make effective environmental protection and management (RMIT University, 2011)

Step 2: Do (Implementation and operation) Definition: this step need organizations identify the resources requirement and solve the implementation and control of EMS by organizational industries. This includes all processes that are roles and responsibilities, training and communication, EMS document control, and emergency preparedness and response. In Brazil, companies should use different training program to teach their employees to understand how to use natural pest control and fertilizers to help them reduce pollution which agricultural operations cause companies need to take responsibilities to sustainable environmental development and become part of members to protect environment. Step 3: Check (management review) Definition: during the checking stage, it is a process that how the project of organizational protection perform from every industries and companies. In addition, internal audit is a essential and it is a main process, because it can help to monitor whether EMS is being implemented properly by companies. (Standards Australia/ Standards New Zealand) Brazilian companies use audit program to audit different program for environmental management and risk control. They may use environmental audit tool s to control the environmental impacts, products and services. It also may use different strategies to understand environmental issues. Companies in Brazil may identify audits types to audit liability, management and function with an activity or issue audit. They need to audit functions like activity and issues audit (Boiral 2007) to assess compliance with legal obligation on environmental protection issues. They can use environmental audits to satisfy organizational goals and objectives, they also can make full use of environmental management system to link to expansion of forest-protected areas in Brazil.

Step 4: Act (Management review) Definition: this is a step to improve performance of EMS results though action. After the checking step, we will know whether the objectives of the EMS are being met, the communication were managed and monitored by step 3. In order to make recommendation to improve future systems, step 1 that is planning need feedback so that the EMS can be implemented. Brazilian companies should make effective actions. They compensate displaced people in protected areas; they need to abandon existing livelihood and homes. Use environmental management system to select direct cash payouts to offer displaced people. They also need to focus on indigenous people to implement park management. It may safeguard productive ecosystem because ecosystem may provide shelter, clean water and food. Indigenous reserve program is important part of environmental management system in the Amazon.

2.4.2 Theory and Example ISO 14001 Elements 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Planning Implementation Checking Management Review Environmental policy

Element one: Planning
1.Two dimensions of environmental aspects 1>Environmental impact assessment (EIA) Definition: it is an assessment of the possible positive and negative impact that the environmental project may face for. It consists of the natural, social and economic aspects. It is like a decision-making process. Purpose: make sure the decision makers consider the impact of environment when processing their projects. It is a process of identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made. Influence: (Direct effect): it will influence the boundary of EMS, it also influence the international organizations for standardization (ISO) standard.

(Indirect effect): it will influence consumption of goods and services, raw material, sources of supplies, different kind of manufacturing and industrial services, logging, cattle, mining etc. normally, the indirect influence will higher than the direct influence. Methods There are various methods to implement EIAs, some are industries specific and some are general methods. 1. Industrial products—they use product environmental life cycle analysis (LCA) which is another dimension of environmental aspects to measure and identify the influence from industrial products to environment. These EIAs use technological activities for different production stage, the efficiency of raw material in the production processes and equipment. 2. Genetically modified plants—some methods like SM-RAM, INOVA can be used to perform EIAs. 3. Fuzzy arithmetic—EIA methods need specific parameters to measure the estimate impact. However, many of environmental impact cannot be measured by practical data, for example, landscape quality, lifestyle quality etc. Therefore, we need a kind of expert criteria to help us to set up a standard that everyone agrees it. 4. Scientific—to check the accuracy of data and explain errors. 5. Management—assess the projects effective to environment.

2>The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Definition: Life cycle assessment also known as life cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis. It is a technique to measure every influence from all processes. It can help companies have a better outlook on environmental, social and economic concerns. Achievement: 1. Collect an inventory from energy, raw material and environmental area. 2. Associate with the information from upper step to evaluate the potential impact. 3. Explain the results in order to help plan makers have a wiser decision. Goals and Purpose of LCA The goals of LCA are to compare environmental and social damage assignable to products and services, to be able to choose the best way. The concept of LCA is optimizing the environmental performance.

2.Legal requirements There is international environmental law (IEL) to protect the global environment, different countries have different environmental legislation, but as a member of the world, we all influence to each other, we also have the similar problems, with fast economic growth and increasing pressure on the resources the legislation of IEL become necessary and urgent. 3. Objects and Targets The planning targets are making sure companies carry out effective environmental protection. 4.Environmental management programs (EMP) Definition: It is the core content of the EMS and should be fully integrated with the overall company’s management system. Environmental management programs support the NIEHS Environmental Policy and the overall goal of reducing negative environmental impacts. These programs were established to assure compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations. Each program includes specific requirements that are documented in the NIEHS EMS Manual as well as a corresponding written plan, procedure, or instruction that are reviewed annually.

• Aboveground Storage Tanks (ASTs) The intent of this program is to reduce the potential for spills resulting from the storage, transportation and distribution of petroleum products by following SPCC and stormwater management requirements. • Air Emissions Includes criteria for air emissions and performance standards applied to Federally-owned and operated equipment including boilers, generators and incinerators located on the NIEHS/EPA research campus. • Asbestos This program controls and abates threats to human health from friable asbestos, and ensures proper management of asbestos containing materials (ACM) during removal and disposal. • Green Purchasing This program encourages the purchase of recycled content products, energy-efficient products and renewable energy technologies, alternative fuel vehicles and alternative fuels, biobased products, environmentally preferable products and services, and non-ozone depleting substances. • Hazardous Materials Management The intent of this program is to

provide criteria for the safe and environmentally sound storage, handling, transportation and disposition of hazardous materials used in laboratory research, support and maintenance operations, and construction activities. • Hazardous Waste Management This program provides for the sound management of hazardous wastes (HW) to ensure that such wastes are identified, accumulated, stored, transported, treated, and disposed or recycled in an environmentally sound manner. • Medical Waste Management • The intent of this program is the safe and environmentally sound management and disposal of pathological, biological, and infectious materials and wastes generated by NIEHS, and associated onsite clinical research programs. • Natural Resources The intent of this program is to preserve natural areas and to manage, protect, and enhance wildlife habitat on the NIEHS campus. • Pesticides The intent of this program is to control pests in the animal facilities, inside campus buildings, and on campus grounds with limited pesticide application in a manner that is safe for the environment, personnel, and research activities. • Radioactive Waste Management Ensures that radioactive wastes are identified, accumulated, stored, transported, treated, and disposed safely and in a manner protective of human health and the environment. • Solid Waste Management Insures that solid wastes are identified, classified, collected, transported, stored, recycled, treated and/or disposed safely and in a manner protective of human health and the environment. • Stormwater Management Stormwater management practices help control nonpoint source pollution through various techniques that intercept, filter, and treat runoff from developed areas. • Transportation Management Encourages and supports transit options including bus, carpool, and telework, to the single occupancy vehicle.

• Wastewater The intent of this program is to reduce the potential for pollutants to enter the sanitary sewer system through effective pretreatment, source reduction, proper chemical disposal, and other wastewater management programs. Water Consumption This program seeks to reduce water consumption associated with NIEHS laboratory, utility, facility, and domestic operations.

Example: the logging company named Floryl Floryl is a company owned and run by the Teacher Group. It has 92000-hectare agricultural estate in Brazil, it is a huge company that occupy a land same size as New York City, Berlin or Dartmoor in the UK. It occupies a large among of land, in its plantation; they grow bananas, rice, sugar cane etc. It is also a huge export company, it export lots of agricultural products to USA and China. Timber is another major export product it exports to other countries, normally, the timber will be used to supply the TG’s furniture business in India, Africa and it large TG’s furniture company in China. Floryl claims that they are a natural reserve and biological reserves company, but people find out the true is that the company doesn’t deal in humanity, but in the worse kind of capitalism. Floryl is one of the projects linked to the Gaia movement, but there is a misleading between those two, the problem is Gaia movement trust and Floryl are both run by TG company, so Gaia movement trust actually has no power to monitor Floryl. Base on the problem from above description, it need to use the planning element of environmental management system (EMS) to help it organize the company. Floryl should sep up environmental objectives and targets to achieve their objective. It set objectives, which is focusing on biological. Floryl should utilize environment management system to protect original forest, so it need to reduce the timber quantity it produce currently and develop new products from native plants and animal species which are what they are doing. It also can develop action plan to achieve environment objectives and targets though the help from EMS. This company should make carbon credits to identify different problems. Environmental management system (EMS) is linked with carbon credits because Floryl may cause deforestation from logging too much trees in one time that will influence the carbon credit and the atmosphere. Element two: Implementation 1. >Resources and responsibilities Definition: management responsibilities for the implementations of the EMS need to be clearly defined, and should become part of the professional accountability of employees. The integration of

environmental responsibilities into job descriptions and performance measurement would be a goal to aim for. (Gilbert, 1993) 2. >Training and communication Definition: training plays a key role in awareness rising and improved understanding of environmental issues which impact on the company, such as energy and management techniques. Every staff should all involved in training. Netherwood (1995) suggests that they should be specifically targeted to play a key role in the training of their own staff. Again, training can forest the feeling of involvement in and ownership of the process of implementing an EMS. 3. >EMS Documentation ISO 14001 includes documentation of all procedures and processes. ISO 14001 is a standard that help organization minimize their negative environmental operation. Such as problems of air, water pollution. ISO 14001 represent the core set of standard for organizations to implement an effective EMS and reduce their existing negative impact to environment (Federal Facilities Council Report 1999). This standard is not like the EMS that totally reaches the environmental performance requirement (National Academy Press 1999), but like

a structure that help organizations develop their own EMS (RMIT University).
4. >Operational control Definition: it is known as internal auditing. It is an independent objectives, it is an activity that can help organizations enhance and improve value. It can help organizations measure the effectiveness of risk management, control and governance processes. 5. >Emergency preparedness and response Example: Vale (Mining company) Vale is the biggest mining company in Brazil and it is also the second biggest mining company in the world. Vale from owned by government to run by private company after 1997, after running private company, the company focus on the mining business. Vale’s operations on the energy and logistics sectors that help the company reduce the costs and risk from operating. Vale has large, undeveloped bauxite reserves, in their aluminium production, they run projects in nations with lower energy costs. In this case, we can see the

influence from implementation and operation to Vale. It use different training program to teach their employees to understand how to use natural pest control to help them reduce pollution and save energy which may cause by mining operations. The company makes the effective sustainable mining to maintain conservations (RMIT University, 2011). From training program, Vale’s company improves their employees’ green management skills on restoring ecosystems. It uses EMS to reduce deforestation and make full use of cleared land. As taking the environmental responsibilities, the company allocate environmental responsibility to different employees, everyone who works in the company has they own responsibilities for environmental protection and responsibility allocation. In order to protect the environment, making an effective operational control is necessary, in this case, it use license to operate to control the mining company, so it can make sure the sustainable development and benefit the world in the longest timing.

Element three: checking and corrective actions 1> Nonconformity—it the corrective and preventive actions. 2> Evaluation of compliance— this is a process that helps to find out whether organizations did what they commit to do. 3> Monitoring and measurement— checking process is a process that organizations can be monitored, so we can make sure the decision maker in companies make correct decisions and make sure they do the jobs they decide to do. 4> Records of the progress are kept— 5> Internal or external audits are performed (including ISO 14001 certification)— Example: Vale (mining company in Brazil) In this case, Vale changed from government owned to private owned, because they believe private the company can help it reduce the cost and risk from operations, it means it use audit program to audit different program for environmental management and risk control. Company use environmental audits tool to control the environmental impacts, products and services. Environmental audit may audit liability and balance liability and asset for environmental management. This company may audit functions such as activity and issue audit (Boiral, 2007), the way they try to reduce the cost of energy can protect mining area, it can also balance nature and human being, expansion of mining areas of Brazil may share population (Skidmore, 1974).

Element four: Management review 1> The board of directors conducts annual total review of the EMS performance. 2> As a result of the review the environmental policy could be amended, and new programs and steps for improvement are considered. Element Five: Environmental Policy Sadgrove (1993, cited in Welford (Ed.) (1996) lists the common issues covered by company environmental policies: 1> The organization’s attitude towards the environment 2> The overall environmental goals of the organization 3> Commitment to the audit and review of the organization’s environmental performance 4> Commitment to meet and surpass environmental standards 5> Conservation of natural resources 6> Minimization of the environmental effects of products, services and processes 7> Commitment to provide a healthy workplace 8> Commitment to liaise with the local community and society on environmental issues 9> Commitment to train all staffs and suppliers in environmental management 10> Specific commitment to areas such as energy, waste, land and water management

Example: Floryl (logging company in Brazil) As we know, Floryl company is one of biggest logging company in Brazil, it need EMS to help them improve, because people find out it is a company does not treat their employees as human, it is a commercial operation where migrant workers are allegedly severely exploited, there are no representation or health insurance for their workers, workers are getting really low wages, and often exposed to pesticides, so the environmental policy can specify their activities.

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